1st Canadian Parliament

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1st Parliament of Canada
Majority parliament
September 24, 1867 – July 8, 1872
Parliament leaders
Prime
Minister
Rt. Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald
(1st Canadian Ministry)
July 1, 1867 – November 5, 1873
Party standings in the House
Government Conservative Party
Opposition Liberal Party
Third Party Liberal-Conservative
Fourth Party Independent Conservative
Fifth Party Nationalist Liberal
House of Commons
Chambre des Communes 1867.png
Seating arrangements of the House of Commons
Speaker of the
Commons
Hon. James Cockburn
November 6, 1867 – March 25, 1874
Members 180 seats MP seats
List of members
Senate
Speaker of the
Senate
The Hon. Joseph Edouard Cauchon
November 5, 1867 – May 16, 1869
Government
Senate Leader
Alexander Campbell
July 1, 1867 – November 5, 1873
Opposition
Senate Leader
Luc Letellier de St-Just
July 1, 1867 – November 5, 1873
Senators 72 seats senator seats
List of senators
Sessions
1st Session
November 6, 1867 – May 22, 1868
2nd Session
April 15, 1869 – June 22, 1869
3rd Session
February 15, 1870 – May 12, 1870
4th Session
February 15, 1871 – April 14, 1871
5th Session
April 11, 1872 – June 14, 1872
2nd>

The 1st Canadian Parliament was in session from November 6, 1867 until July 8, 1872. The membership was set by the 1867 federal election from August 7 to September 20, 1867. It was prorogued prior to the 1872 election.

It was controlled by a majority coalition between the Conservative Party and the Liberal-Conservative Party under Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald and the 1st Canadian Ministry. The Official Opposition was the Liberal Party, led by Edward Blake from 1869 to 1871, followed by a vacancy in the Liberal leadership.

The Speaker was James Cockburn. See also List of Canadian electoral districts 1867-1871 for a list of the ridings in this parliament.

Major bills and motions[edit]

On December 10, 1867, Finance minister John Rose moved the House to a committee of supply. Prime Minister Macdonald seconded.[1]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Following is a full list of members of the first parliament by province. Cabinet members are bolded.

Electoral districts denoted by an asterisk (*) indicates that district was represented by two members.

Nova Scotia[edit]

Electoral district Name Party
Annapolis William Hallett Ray Anti-Confederate then Liberal1
Antigonish Hugh McDonald Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Cape Breton James Charles McKeagney Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Colchester Archibald McLelan to June 21, 1869 (appointed to Senate) Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Adams George Archibald from September 9, 1869 to May 19, 1870
(named Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories)
Liberal-Conservative
Frederick M. Pearson from November 8, 1870 Liberal
Cumberland Charles Tupper Conservative
Digby Alfred William Savary Anti-Confederate then Conservative1
Guysborough Stewart Campbell Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Halifax* Alfred Gilpin Jones Anti-Confederate then Independent
Patrick Power Anti-Confederate then Liberal1
Hants Joseph Howe Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Inverness Hugh Cameron Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Kings William Henry Chipman to April 9, 1870 (death) Anti-Confederate then Liberal1
Leverett de Veber Chipman from June 23, 1870 Liberal
Lunenburg Edmund Mortimer McDonald Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Pictou James William Carmichael Anti-Confederate then Liberal1
Queens James Fraser Forbes Anti-Confederate then Liberal1
Richmond William Croke to March 11, 1869 (death) Anti-Confederate then Conservative1
Isaac Le Vesconte from April 20, 1869 Conservative1
Shelburne Thomas Coffin Anti-Confederate then Liberal-Conservative1
Victoria William Ross Anti-Confederate then Liberal1
Yarmouth Thomas Killam to December 15, 1868 (death) Anti-Confederate
Frank Killam from April 20, 1869 Liberal

Note:

1 – The Anti-Confederate Party dissolved after failing to secure Nova Scotia's secession from Confederation. In 1869 its members joined other parties, or in one case sat as an independent.

New Brunswick[edit]

Electoral district Name Party
Albert John Wallace Liberal
Carleton Charles Connell Liberal
Charlotte John Bolton Liberal
City and County of Saint John John Hamilton Gray Conservative
City of Saint John Samuel Leonard Tilley Liberal-Conservative
Gloucester Timothy Warren Anglin Liberal
Kent Auguste Renaud Liberal
King's George Ryan Liberal
Northumberland John Mercer Johnson to September 8, 1868 (death) Liberal
Richard Hutchison from December 24, 1868 Liberal
Queen's John Ferris Liberal
Restigouche John McMillan to February 15, 1868 (appointed Inspector of Post Offices) Liberal
William Murray Caldwell from March 13, 1868 to September 29, 1870 (death) Liberal
George Moffat from November 29, 1870 Conservative
Sunbury Charles Burpee Liberal
Victoria John Costigan Liberal-Conservative
Westmorland Albert James Smith Liberal
York Charles Fisher to October 3, 1868 (appointed to the Supreme Court of New Brunswick) Liberal
John Pickard from October 28, 1868 Independent Liberal

Quebec[edit]

Electoral district Name Party
Argenteuil John Abbott Liberal-Conservative
Bagot Pierre-Samuel Gendron Conservative
Beauce Christian Pozer Liberal
Beauharnois Michael Cayley Conservative
Bellechasse Louis Napoléon Casault to May 26, 1870 (appointed to Superior Court of Quebec) Conservative
Télesphore Fournier from August 15, 1870 Liberal
Berthier Anselme Pâquet Liberal
Bonaventure Théodore Robitaille Conservative
Brome Christopher Dunkin4 to October 24, 1871 (appointed to Superior Court of Quebec) Conservative
Edward Carter from November 17, 1871 Conservative
Chambly Pierre Benoit Conservative
Champlain John Jones Ross Conservative
Charlevoix Simon Xavier Cimon Conservative
Châteauguay Luther Holton Liberal
Chicoutimi—Saguenay Pierre Alexis Tremblay Liberal
Compton John Henry Pope5 Liberal-Conservative
Dorchester Hector-Louis Langevin Conservative
Drummond—Arthabaska Louis Adélard Sénécal Conservative
Gaspé Pierre Fortin Conservative
Hochelaga Antoine Dorion Liberal
Huntingdon John Rose2 to September 30, 1869 (appointed to Senate) Liberal-Conservative
Julius Scriver from October 30, 1869 Liberal
Iberville François Béchard Liberal
Jacques Cartier Guillaume Gaucher Conservative
Joliette François Benjamin Godin Liberal
Kamouraska no election in 1867 due to rioting
Charles Pelletier from February 17, 1869 Liberal
Laprairie Alfred Pinsonneault Conservative
L'Assomption Louis Archambeault Liberal-Conservative
Laval Joseph Bellerose Conservative
Lévis Joseph Blanchet Liberal-Conservative
L'Islet Barthélemy Pouliot3 Conservative
Lotbinière Henri Joly De Lotbinière Liberal
Maskinongé George Caron Conservative
Mégantic George Irvine Conservative
Missisquoi Brown Chamberlin to June 6, 1870 (resigned to become Queen's Printer) Conservative
George Baker from July 5, 1870 Liberal-Conservative
Montcalm Joseph Dufresne to July 13, 1871 (resigned) Conservative
Firmin Dugas from September 15, 1871 Conservative
Montmagny Joseph-Octave Beaubien Conservative
Montmorency Joseph Cauchon to November 1, 1867 Conservative
Jean Langlois from December 11, 1867 Conservative
Montreal Centre Thomas Workman Liberal
Montreal East George-Étienne Cartier Liberal-Conservative
Montreal West Thomas D'Arcy McGee to April 7, 1868 (assassinated) Liberal-Conservative
Michael Patrick Ryan from April 20, 1868 Liberal-Conservative
Napierville Sixte Coupal dit la Reine Liberal
Nicolet Joseph Gaudet Conservative
Ottawa (County of) Alonzo Wright Liberal-Conservative
Pontiac Edmund Heath Conservative
Portneuf Jean Brousseau Conservative
Quebec-Centre Georges-Honoré Simard Conservative
Quebec County Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau Conservative
Quebec East Pierre Huot to June 14, 1870 (resigned to become Postmaster of Quebec) Liberal
Adolphe Guillet dit Tourangeau from July 18, 1870 Conservative
Quebec West Thomas McGreevy Liberal-Conservative
Richelieu Thomas McCarthy to September 23, 1870 (death) Conservative
Georges Isidore Barthe from November 18, 1870 Independent Conservative
Richmond—Wolfe William Hoste Webb Conservative
Rimouski George Sylvain Conservative
Rouville Guillaume Cheval dit St-Jacques Liberal
Saint Maurice Louis Léon Lesieur Desaulniers to September 29, 1868 (resigned) Conservative
Élie Lacerte from October 30, 1868 Conservative
Shefford Lucius Huntington Liberal
Sherbrooke (Town of) Alexander Galt Liberal-Conservative
Soulanges Luc Masson Conservative
St. Hyacinthe Alexandre Kierzkowski to August 4, 1870 (death) Liberal
Louis Delorme from September 1, 1870 Liberal
St. John's François Bourassa Liberal
Stanstead Charles Colby Liberal-Conservative
Témiscouata Charles Bertrand Conservative
Terrebonne Louis Masson Conservative
Three Rivers Louis Boucher De Niverville to September 30, 1868 (resigned) Conservative
William McDougall from October 17, 1868 Conservative
Two Mountains Jean-Baptiste Daoust Conservative
Vaudreuil Donald McMillan Conservative
Verchères Félix Geoffrion Liberal
Yamaska Moïse Fortier Liberal

Four Quebec members recontested their seats in byelections, and were re-elected:

2John Rose was reelected in Huntingdon on November 28, 1867, after being named Minister of Finance.

3Barthélemy Pouliot was unseated on petition, but was reelected in L'Islet on July 14, 1869.

4Christopher Dunkin was reelected in Brome on November 29, 1869, after being named Minister of Agriculture.

5John Henry Pope was reelected in Compton on November 11, 1871, after being named Minister of Agriculture following Dunkin's resignation from Parliament.

Ontario[edit]

Electoral district Name Party
Addington James N. Lapum Conservative
Algoma Wemyss Mackenzie Simpson to April 26, 1871 (appointed Indian Commissioner for Rupert's Land) Conservative
Frederick William Cumberland from June 30, 1871 Conservative
Bothwell David Mills Liberal
Brant North John Young Bown Liberal-Conservative
Brant South Edmund Burke Wood Liberal
Brockville James Crawford Conservative
Bruce North Alexander Sproat Conservative
Bruce South Francis Hurdon Conservative
Cardwell Thomas Roberts Ferguson Conservative
Carleton John Holmes Liberal-Conservative
Cornwall John Sandfield Macdonald Liberal
Dundas John Sylvester Ross Liberal-Conservative
Durham East Francis H. Burton Conservative
Durham West Edward Blake Liberal
Elgin East Thomas William Dobbie Conservative
Elgin West John H. Munroe Conservative
Essex John O'Connor Conservative
Frontenac Thomas Kirkpatrick to March 26, 1870 (death) Conservative
George Airey Kirkpatrick from April 27, 1870 Conservative
Glengarry Donald Alexander Macdonald Liberal
Grenville South Walter Shanly Conservative
Grey North George Snider Liberal
Grey South George Jackson Conservative
Haldimand David Thompson Liberal
Halton John White Liberal
Hamilton Charles Magill Liberal
Hastings East Robert Read to February 24, 1871 (appointed to Senate) Conservative
John White from March 20, 1871 Conservative
Hastings North Mackenzie Bowell Conservative
Hastings West James Brown Conservative
Huron North Joseph Whitehead Liberal
Huron South Malcolm Colin Cameron Liberal
Kent Rufus Stephenson Conservative
Kingston The Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, Prime Minister of Canada Liberal-Conservative
Lambton Alexander Mackenzie Liberal
Lanark North William C.B. McDougall Liberal-Conservative
Lanark South Alexander Morris6 Conservative
Leeds North and Grenville North Francis Jones Conservative
Leeds South John Willoughby Crawford Conservative
Lennox Richard John Cartwright Conservative
Lincoln James Rea Benson to March 14, 1868 (appointed to the Senate) Liberal-Conservative
Thomas Rodman Merritt from April 13, 1868 Liberal
London John Carling Liberal-Conservative
Middlesex East Crowell Willson Liberal-Conservative
Middlesex North Thomas Scatcherd Liberal
Middlesex West Angus Peter McDonald Conservative
Monck Lachlin McCallum Liberal-Conservative
Niagara Angus Morrison Conservative
Norfolk North Aquila Walsh Conservative
Norfolk South Peter Lawson Liberal
Northumberland East Joseph Keeler Liberal-Conservative
Northumberland West James Cockburn Conservative
Ontario North John Hall Thompson Liberal
Ontario South Thomas Nicholson Gibbs Liberal-Conservative
City of Ottawa Joseph Merrill Currier Liberal-Conservative
Oxford North Thomas Oliver Liberal
Oxford South Ebenezer Vining Bodwell Liberal
Peel John Hillyard Cameron Conservative
Perth North James Redford Liberal
Perth South Robert MacFarlane Liberal
Peterborough East Peregrine Maitland Grover Conservative
Peterborough West Charles Perry Conservative
Prescott Albert Hagar Liberal
Prince Edward Walter Ross Liberal
Renfrew North John Rankin to October 12, 1869 (resigned) Conservative
Francis Hincks from November 13, 1869 Liberal-Conservative
Renfrew South Daniel McLachlin to June 3, 1869 (resigned) Liberal
John Lorn McDougall from July 12, 1869 Liberal
Russell James Alexander Grant Conservative
Simcoe North Thomas David McConkey Liberal
Simcoe South William Carruthers Little Liberal-Conservative
Stormont Samuel Ault Liberal-Conservative
Toronto East James Beaty Conservative
Victoria North John Morison Liberal
Victoria South George Kempt Liberal
Waterloo North Isaac Erb Bowman Liberal
Waterloo South James Young Liberal
Welland Thomas Clark Street Conservative
Wellington Centre Thomas Sutherland Parker to October 24, 1868 (death) Liberal
James Ross from January 18, 1869 Liberal
Wellington North George Alexander Drew Liberal-Conservative
Wellington South David Stirton Liberal
Wentworth North James McMonies Liberal
Wentworth South Joseph Rymal Liberal
West Toronto Robert Alexander Harrison Conservative
York East James Metcalfe Liberal
York North James Pearson Wells Liberal
York West William Pearce Howland to July 14, 1868 (appointed Lieutenant Governor of Ontario) Liberal-Conservative
Amos Wright from August 14, 1868 Liberal

Note:

6 – One Ontario MP, Alexander Morris, recontested his seat in a byelection. He was reelected in Lanark South on November 29, 1869, after being appointed Minister of Inland Revenue.

Manitoba[edit]

Manitoba joined Confederation in 1870. Byelections to choose Manitoba's representatives were held on March 2 and March 3, 1871.

Electoral district Name Party
Lisgar John Christian Schultz from March 2, 1871 Conservative
Marquette*
(both candidates declared elected due to a tie)
James S. Lynch from March 2, 1871 Liberal
Angus McKay from March 2, 1871 Conservative
Selkirk Donald Alexander Smith from March 2, 1871 Independent Conservative
Provencher Pierre Delorme from March 3, 1871 Conservative

British Columbia[edit]

British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871. Byelections to choose the province's representatives were held in November and December of that year.

Electoral district Name Party
Cariboo District Joshua Spencer Thompson from December 19, 1871 Liberal-Conservative
New Westminster District Hugh Nelson from December 13, 1871 Liberal-Conservative
Vancouver Robert Wallace from December 15, 1871 Conservative
Victoria* Amor De Cosmos from November 24, 1871 Liberal
Henry Nathan, Jr. from November 24, 1871 Liberal
Yale District Charles Frederick Houghton from December 19, 1871 Liberal

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Pre-Confederation predecessors[edit]

Colony Assembly
Province of Canada 8th Parliament
Nova Scotia 22nd General Assembly
New Brunswick 21st Legislative Assembly

By-elections[edit]

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Yale District December 19, 1871 New seat Charles Frederick Houghton      Liberal New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
Cariboo December 19, 1871 New seat Joshua Spencer Thompson      Liberal-Conservative New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
Vancouver Island December 15, 1871 New seat Robert Wallace      Conservative New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
New Westminster December 13, 1871 New seat Hugh Nelson      Liberal-Conservative New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
Victoria November 24, 1871 New seat Henry Nathan, Jr. and Amor De Cosmos      Liberal New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. Two MPs elected NA
Brome November 17, 1871 Christopher Dunkin      Conservative Edward Carter      Conservative Appointed to the Superior Court of Quebec Yes
Compton November 11, 1871 John Henry Pope      Conservative John Henry Pope      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Agriculture Yes
Montcalm September 15, 1871 Joseph Dufresne      Conservative Firmin Dugas      Conservative Appointed Sheriff of the County of St. John Yes
Algoma June 30, 1871 Wemyss Mackenzie Simpson      Conservative Frederick William Cumberland      Conservative Appointed Indian Commissioner for the North Yes
Hastings East March 20, 1871 Robert Read      Conservative John White      Conservative Called to the Senate Yes
Provencher March 3, 1871 New seat Pierre Delorme      Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. NA
Selkirk March 2, 1871 New seat Donald Alexander Smith      Independent Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. NA
Lisgar March 2, 1871 New seat John Christian Schultz      Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. NA
Marquette March 2, 1871 New seat James S. Lynch and Angus McKay Liberal and Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. Two MPs elected due to a tie. NA
Restigouche November 29, 1870 William Murray Caldwell      Liberal George Moffat, Sr.      Conservative Appointed Inspector of Post Offices in New Brunswick No
Richelieu November 18, 1870 Thomas McCarthy      Conservative Georges Isidore Barthe      Independent Conservative Death No
Colchester November 8, 1870 Adams George Archibald      Liberal-Conservative Frederick M. Pearson      Liberal Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the North-West Territories No
St. Hyacinthe September 1, 1870 Alexandre-Édouard Kierzkowski      Liberal Louis Delorme      Liberal Death Yes
Bellechasse August 15, 1870 Louis-Napoléon Casault      Conservative Télesphore Fournier      Liberal Appointed to Superior Court of Quebec No
Quebec East July 18, 1870 Pierre-Gabriel Huot      Liberal Adolphe Guillet dit Tourangeau      Conservative Appointed Postmaster at Quebec No
Missisquoi July 5, 1870 Brown Chamberlin      Conservative George Barnard Baker      Liberal-Conservative Appointed Queen's Printer Yes
Kings June 23, 1870 William Henry Chipman      Anti-Confederate Leverett de Veber Chipman      Liberal Death No
Cumberland June 15, 1870 Charles Tupper      Conservative Charles Tupper      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as President of the Privy Council Yes
Frontenac April 27, 1870 Thomas Kirkpatrick      Conservative George Airey Kirkpatrick      Conservative Death Yes
Brome November 29, 1869 Christopher Dunkin      Conservative Christopher Dunkin      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Agriculture Yes
Lanark South November 29, 1869 Alexander Morris      Conservative Alexander Morris      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue Yes
Renfrew South November 29, 1869 Daniel McLachlin      Liberal John Lorn McDougall      Liberal Resignation Yes
Renfrew North November 13, 1869 John Rankin      Liberal-Conservative Francis Hincks      Conservative Resignation to provide a seat for Hincks Yes
Huntingdon October 30, 1869 John Rose      Liberal-Conservative Julius Scriver      Liberal Resignation to move to London where he acted as the Prime Minister's unofficial representative to the UK. No
Colchester September 9, 1869 Archibald McLelan      Anti-Confederate Adams George Archibald      Liberal-Conservative Called to the Senate No
L'Islet July 14, 1869 Barthélemy Pouliot      Conservative Barthélemy Pouliot      Conservative Election annulled Yes
Wellington Centre July 12, 1869 Thomas Sutherland Parker      Liberal James Ross      Liberal Death Yes
Hants April 24, 1869 Joseph Howe      Anti-Confederate Joseph Howe      Liberal-Conservative Recontested upon appointment as President of the Privy Council No
Yarmouth April 20, 1869 Thomas Killam      Anti-Confederate Frank Killam      Liberal Death No
Richmond April 20, 1869 William Joseph Croke      Anti-Confederate Isaac LeVesconte      Conservative Death No
Kamouraska February 17, 1869 Vacant Charles Alphonse Pantaléon Pelletier      Liberal No election held in 1867 due to riots NA
Northumberland December 24, 1868 John Mercer Johnson      Liberal Richard Hutchison      Liberal Death Yes
Saint Maurice October 30, 1868 Louis-Léon Lesieur Desaulniers      Conservative Élie Lacerte      Conservative Appointed inspector of prisons and asylums in Quebec Yes
York October 28, 1868 Charles Fisher      Liberal John Pickard      Independent Liberal Appointed to New Brunswick Supreme Court No
Three Rivers October 17, 1868 Louis-Charles Boucher de Niverville      Conservative William McDougall      Conservative Appointed sheriff for the district of Trois-Rivières Yes
York West August 14, 1868 William Pearce Howland      Liberal-Conservative Amos Wright      Liberal Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario No
Montreal West April 20, 1868 Thomas D'Arcy McGee      Liberal-Conservative Michael Patrick Ryan      Liberal-Conservative Death (assassinated) Yes
Lincoln April 13, 1868 James Rea Benson      Liberal-Conservative Thomas Rodman Merritt      Liberal Called to the Senate No
Restigouche March 13, 1868 John McMillan      Liberal William Murray Caldwell      Liberal Appointed Inspector of Post Offices in New Brunswick Yes
Montmorency December 11, 1867 Joseph Cauchon      Conservative Jean Langlois      Conservative Called to the Senate Yes
Huntingdon November 28, 1867 John Rose      Liberal-Conservative John Rose      Liberal-Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Finance Yes


Post-Confederation succession[edit]

Notes[edit]