1st Cossack Cavalry Division
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|1st Cossack Cavalry Division|
Insignia of the 1st Cossack Cavalry Division
|Part of||XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps|
|Engagements||World War II|
|Helmuth von Pannwitz|
|Don Cossack insignia|
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The 1st Cossack Cavalry Division (German: 1. Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division) was a Russian Cossack division of the German Army that served during World War II. It was created on the Eastern Front mostly out of Don Cossacks already serving in the Wehrmacht, those who escaped from the advancing Red Army and Soviet POWs. In 1945, the division was transferred to the Waffen SS, becoming the 1st SS Cossack Cavalry Division (1. SS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division). At the end of the war, the unit ceased to exist.
Upon the formation of the unit in April 1943, the Division was dispatched to Croatia, where they were placed under the command of the Second Panzer Army and were used to provide rear area security to the army.
The Division's first fighting engagement was on October 12, 1943, when the unit was dispatched against Yugoslav partisans in Fruška Gora Mountains. In the operation the Cossacks aided by 15 tanks and 1 armoured car captured the village of Beocin with the partisan HQ. Subsequently the unit was used to protect the Zagreb-Belgrade railroad and the Sava valley. Several regiments of the division took part in several anti-partisan operations and guarded the Sarajevo railroad against the partisans. As part of a wide anti-partisan operation Napfkuchen the Cossack division was transferred to Croatia, where it fought against partisans and chetniks in 1944.
In 1944, the unit saw heavy action in Yugoslavia and suffered losses when Siberian Cossacks 2nd Regiment was surrounded by the partisans and held on for several days until other Cossack regiments were able to provide relief and break the encirclement.
The Cossacks' first engagement against the Red Army happened in December 1944 near Pitomača. The fighting resulted in Soviet withdrawal from the area. In January 1945, the 1st Cossack Division together with the 2nd Cossack Division was transferred to the Waffen-SS. As the 1. SS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division it became part of the newly formed XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps.
At the end of the war, Cossacks of the division found themselves in Austria and surrendered to British troops. Even though they were given assurances that they would not be turned over to the Soviets, they nevertheless were forcibly removed from the compound and transferred to the USSR. This event became known as the Betrayal of the Cossacks. Most of the Cossacks were executed for treason.
- Lieutenant-General Helmuth von Pannwitz
- Colonel Hans-Joachim von Schultz
- Colonel von Baath
- Colonel Alexander von Boesse
- Colonel Konstantin Wagner
Order of battle
The 1st Cossack Cavalry Division was created on August 4, 1943, by combining the Cossack Platow Cavalry Regiment of von Pannwitz with the Jungschults Cavalry Regiment. The 1st Cossack Division was composed of the following units:
(under command of Colonel Wagner)
- Regiment I: Don Cossacks (Don-Kosaken Reiter-Regiment 1)
- Regiment II: Siberian Cossacks (Sibirisches Kosaken-Reiter-Regiment 2)
- Regiment IV: Kuban Cossacks (Kuban-Kosaken-Reiter-Regiment 4)
- Caucasus Artillery Battalion
(under command of Colonel von Schulz)
- Regiment III: Kuban Cossacks (Kuban-Kosaken-Reiter-Regiment 3)
- Regiment V: Don Cossacks (Don-Kosaken-Regiment 5)
- Regiment VI: Terek Cossacks (Terek-Kosaken-Regiment 6)
- Caucasus Artillery Battalion
- 55th Recon Battalion
- 55th Artillery Regiment
- 55th Engineer Battalion
- 55th Signal Battalion
- 55th Supply Section
- 55th Medical Battalion
The total numerical strength of the Division was 13.000 Cossacks and 4.500 Germans.
- Wendal, Marcus. "XV SS Kosaken-Kavallerie-Korps". Axis History Factbook.
- Newland pp. 143–145.
- The 1st Cossack Division. Cavalry of the Wehrmacht
- 1st Cossack Division. World War II in Yugoslavia. . Accessed 2009-03-15. Archived 2009-05-13.
- Cossacks in German and Italian Service 
- François de Lannoy. Pannwitz Cossacks: Les Cosaques de Pannwitz 1942 - 1945
- Richard Landwehr. Steadfast Hussars: The Last cavalry Divisions of the Waffen-SS