1st Filipino Infantry Regiment

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1st Filipino Infantry Regiment
Per pall Argent, Gules and Azure, over the second and third an Igorot war shield and kris in saltire Or.
Regiment Coat of Arms
Active 4 March 1942[1] – 10 April 1946[2]
Allegiance  United States
Branch  United States Army
Type Infantry
Size Regiment
Motto "Laging Una" (Always First)[3]
March "On to Bataan"[3][4]
Engagements

World War II

Decorations Presidential Unit Citation streamer
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation[2]
Campaign streamers

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal streamer

  • New Guinea[2]
  • Leyte[2]
  • Southern Philippines[2]
Disbanded 1952[2]
Commanders
Regiment Commander Colonel Robert H. Offley[9][10]
Colonel William Robert Hamby[1]
Insignia
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia On a yellow disk 3 1/4 inches in diameter with a 1/8 inch edge, a conventionalized black volcano emitting smoke, the volcano charged with three yellow mullets in fess.
Distinctive Unit Insignia A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1⁄4 inches (3.2 cm) consisting of a shield blazoned: Per pall Argent, Gules and Azure, over the second and third an Igorot war shield and kris in saltire Or. Attached above the shield a wreath of the colors Argent and Gules three mullets Or. Attached below the shield a Gold scroll inscribed �LAGING UNA� in Blue letters.

The 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment was a segregated[11][12] United States Army infantry regiment made up of Filipino Americans from the continental United States and a few veterans of the Battle of the Philippines that saw combat during World War II. It was formed and activated at Camp San Luis Obispo, California, under the auspices of the California National Guard.[13] Originally created as a battalion, it was declared a regiment on 13 July 1942. Deployed initially to New Guinea in 1944, it became a source of manpower for special forces and units that would serve in occupied territories. In 1945, it deployed to the Philippines, where it first saw combat as a unit. After major combat operations, it remained in the Philippines until it returned to California and was deactivated in 1946 at Camp Stoneman.

Background[edit]

In 1898, the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the United States and, after a conflict between Philippine independence forces and the United States, Filipinos were allowed to immigrate freely to the United States as U.S. nationals.[14] Most immigrants chose to settle in the Territory of Hawaii and the West coast.[15] In 1934, U.S. policy changed and their status as nationals was revoked.[16][17]

In 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor, while other Japanese forces attacked the Philippines.[18] Filipino Americans, like other Americans, attempted to volunteer for military service, but were not allowed to enlist since they were neither citizens nor resident aliens.[19][20] Following a change in legislation it was announced on 3 January 1942, the day after Manila fell,[21][22] that Filipinos would be permitted to volunteer, and could be drafted, for military service; in California, almost half of the male Filipino American population enlisted.[23][24] Some who volunteered to serve were refused due to their age; other older volunteers were refused due to the need for agricultural labor.[25] Filipinos were strongly encouraged to volunteer for the Regiment, and only those who did so were assigned to it.[13][26] Those who did not volunteer to serve in the Regiment served in regular (white) units in various theaters of operation.[1][26] One example was PFC Ramon S. Subejano, who was awarded the Silver Star for actions in Germany.[27]

History[edit]

Stateside[edit]

Constituted in March 1942,[28] the 1st Filipino Infantry Battalion was activated in April at Camp San Luis Obispo,[23] to liberate the Philippines.[1] Colonel Robert Offley was selected as the unit's commanding officer, as he spoke Tagalog and had spent time on Mindoro in his youth.[10] During the following months, Filipino Americans continued to volunteer and the unit grew. Philippine Army personnel who were in the United States[1] and Filipino military personnel who had escaped the fall of the Philippines[29] and were recuperating in the United States were also instructed to report to the unit.[1][30] In July 1942, the battalion was elevated to a regiment at the California Rodeo Grounds in Salinas, California.[1][31] The Regiment was made up of three battalions, each consisting of a headquarters company and four infantry companies.[32] The Regiment had a separate regimental headquarters company, a service company, an anti-tank company, a medical detachment, and a band.[32]

In the foreground a platform with officers facing away from the camera. In the background a formation of over a thousand soldiers, raising their right arms
Naturalization ceremony at Camp Beale in 1942

The Regiment continued to train and grow, leading to the activation of the 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiment at Fort Ord in November 1942.[1] The 2nd Regiment was assigned to Camp Cooke and the 1st to Camp Beale.[1] Eventually, more than 7,000 soldiers would be assigned to the Filipino Infantry Regiments.[33][34] While at Camp Beale, there was a mass naturalization ceremony of 1,200 soldiers of the Regiment.[35][36] As members of the armed forces they were able to become citizens;[37] in 1924 naturalization of Filipino Americans had been barred, as it was determined that only aliens could be naturalized and Filipinos at the time were nationals.[38] In November 1943, it paraded through Los Angeles, with Carlos Bulosan, the influential Filipino author of America Is in the Heart, there to witness it.[39]

Three soldiers behind a M1917 Browning machine gun while training in a field in California
Soldiers of the Regiment training on a machine gun in 1943.

Members of the Regiment faced discrimination during this period. The anti-miscegenation laws in California meant that the soldiers were banned from marrying non-Filipino women; those soldiers who wished to marry in this way were transported to Gallup, New Mexico,[40] as New Mexico had repealed its anti-miscegenation law after the Civil War.[41] Soldiers of the Regiment faced discrimination in Marysville while visiting from neighboring Camp Beale, as the local businesses refused to serve Filipinos.[4][42] This was later remedied by the Regiment's commander, who informed the Chamber of Commerce that they were failing to cooperate with the Army, at which point they changed their business practices.[4] Further instances of discrimination against soldiers of the Regiment were also reported in Sacramento and San Francisco, where they were mistaken for Japanese Americans.[43]

Deployment[edit]

Five men in foreground, four in World War II uniform, one in the center in a suite and overcoat. Behind a color guard stands at attention, with a formation of Filipino American soldiers behind it.
Formation of the Regiment during the visit of Commonwealth Vice President Osmeña

In April 1944, the Regiment departed California aboard the USS General John Pope for Oro Bay, New Guinea.[44][45] On the way to New Guinea the Regiment spent part of June in Australia.[46] Upon arriving at Oro Bay, it was assigned to the 31st Infantry Division, 8th Army to provide area security and continue training.[47] Some soldiers were then assigned to the Alamo Scouts,[48] the 5217th Reconnaissance Battalion,[49] and to the Philippine Regional Section of Allied Intelligence Bureau.[50] One example was Second Lieutenant Rafael Ileto, a future Vice Chief of Staff in the Philippines, who led a team in the Alamo Scouts.[51] Due to the reassignment of these soldiers, both Filipino Infantry Regiments became smaller than authorized. In response, the 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiment was disbanded and used to bring the 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment to 125% of its standard allocated size.[1] The remaining soldiers of the 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiment who did not join the Regiment formed the 2nd Filipino Infantry Battalion (Separate).[1] During its time at Oro Bay the Regiment was reinforced with Filipinos from Hawaii.[1][3] These men had not been able to enlist in the Army until 1943 as the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association had successfully argued that their labor was needed in the sugar industry.[13]

In February 1945, the Regiment was sent to Leyte and was assigned to the Americal Division,[52][53] 10th Corps.[54] It would later be reassigned back to the 8th Army, in May 1945, along with the Americal Division.[54] Finally in the Philippines, it conducted "mopping up"[55] operations on Leyte,[56][57] Samar,[3][58] and other islands in the Visayan islands group.[8] In addition, some of the companies of the Regiment provided security for 8th Army General Headquarters, Far East Air Force, two airstrips at Tanauan and Tacloban, and Seventh Fleet Headquarters.[59] Other soldiers would also participate in the Luzon Campaign,[5] fighting on the Bataan Peninsula,[6] and the recapture of former Fort Mills;[7] the Regiment was not awarded formal campaign participation for these individual actions.[2]

Post-combat[edit]

Color guard of four Filipino men wearing World War II United States Army Uniform; the national colors and regimental colors in the center.
Color guard of the Regiment

By August 1945, operations came to a close[1] due to the Japanese Emperor's decision to end the war following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[60] Soldiers of the Regiment who had been detached to the Alamo Scouts, 5217th Reconnaissance Battalion, and other units were reassigned back to it.[1][61] During the period between the close of operations and their return to the United States, and without the Imperial Japanese Army to fight, the men of the Regiment clashed with soldiers of the Philippine Army over differences in pay, culture and local women.[3] Others married women under the War Brides Act,[62] which allowed spouses and adopted children of United States military personnel to enter the U.S.[63] For these newly married couples, a "tent city"[1] was established by Colonel William Hamby, who had succeeded Offley as the Regiment Commander.[1] Many younger soldiers connected to a culture to which they had previously only had a distant relationship, learning language and customs that were not used or practiced in the United States.[3]

Soldiers of the Regiment who did either not qualify to return to the U.S., either due to having insufficient service points[47] or their being otherwise ineligible,[1] and those who chose to remain in the Philippines,[1] were transferred to 2nd Filipino Infantry Battalion (Separate) in Quezon City.[1] Returning to the United States aboard the USS General Calan on 8 April 1946, the rest of the Regiment was sent to Camp Stoneman, near Pittsburgh, California, where it was deactivated on 10 April 1946.[1][2]

Legacy[edit]

During the war the efforts of Filipino and American defenders during the Battle of Bataan were widely covered by the press,[11] as were the actions of the 100th and 442nd Infantry.[64] After the war, the efforts of the 442nd continued to be lauded,[65] with the 1951 film Go for Broke! portraying their endeavors.[66] By contrast, the activities of the Filipino Infantry Regiment and her sister units were largely unpublicized;[3] it was not until the documentaries Unsung Heroes and An UnTold Triumph that any significant visual media covered the history of the Regiment.[67][68] In 1984 an association of veterans of the Regiment erected a marker in Salinas in honor of their former unit.[69]

The War Brides Act of 1945, and subsequent Alien Fiancées and Fiancés Act of 1946,[26][70] continued to apply until the end of 1953,[1] allowing veterans of the Regiment,[1] and other Filipino American veterans,[34] to return to the Philippines to bring back fiancées, wives, and children.[1] In the years following the war, some sixteen thousand Filipinas entered the United States as war brides.[71] These new Filipino American families formed a second generation of Filipino Americans,[26] significantly expanding the Filipino American community.[34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Fabros, Alex S. "California's Filipino Infantry". The California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Statement of Service". Center of Military History. United States Army. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
    "Statement of Service". United States Army. Center of Military History. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Revilla, Linda A. (1996). ""Pineapples," "Hawayanos," and "Loyal Americans": Local Boys in the First Filipino Infantry Regiment, US Army". Social Process in Hawai`i (University of Hawai`i at Manoa) 37: 57–73. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Takaki, Ronald T. (1998). "CHAPTER 10: THE WATERSHED OF WORLD WAR II : DEMOCRACY AND RACE". Strangers From a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-83130-7. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ishikawa, Scott (30 November 2001). "New Film Depicts Filipino Regiments' Exploits". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 10 May 2011. Soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments also participated in bloody combat and mop-up operations in New Guinea, Leyte, Samar, Luzon and the southern Philippines. 
  6. ^ a b McKibben, Carol Lynn; Seaside History Project (2009). Seaside. San Francisco, California: Arcadia Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7385-6981-9. Retrieved 24 May 2011. The 1st and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments trained at Fort Ord, after which they distinguished themselves in the Battle of Leyte and on the Bataan Peninsula. 
  7. ^ a b Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 8 June 2011. Members of the first and second regiments also served in the parachute-naval assault to recapture the island of Corregidor in 1944 
  8. ^ a b Crouchett, Lorraine Jacobs (1983). Filipinos in California: from the days of the galleons to the present. El Cerrito, California: Downey Place Publishing House, Inc. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-910823-00-5. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  9. ^ "1st Filipino Infantry and 2nd Filipino Infantry in Bataan, Philippines.". CriticalPast.com. 1943. Retrieved 8 June 2011. First Commander of the 1st Filipino Infantry, Colonel Robert H Offley. 
  10. ^ a b Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Espiritu, Yen Le (1995). Filipino American lives. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-56639-317-1. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  12. ^ McNaughton, James C. (2006). Nisei Linguists: Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service During World War II. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army. p. 87. ISBN 0-16-072957-2. Retrieved 26 May 2011. The War Department already had several long-serving segregated units for African Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Filipinos and established several more during 1942. The Office of War information saw propaganda value in having combat units of different nationalities. Thus during 1942 the War Department organized the 1st Filipino infantry in California and battalion-size units of Norwegians, Austrians, and Greeks. 
  13. ^ a b c Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898-1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  14. ^ Ueda, Reed (2006). A Companion to American Immigration. Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-631-22843-1. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  15. ^ Powell, John (2005). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8160-4658-4. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  16. ^ "Filipino Immigration". Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  17. ^ Eftihia Danellis; Ann Du. "Fight for Democracy: An Educator's Resource Guide". National Center for the Preservation of Democracy. Retrieved 18 May 2011. However, in 1934, they were reclassified as "aliens". 
  18. ^ "Philippine Islands". Center of Military History. United States Army. 3 October 2003. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  19. ^ Robert Barkan, Elliot (1999). A Nation of Peoples: A Sourcebook on America's Multicultural Heritage. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-313-29961-2. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  20. ^ Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Key Events in the Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt". Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  22. ^ Bradford, James C. (2003). Atlas of American Military History. New York, New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-19-521661-5. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  23. ^ a b España-Maram, Linda (2006). Creating Masculinity in Los Angeles's Little Manila. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-231-11593-3. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  24. ^ Goggans, Jan; Aaron DiFranco (2004). The Pacific region. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-313-33043-8. Retrieved 2 September 2011. 
  25. ^ Perez, Frank Ramos; Perez, Leatrice Bantillo (1994). "The Long Struggle for Acceptance: Filipinos in San Joaquin County". The San Joaquin Historian (The San Joaquin County Historical Society) 8 (4): 3–18. Retrieved 10 May 2011. In San Joaquin County many Filipinos who volunteered for military service were rejected because of their age and/or the need for them to continue to work in the fields harvesting the crops to feed the armed forces. 
  26. ^ a b c d Sisson, Richard; Christian K. Zacher, Andrew Robert Lee Cayton (2007). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 1890. ISBN 978-0-253-34886-9. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  27. ^ Al Livingston (December 2008). "Remembering Ramon Subejano, A One Man Army". Carriage News. taxi-usa.com. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  28. ^ The reference Creating Masculinity in Los Angeles's Little Manila (España-Maram, 2006) used the word "Formed". By Army terminology this is incorrect. Per Army Regulation 220-5 the correct term is "Constituted". The article has been edited to reflect that.
  29. ^ Cave, Dorothy (2006). Beyond Courage: One Regiment Against Japan, 1941–1945. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Sunstone Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-86534-559-1. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  30. ^ "Fort Ord". California Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 25 May 2011. Another unit of interest, the 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment, was activated in April and eventually included a few veterans of fighting on Bataan that had been wounded, evacuated, and returned to duty in the United States. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b "1st Filipino Infantry". Camp Roberts Trainer. United States Army. 1943. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  33. ^ "An Untold Triumph: The Story of the 1st & 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments, U.S. Army". Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. Smithsonian Institution. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 7 June 2011. An Untold Triumph captures the never-been-told story of how the U.S. Army’s World War II 1st and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments, made up of more than 7,000 immigrants and sons of immigrants, played a vital role in General Douglas McArthur’s covert plan to retake the Philippines. 
  34. ^ a b c Chen, Edith Wen-Chu; Glenn Omatsu, Emily Porcincula Lawsin, Joseph A. Galura (2006). Teaching About Asian Pacific Americans: Effective activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-7425-5338-5. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  35. ^ "World War Two 1st Filipino Infantry". Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. Smithsonian Institution. 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  36. ^ Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden Dreams: California in an Age of Abundance, 1950–1963. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 452. ISBN 978-0-19-515377-4. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  37. ^ "Selected Dates and Events of Asian Pacific American History". Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. State of Washington. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011. As members of the armed forces, Filipinos are allowed to become U.S. citizens. 1,200 Filipino soldiers stand proudly in "V" formation at Camp Beale as citizenship is conferred on them. 
  38. ^
    • "Asian Americans". History World International. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
    • Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-313-29742-7. Retrieved 21 May 2011. Thus, although all children born in the United States to Filipino immigrants were U.S. citizens, before World War II, no matter how many years Philippine-born Filipinos had lived in the United States, they were ineligible for naturalization, and, therefore, could not vote, or be absolutely sure of their future status and security. 
    • Holmquist, June D. (2003). They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the States Ethnic Groups. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 547. ISBN 978-0-87351-231-2. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
    • M. Licudine v. D. Winter, JR 1086, p. 5 (U.S. District Court for D.C. 2008) (““[f]rom the time the United States obtained dominion over the Philippines in 1899 until it granted independence to the islands in 1946, [the United States] Congress classified natives of the Philippines as Philippine citizens, as non-citizen United States nationals, and as aliens, but never as United States citizens.””).
  39. ^ Dr. Riz A. Oade. ""The Day of Infamy" SD’s Unsung Heroes of World War II". Asian Journal. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  40. ^ Alex S. Fabros, Jr. (1995). "My Funny Valentine: A Battle In The Filipino American Civil Rights Movement". AAS 456. San Francisco State University. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  41. ^ Pascoe, Peggy (2009). What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America. New York, New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-19-509463-3. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  42. ^ A Filipino Wife. "Letters from Readers: The Filipinos Do Not Understand". AAS 456. San Francisco State University. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  43. ^ Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898-1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  44. ^ "USS General John Pope (AP-110)". Naval History Division. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  45. ^ Adjutant General's Office (20 September 1948). "Disposition Form". Center of Military History. United States Army. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  46. ^ "1st Filipino Regiment". Center of Military History. United States Army. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  47. ^ a b "The Philippine Army World War II". Waiting Room USA. Sirzib Publishing Inc.,. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  48. ^ Rottman, Gordon (2009). The Cabanatuan Prison Raid: The Philippines 1945. Mariusz Kozik, Howard Gerrard. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84603-399-5. Retrieved 18 May 2011. Many were paratroopers or from the 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment, a US Army unit organized in the States. 
  49. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2005). Anderson, Dr. Duncan, ed. US Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45: Scouts, Raiders, Rangers and Reconnaissance Units. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-84176-707-9. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  50. ^ Hogan, Jr., David W. (1992). "Chapter 4: Special Operations in the Pacific". U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army. pp. 64–96. ISBN 9781410216908. OCLC 316829618. Retrieved 27 September 2014. From Filipino regiments stationed in the United States Whitney selected about 400 men, who received training in communications, intelligence, and sabotage and formed parties to penetrate the Philippines. 
  51. ^ Ileto, Reynaldo Clemena (2005). "Philippine Wars and the Politics of Memory". positions: east asia cultures critique (Duke University Press) 13 (1): 215–235. ISSN 1067-9847. Retrieved 8 June 2011. So as we were group up, I got to know that my father, Rafael Ileto, had gone to West Point in 1940 and that he had been an officer in the first Filipino infantry regiment that was sent to liberate the Philippines from Japanese rule. 
    Alexander, Larry (2010). Shadows in the Jungle: The Alamo Scouts Behind Japanese Lines in World War II. London, England: Penguin. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-451-22913-7. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  52. ^ Captain Francis D. Cronin (1951). "Americal Division Order of Battle". Americal Division Veterans Association. Archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  53. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1963). Triumph in the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 437. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Reinforced by elements of the 1st Filipino Infantry, U.S. Army, the 182ds battalion overran organized resistance on northwest Samar by 1 March, and on the 4th of the month relinquished responsibility for patrolling in the region to the 1st Filipino Infantry and attached guerrillas. 
  54. ^ a b Cannon, M. Hamlin (1993). Leyte: The Return to the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 365. Retrieved 25 May 2011. In the X Corps phase, the island of Samar was cleared of Japanese troops. The Americal Division, advance elements of which arrived on 24 January, extensively patrolled both the islands of Leyte and Samar. During the Eighth Army Area Command phase, the constant searching out of isolated groups of enemy soldiers continued. In addition to the Americal Division, the Regiment patrolled Leyte. On 8 May, the control of the Eighth Army over the area came to an end. 
  55. ^ Eftihia Danellis; Ann Du. "Fight for Democracy: An Educator's Resource Guide". National Center for the Preservation of Democracy. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Assigned to the 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment, Domingo came ashore on Leyte Island in the Philippines. His unit had been assigned the dangerous task of “mopping up” enemy soldiers who refused to surrender at all costs. 
  56. ^ M. Hamilin Cannon (1993). "Chapter XXII: Leyte is Liberated". Leyte: The Return to the Philippines. ibiblio.org. Retrieved 24 May 2011. In addition to the Americal Division, the 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment patrolled Leyte. 
  57. ^ Merriam, Ray (1999). World War II Journal. Bennington, Vermont: Merriam Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-57638-164-9. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Additional American units were called into the battle of Leyte: the 32nd Infantry Division, the 77th and 37th Infantry Divisions, the Americal Division, the 11th Airborne Division, the 112th Cavalry Regiment Combat Team, the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, the 20th Armored Group, and the 1st Filipino Infantry. 
  58. ^ Bell, Walter F. Bell (1999). Philippines in World War Two, 1941–1945. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-313-30614-3. Retrieved 24 May 2011. "On Samar, elements of Americal Division and 1st Filipino Infantry clear Mauro area. 
  59. ^ "History of the US Army's 1st Filipino Regiment and 2D Filipino Battalion (Separate)". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Fort Lesley J. McNair, District of Columbia: United States Army. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
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  61. ^ "The Philippine Airborne". The Corregidor Historic Society. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011. Shortly after the mission, the 5217th, now the 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, was sent to Manila, where Walter and his cadre were returned to the 503d PRCT. Shortly thereafter, in August 1945, the 1st Reconnaissance Battalion was disbanded and the men reassigned. 
  62. ^ Mabalon, Dawn B.; Rico Reyes, Filipino American National Historical Society, Little Manila Foundation (2008). Filipinos in Stockton. San Francisco, California: Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-5624-6. Retrieved 25 May 2011. The 1945 War Brides Act enabled these veterans to bring back war brides from the Philippines, and the 1946 Luce-Cullar Act gave all Filipinos the right to naturalize. 
  63. ^ Caroline Chung, Simpson (1998). ""Out of an Obscure Place": Japanese War Brides and Cultural Pluralism in the 1950s". A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies (Brown University) 10 (3): 47–81. ISSN 1040-7391. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
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  65. ^
  66. ^ Shibusawa, Naoko (2006). America's Geisha Ally: Reimagining the Japanese Enemy. Harvard University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-674-02348-2. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  67. ^ "Philippine Studies Audio-Visual Resources". Wong Audio-Visual Room, Sinclair Library. University of Hawaii at Manoa. 4 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  68. ^ Dennis Harvey (26 March 2003). "An Untold Triumph: The Story of the 1st and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments, U.S. Army". Variety. Archived from the original on 2012-11-08. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  69. ^ Andrew Ruppenstien; Manny Santos (21 January 2010). "The First and Second Filipino Infantry Regiments U.S. Army". Historic Marker Database. Retrieved 8 June 2011. Personnel won more than 50,000 decorations, awards, medals, ribbons, certificates, commendations and citations. 
  70. ^ Media Projects Incorporated (2004). Smith, Carter, ed. Student Almanac of Asian American History: From the Exclusion Era to Today, 1925-Present. Westport Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-313-32604-2. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  71. ^ Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898-1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]