56th (London) Division
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|56th (London) Infantry Division|
|Active||First World War
1908 – May 1919;
Second World War
June 1940 – April 1945
|British Army Infantry Divisions (1914–present)|
|55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division||57th (2nd West Lancashire) Division|
The 56th (London) Infantry Division was a British Territorial Army division of World War I and World War II. The division's insignia in the first conflict was the sword of Saint George from the coat of arms of the City of London; in the second conflict it was changed to a black cat.
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1st London Division 1908-1914 
1st London Infantry Brigade 
- 1st London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 2nd London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 3rd London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 4th London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
2nd London Infantry Brigade 
- 5th London Regiment (London Rifle Brigade), T.F.
- 6th London Regiment (City Rifles), T.F.
- 7th London Regiment (City Rifles), T.F
- 8th London Regiment (Post Office Rifles). T.F.
3rd London Infantry Brigade 
- 9th London Regiment (Queen Victoria Rifles), T.F.
- 10th London Regiment (Paddington Rifles to 1912, then became the Hackney Rifles), T.F.
- 11th London Regiment (Finsbury Rifles), T.F.
- 12th London Regiment (The Rangers). T.F.
Support Units 
- 1st City of London Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, T.F.
- 2nd City of London Brigade, R.F.A, T.F
- 3rd City of London Brigade, R.F.A., T.F.
- 4th City of London Brigade, R.F.A., T.F.
- 1st London Field Company, Royal Engineers, T.F.
- 2nd London Field Coy., R.E., T.F.
- 2nd County of London Yeomanry. T.F.
World War I 
On the outbreak of the conflict, the Division's pre-war establishment units were mobilised individually rather than in their divisional formation, and were initially used for garrison duty overseas in Malta, or as reinforcements for other divisions on the Western Front. In January 1916, the Division was re-constituted as a fighting formation in the Abbeville district in France, consisting of:
167th Infantry Brigade 
- 1/1st London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 1/3rd London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 1/7th Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own), T.F.
- 1/8th Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own), T.F.
168th Infantry Brigade 
- 1/4th London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 1/12th London Regiment (The Rangers), T.F.
- 1/13th London Regiment (The Kensingtons), T.F.
- 1/14th London Regiment (London Scottish), T.F.
169th Infantry Brigade 
- 1/2nd London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers), T.F.
- 1/5th London Regiment (London Rifle Brigade), T.F.
- 1/9th London Regiment (Queen Victoria Rifles), T.F.
- 1/16th London Regiment (Queen's Westminster Rifles), T.F.
Support Units 
- 280th (1/1st London) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, T.F.
- 281st (1/2nd London) Brigade, R.F.A., T.F.
- 282nd (1/3rd London) Brigade, R.F.A., T.F.
- 283rd (1/4th London) Brigade, R.F.A., T.F.
- 56th Divisional Ammunition Column, T.F.
Royal Engineers 
- 416th (1/1st Edinburgh) Field Company, T.F. (joined in April 1916 from Egypt)
- 512nd (2/1st London) Field Coy, T.F.
- 513rd (2/2nd London) Field Coy, T.F.
Royal Army Medical Corps 
- 2/1st London Field Ambulance, T.F.
- 2/2nd London Field Ambulance, T.F.
- 2/3rd London Field Ambulance, T.F.
- 1/5th Cheshire Regiment (Earl of Chester's), T.F.
For the remainder of the war, the Division saw action on the Western Front, taking part in all of the major campaigns & seeing severe fighting. It was demobilised in May 1919.
World War II 
At the outbreak of war in September 1939, the division was mobilised as motorised infantry under the title of the 1st London Division. It was reorganised as an infantry division in June 1940 and redesignated as the 56th (London) Infantry Division on 18 November 1940. The divisional insignia during the Second World War was changed to an outline of a black cat in a red background. The cat stood for Dick Whittington's cat, a symbol of London.
The division remained in the United Kingdom during the Battle of France, moving to the Middle East in November 1942, where it served in Iraq and Palestine until moving to Egypt in March 1943 and thence forward to Libya, and the front, in April. The division sat out the Allied invasion of Sicily (except for the 168th Brigade, which was attached to the understrength 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division and moved to Italy in September 1943 and saw service in the Battle of Monte Cassino, in January, serving there until March 1944 and participated in the Anzio Campaign. After being withdrawn to Egypt at the end of March, the division returned to Italy in July 1944, where it took part in the Battles along the Gothic Line and remained there until after VE Day.
After crossing the Volturno in October 1943, the division entered the town of Calvi Vecchia. Their attempts to radio the United States Fifth Army to cancel a planned bombing on the town failed. As a last resort, the 56th released an American homing pigeon named G.I. Joe, which carried a message that reached the allies just as the planes were being warmed up. The attack was called off and the town was saved from the planned air assault.
Order of battle 
World War II 
- 167th (London) Infantry Brigade
- 168th (London) Brigade
- 169th (London) Infantry Brigade
- 2nd/5th Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)
- 2nd/6th Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)
- 2nd/7th Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)
- 201st Guards Motor Brigade
World War II 
- Enfidaville – 19 April 1943 – 29 April 1943
- Tunis – 5 May 1943 – 12 May 1943
- Salerno – 9 September 1943 – 18 September 1943
- Capture of Naples – 22 September 1943 – 1 October 1943
- Volturno Crossing – 12 October 1943 – 15 October 1943
- Monte Camino – 5 November 1943 – 9 December 1943
- Garigliano Crossing – 17 January 1944 – 31 January 1944
- Anzio – 22 January 1944 – 22 May 1944
- Gothic Line – 25 August 1944 – 22 September 1944
- Coriano – 3 September 1944 – 15 September 1944
- Rimini Line – 14 September 1944 – 21 September 1944
- Lamone Crossing – 2 December 1944 – 13 December 1944
- Argenta Gap – 12 April 1945 – 21 April 1945
Post War 
In 1946, the 56th Division was demobilised then re-constituted as the 56th (London) Armoured Division, T.A. The new formation included the 22nd Armoured Brigade and the 168th Lorried Infantry Brigade, with the Inns of Court and City Yeomanry acting as the Division's reconnaissance unit.
On 20 December 1955, the Secretary of State for War informed the House of Commons that the armoured divisions and the 'mixed' division were to be converted to infantry. The 56th Division was one of the eight divisions placed on a lower establishment for home defence only. The territorial units of the Royal Armoured Corps were also reduced in number to nine armoured regiments and eleven reconnaissance regiments. This was effected by the amalgamation of pairs of regiments, and the conversion of four RAC units to an infantry role.
On 20 July 1960, a further reduction of the TA was announced in the House of Commons. The Territorials were to be reduced from 266 fighting units to 195. The reductions were carried out in 1961, mainly by the amalgamation of units. On 1 May 1961, the TA divisional headquarters were merged with regular army districts and matched with Civil Defence Regions to aid the mobilisation for war. Thus the division ceased to exist as an independent entity, and was linked to London District.
The 4th Battalion, Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment was formed in 1961 by the amalgamation of the 6th Bn., East Surrey Regiment and the 23rd London Regiment, with a Battalion HQ and HQ Company at Kingston upon Thames. It formed part of 47th (London) Infantry Brigade (56th London Division/District).
See also 
- Levi, Wendell (1977). The Pigeon. Sumter, S.C.: Levi Publishing Co, Inc. ISBN 0-85390-013-2.
- D. Blechman, Andrew (2006). Pigeons: the fascinating saga of the world's most revered and reviled bird. New York: Grove Press. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0-8021-1834-8.
- Jackson, General Sir William & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:1986]. Butler, Sir James, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume VI: Victory in the Mediterranean, Part 2 – June to October 1944. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. p. 372. ISBN 1-84574-071-8.
- Beckett 2008, 180.
- Beckett 2008, 183, 185.
- National Archives