2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol)
Jump to: navigation, search
2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol
2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol
2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol
Identifiers
CAS number 75-89-8 YesY
PubChem 6409
ChemSpider 21106169 N
DrugBank DB03226
ChEBI CHEBI:42330 N
ChEMBL CHEMBL116675 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C2H3F3O
Molar mass 100.04 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 1.325±0.06 g/mL @ 20 °C, 760 Torr liquid
Melting point −43.5 °C (−46.3 °F; 229.7 K)
Boiling point 74.0 °C (165.2 °F; 347.1 K)
Solubility in water Miscible
Solubility in ethanol Miscible
Acidity (pKa) 12.46±0.10 Most Acidic Temp: 25 °C
Viscosity 0.9 cSt @ 37.78 °C
Thermochemistry
Std molar
entropy
So298
 ? J.K−1.mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
 ? kJ/mol
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
-886.6 kJ/mol
Hazards
EU classification Harmful (Xn)
R-phrases R10, R20/21/22, R36/38, R62
S-phrases S16, S36/37/39, S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Related alcohols Hexafluoro-2-propanol
Related compounds 1,1,1-Trifluoroethane
Trifluoroacetic acid
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol is the organic compound with the formula CF3CH2OH. Also known as TFE or trifluoroethyl alcohol, this colourless, water-miscible liquid has a smell reminiscent of ethanol. Due to the electronegativity of the trifluoromethyl group, this alcohol exhibits a stronger acidic character compared to ethanol. Thus, TFE forms stable complexes also with heterocycles (e.g. THF or pyridine) through hydrogen bonding.

Synthesis[edit]

Trifluoroethanol is produced industrially by hydrogenation or the hydride reduction of derivatives of trifluoroacetic acid, such as the esters or acid chloride.[1]

TFE can also be prepared by hydrogenolysis of compounds of generic formula CF3−CHOH−OR (where R is hydrogen or an alkyl group containing from one to eight carbon atoms), in the presence of a palladium containing catalyst deposited on activated charcoal.[citation needed] As a co-catalyst for this conversion tertiary aliphatic amines like triethylamine are commonly employed.

Uses[edit]

Trifluoroethanol is used as a solvent in organic chemistry.[2][3] Oxidations of sulfur compounds using hydrogen peroxide are effectively conducted in TFE.[4] It can also be used as a protein denaturant. In biology TFE is used as a co-solvent in protein folding studies with NMR spectroscopy: this solvent can effectively solubilize both peptides and proteins[citation needed]. Depending upon its concentration, TFE can strongly affect the three-dimensional structure of proteins.

Industrially trifluoroethanol is employed as a solvent for nylon as well as in applications of the pharmaceutical field.

Reactions[edit]

Oxidation of trifluoroethanol yields trifluoroacetaldehyde or trifluoroacetic acid. It also serves as a source of the trifluoromethyl group for various chemical reactions (Still-Gennari modification of HWE reaction).

2,2,2-trifluoro-1-vinyloxyethane, an inhaled drug introduced clinically under the tradename Fluromar, features a vinylether of trifluorethanol. This species was prepared by the reaction of trifluoroethanol with acetylene.[1]

Safety[edit]

Trifluoroethanol is classified as toxic to blood, the reproductive system, bladder, brain, upper respiratory tract and eyes.[5] Research has shown it to be a testicular toxicant in rats and dogs. [6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Günter Siegemund, Werner Schwertfeger, Andrew Feiring, Bruce Smart, Fred Behr, Herward Vogel, Blaine McKusick “Fluorine Compounds, Organic” Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
  2. ^ Bégué, J.-P.; Bonnet-Delpon, D.; Crousse, B. (2004). "Fluorinated Alcohols: A New Medium for Selective and Clean Reaction". Synlett (Review) (1): 18–29. doi:10.1055/s-2003-44973. 
  3. ^ Shuklov, Ivan A. ; Dubrovina, Natalia V.; Börner, Armin (2007). "Fluorinated Alcohols as Solvents, Cosolvents and Additives in Homogeneous Catalysis". Synthesis (Review) 2007 (19): 2925–2943. doi:10.1055/s-2007-983902. 
  4. ^ Kabayadi S. Ravikumar, Venkitasamy Kesavan, Benoit Crousse, Danièle Bonnet-Delpon, and Jean-Pierre Bégué (2003), "Mild and Selective Oxidation of Sulfur Compounds in Trifluorethanol: Diphenyl Disulfide and Methyle Phenyl Sulfoxide", Org. Synth. 80: 184 
  5. ^ Sciencelab MSDS
  6. ^ Fischer Scientific MSDS
  • United States Patent number 4,647,706 "Process for the synthesis of 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoroisopropanol"