2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire
The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire (Persian: جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران) consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy (Persian Empire) by Cyrus the Great. The intent of the celebration was to demonstrate Iran's long history and to showcase its contemporary advancements under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.
The planning for the event took more than a decade. The Cyrus Cylinder served in the official logo as the symbol for the event. With the decision to hold the main event at the ancient city Persepolis near Shiraz, the local infrastructure had to be improved including the airport at Shiraz and a highway to Persepolis. While the press and supporting staff would be housed in Shiraz, the main festivities were planned for Persepolis that for this occasion would be the site of an elaborate tent city. The area around Persepolis was cleared of snakes and other vermin. Other events were scheduled for Pasargadae, the site of the tomb of Cyrus the Great, and Tehran.
The Tent City of Persepolis
The Tent City (also Golden City) was planned by the Parisian interior-design firm of Maison Jansen on 160 acres (0.65 km2) that took its inspiration from the meeting between Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520. Fifty 'tents' (actually prefabricated luxury apartments with traditional Persian tent-cloth surrounds) were arranged in a star pattern around a central fountain, and vast numbers of trees were planted around them in the desert, recreating something of how the ancient Persepolis would have looked. Each tent had direct telephone and telex connections back to its respective country and the whole celebration was televised to the world by way of a satellite connection from the site. The large Tent of Honor was designed for the reception of the dignitaries. The Banqueting Hall was the largest structure and measured 68 by 24 meters. The tent site was surrounded by gardens of trees and other plants flown in from France and adjacent to the ruins of Persepolis. Catering services were provided by Maxim's de Paris, which closed its restaurant in Paris for almost two weeks in order to provide for the glittering celebrations. Legendary hotelier Max Blouet came out of retirement to supervise the banquet. Lanvin designed the uniforms of the Imperial Household. 250 red Mercedes-Benz limousines were used to chauffeur guests from the airport and back. Dinnerware was created by Limoges and linen by Porthault.
The festivities were opened on 12 October 1971 when the Shah and the Shahbanu paid homage to Cyrus the Great at his mausoleum at Pasargadae. For the next two days, the Shah and his wife greeted arriving guests, often directly at the Shiraz airport. On 14 October, a grand gala dinner took place in the Banqueting Hall in celebration of the birthday of the Shahbanu. Sixty members of royal families and heads of state were assembled at the single large serpentine table in the Banqueting Hall. The official toast was raised with a Dom Perignon Rosé 1959.
- quails' eggs stuffed with golden, Imperial Caspian caviar (the Shah had artichokes as he was allergic to caviar), Champagne and Château de Saran
- mousse of crayfish tails with Nantua sauce, Château Haut-Brion Blanc 1964
- roast saddle of lamb with truffles, Château Lafite Rothschild 1945
- champagne sorbet, Moët et Chandon 1911
- 50 roast peacocks—Iran's ancient national symbol—with restored tail feathers, stuffed with foie gras, accompanied by roast quails and a nut and truffle salad Musigny Conte de Vogué 1945
- glazed oporto ring of fresh figs with cream, raspberry champagne sherbet and port, Dom Perignon Rosé 1959 reserve vintage
- mocha coffee
- cognac Prince Eugène
Six hundred guests dined over five and a half hours thus making for the longest and most lavish official banquet in modern history as recorded in successive editions of the Guinness Book of World Records. A son et lumière show, the Polytope of Persepolis designed by Iannis Xenakis and accompanied by the specially-commissioned electronic music piece Persepolis concluded the evening. The next day saw a parade of armies of different Iranian empires covering two and half millennia by 1,724 men of the Iranian armed forces, all in period costume. In the evening a less formal "traditional Persian party" was held in the Banqueting Hall as the concluding event at Persepolis.
On the final day, the Shah inaugurated the Shahyad Tower (later renamed the Azadi Tower after the Iranian revolution) in Tehran to commemorate the event. The tower was also home to the Museum of Persian History. In it was displayed the Cyrus Cylinder, which the Shah promoted as "the first human rights charter in history". The cylinder was also the official symbol of the celebrations, and the Shah's first speech at Cyrus' tomb praised the freedom that it had proclaimed, two and a half millennia previously. The festivities were concluded with the Shah paying homage to his father, Reza Shah Pahlavi, at his mausoleum.
The event brought together the rulers of two of the oldest extant monarchies, the Shah and Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. By the end of the decade, both monarchies had ceased to exist. Orson Welles said of the event: "This was no party of the year, it was the celebration of 25 centuries!"
Security was a major concern. Persepolis was a favorable site for the festivities as it was isolated and thus could be tightly guarded, a very important consideration when many of the world's leaders were gathered there. Iran's security services, SAVAK, took into preventive custody anyone it suspected to be a potential troublemaker.
Critiques were voiced in the western press and by Khomeini and his followers – Khomeini called it the "Devil's Festival.". Expenses were said to be as high as $200 million, while the Ministry of the Court placed the cost at $17 million; Ansari, one of the organizers, puts it at $22 million. The actual figure is difficult to calculate exactly and is a partisan issue. The defenders of the activities point out other benefits such as the opening of 3,200 schools, improvements in infrastructure, and the positive effect on Iran's international public relations.
List of guests
Elizabeth II had been advised not to attend, with security being an issue. Prince Philip and Princess Anne represented her instead. Other major leaders who did not attend were Richard Nixon and Georges Pompidou. Nixon had initially planned to attend but later changed his mind and sent Spiro Agnew instead.
Some of the guests who were invited include:
Royals and viceroys
- Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia
- King Frederick IX and Queen Ingrid of Denmark
- King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola of the Belgians
- King Hussein and Princess Muna of Jordan
- King Mahendra and Queen Ratna of Nepal
- King Olav V of Norway
- Sheikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, Emir of Bahrain
- Sheikh Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani, Emir of Qatar
- Sheikh Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait
- King Constantine II and Queen Anne-Marie of the Hellenes
- Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said of Oman
- Prince Abdul Wali Khan and Princess Bilqis Begum of Afghanistan
- King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho
- Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tunku Abdul Halim of Malaysia
- Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan, President of the United Arab Emirates
- Prince Franz Josef II and Princess Georgina of Liechtenstein
- Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace of Monaco
- Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Josephine Charlotte of Luxembourg
- Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands
- Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Princess Anne of the United Kingdom
- Prince Aga Khan and Princess Begum Om Habibeh Aga Khan
- Crown Prince Carl Gustaf of Sweden
- Prince Juan Carlos and Princess Sofia of Spain
- Prince Victor Emmanuel and Princess Marina of Italy
- Prince Mikasa and Princess Mikasa of Japan
- Prince Bhanubandhu Yugala of Thailand
- Prince Moulay Abdallah and Princess Lamia of Morocco
- Prince Makhosini of Swaziland
- Governor General Roland Michener of Canada
- Governor-General Sir Paul Hasluck of Australia
Presidents and Prime Ministers
- President Josip Broz Tito and First Lady Jovanka Broz of Yugoslavia
- President Nikolai Podgorny of the Soviet Union
- President Franz Jonas of Austria
- President Todor Zhivkov of Bulgaria
- President Emílio Garrastazu Médici of Brazil
- President Urho Kekkonen of Finland
- President Cevdet Sunay of Turkey
- President Pal Losonczi of Hungary
- President Ludvík Svoboda of Czechoslovakia
- President Yahya Khan of Pakistan
- President Suleiman Franjieh of Lebanon
- President Jacobus Johannes Fouché of South Africa
- President Leopold Sedar Senghor of Senegal
- President V. V. Giri of India
- President Moktar Ould Daddah of Mauritania
- President Hubert Maga of Dahomey
- President Nicolae Ceauşescu and First Lady and Deputy Prime Minister Elena Ceaușescu of Romania
- President Joseph Mobutu of Zaire
- President Rudolf Gnägi of Switzerland
- Prime Minister Jacques Chaban-Delmas of France
- Prime Minister Kim Jong-pil of Republic of Korea
- Prime Minister Emilio Colombo of Italy
- Vice President Mieczysław Klimaszewski of Poland
- Vice President Spiro Agnew of the United States
- Vice President Guo Moruo of the People's Republic of China
- President of the Bundestag Kai-Uwe von Hassel of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Foreign Minister Rui Patrício of Portugal
- First Lady Imelda Marcos of the Philippines
- Cardinal Maximilien de Fürstenberg, representing the Holy See
Persepolis remains a major tourist attraction in Iran and apparently there are suggestions to rehabilitate the archeological site as it is a proclamation of Iranian history. In 2005, it was visited by nearly 35,000 people during the Iranian new year holiday.
The tent city remained operating until 1979 for private and government rent, when it was looted by locals after the Shah fled. The iron rods for the tents and roads for the festival area still remain and are open as a park, but there are no markers making any reference to what they were for. The rededicated Azadi Tower is a major landmark in Tehran. The mausoleum of Reza Shah Pahlavi was destroyed after the revolution and replaced by an Islamic religious school.
- Kadivar C (25 January 2002). "We are awake. 2,500-year celebrations revisited". Retrieved 23 October 2006.
- Van Kemenade, Willem (November 2009). "Iran's relations with China and the West". Clingendael. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- Karkowski, Z.; Harley, J.; Szymanksi, F.; Gable, B. (2002). "Liner Notes". Iannis Xenakis: Persepolis + Remixes. San Francisco: Asphodel LTD.
- "The Persepolis Celebrations". Retrieved 23 October 2006.
- British Museum explanatory notes, "Cyrus Cylinder": "For almost 100 years the cylinder was regarded as ancient Mesopotamian propaganda. This changed in 1971 when the Shah of Iran used it as a central image in his own propaganda celebrating 2500 years of Iranian monarchy. In Iran, the cylinder has appeared on coins, banknotes and stamps. Despite being a Babylonian document it has become part of Iran's cultural identity."
- Neil MacGregor, "The whole world in our hands", in Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy, and Practice, p. 383–4, ed. Barbara T. Hoffman. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-85764-3
- Tait, Robert (22 September 2005). "Iran to rebuild spectacular tent city at Persepolis". The Guardian (Persepolis). Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Iran Daily (23 June 2007). "Team Named For Renovating Persepolis". Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- 1971 Celebration of the Shah of Persia in Persepolis (ARTE Documentary Film)
- 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire on Facebook
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