|2000 : January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
|Centuries:||19th century – 20th century – 21st century|
|Decades:||1970s 1980s 1990s – 2000s – 2010s 2020s 2030s|
|Years:||1997 1998 1999 – 2000 – 2001 2002 2003|
|2000 by topic:|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Works and introductions categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2753|
|British Regnal year||48 Eliz. 2 – 49 Eliz. 2|
|Chinese calendar||己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
4696 or 4636
— to —
庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)
4697 or 4637
|- Vikram Samvat||2056–2057|
|- Shaka Samvat||1922–1923|
|- Kali Yuga||5101–5102|
|Japanese calendar||Heisei 12
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 89
|Thai solar calendar||2543|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2000.|
2000 (MM) was a century leap year starting on Saturday (link displays the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (dominical letter BA), the 2000th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1000th and last year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 2000s decade.
2000 was designated as:
The year 2000 was the first year of the 2000s decade. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium, due to a tendency to group the years according to decimal values, as if year zero were counted. According to the Gregorian Calendar these distinctions fall to the year 2001, because the 1st century was retroactively said to start with year AD 1. Since the calendar has no year zero, its first millennium spans from years 1 to 1000, inclusively, and its second millennium from years 1001 to 2000. (See more at Millennium.)
The "year 2000" is sometimes abbreviated as "Y2K" (the "Y" stands for "year", and the "K" stands for "kilo" which means "thousand"). The year 2000 was the subject of Y2K concerns: fears that computers would not shift from 1999 to 2000 correctly. However, by the end of 1999, many companies had already converted to new, or upgraded their existing software. Some even obtained Y2K certification. As a result of massive effort, much of it mis-directed, relatively few problems occurred.
- January 1 – New Zealand broadcasting on Chatham Island is watched worldwide to start millennium celebrations.
- January 3–January 10 – Israel and Syria hold inconclusive peace talks.
- January 5–January 8 – The 2000 al-Qaeda Summit of several high-level al-Qaeda members (including 2 9/11 American Airlines hijackers) is held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- January 6 – The last natural Pyrenean ibex is found dead, apparently killed by a falling tree.
- January 10 – America Online announces an agreement to purchase Time Warner for $162 billion (the largest-ever corporate merger).
- January 11
- The armed wing of the Islamic Salvation Front concludes its negotiations with the government for an amnesty and disbands in Algeria (see Algerian Civil War#GIA destroyed, GSPC discontinues).
- The trawler Solway Harvester sinks off the Isle of Man.
- January 14
- January 18 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth.
- January 24 – God's Army, a Karen militia group led by twins Johnny and Luther Htoo, takes 700 hostages at a Thai hospital near the Burmese border.
- January 30 – Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes off the coast of Côte d'Ivoire into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169.
- January 31
- February 4 – German extortionist Klaus-Peter Sabotta is jailed for life for attempted murder and extortion, in connection with the sabotage of German railway lines.
- February 6 – Tarja Halonen is elected the first female president of Finland.
- February 7 – Stipe Mesic is elected president of Croatia.
- February 8 – Radio broadcaster Bob Collins' plane collides with that of a student pilot over Zion, Illinois.
- February 9 – Torrential rains in Africa lead to the worst flooding in Mozambique in 50 years, which lasts until March and kills 800 people.
- February 13 – The final original Peanuts comic strip is published, following the death of its creator, Charles M. Schulz.
- February 21 – UNESCO holds the inaugural celebration of International Mother Language Day.
- February 29 – a rare century leap year date occurs. Usually, 00 years are not leap years due to not being exactly divisible by 400. 2000 is the first such year to have a February 29 since the year 1600, making it only the second such occasion since leap years were introduced in the late 16th century. The next such leap year will not occur until 2400.
- March 1
- March 4 – The PlayStation 2 is released in Japan. Several months later, it becomes the best-selling game console of all time.
- March 8 – Tokyo train disaster: A sideswipe collision of 2 Tokyo Metro trains kills 5 people.
- March 10 – The NASDAQ Composite Index reaches an all-time high of 5,048. Two weeks later, the NASDAQ-100, S&P 500, and Wilshire 5000 reach their peaks prior to the Dot-com bubble, ending a bull market run that lasted over 17 years.
- March 12 – Pope John Paul II apologizes for the wrongdoings by members of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the ages.
- March 13 – The United States dollar becomes the official currency of Ecuador, replacing the Ecuadorian sucre.
- March 21
- March 26
- March 27 – The Phillips explosion of 2000 kills 1 and injures 71 in Pasadena, Texas.
- March 28 – A tornado hits Fort Worth, Texas, damaging the downtown area.
- April 1 – The 2000 United States Census begins. 281,421,906 residents are living in the United States.
- April 3 – United States v. Microsoft: Microsoft is ruled to have violated United States antitrust laws by keeping "an oppressive thumb" on its competitors.
- April 16 – An American anti-globalization protest is held in Washington.
- April 17 – Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin becomes Raja of Perlis.
- April 22 – In a predawn raid, federal agents seize 6-year old Elián González from his relatives' home in Miami, Florida and fly him to his Cuban father in Washington, D.C., ending one of the most publicized custody battles in U.S. history.
- May – Sierra Leone Civil War: The British Armed Forces launch Operation Palliser to support the Sierra Leone government to counter the Revolutionary United Front.
- May 1 – A new class of composite material is fabricated, which has a combination of physical properties never before seen in a natural or man-made material.
- May 3 – In San Antonio, Texas, computer pioneer Datapoint files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
- May 4
- May 5 – A rare conjunction of 7 celestial bodies (Sun, Moon, planets Mercury–Saturn) occurs during the New Moon.
- May 11
- May 12 – The Tate Modern Gallery opens in London.
- May 13
- May 16 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey elects Ahmet Necdet Sezer as the tenth President of Turkey.
- May 17 – A bomb in Glorietta Mall in Makati City, Philippines injures 13.
- May 20 – Taiwanese (ROC) president Chen Shui-bian makes the Four Noes and One Without pledge to Taiwan.
- May 25 – Israel withdraws IDF forces from southern Lebanon after 22 years.
- June 4 – An earthquake hits Bengkulu, Indonesia, leaving 94 dead.
- June 5 – 405 The Movie, the first short film widely distributed on the Internet, is released.
- June 13 – South Korean President Kim Dae-jung visits North Korea to participate in the first North-South presidential summit.
- June 17 – A centennial earthquake (6.5 on the Richter scale) hits Iceland on its national day.
- June 21 – Section 28, a law preventing the promotion of homosexuality, is repealed by the Scottish Parliament.
- June 26 – A preliminary draft of genomes, as part of the Human Genome Project, is finished. It is announced at the White House by President Clinton.
- June 28 – Elian Gonzalez returns to Cuba with his father, Juan Miguel Gonzalez, ending a protracted custody battle.
- June 30 – At the Roskilde Festival near Copenhagen, Denmark, 9 die and 26 are injured on a set while the rock group Pearl Jam performs.
- July 1 – Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden opens.
- July 2
- France defeats Italy 2-1 after extra time in the final of the European Championships, becoming the first team to win the World Cup and European Championships consecutively.
- Vicente Fox is elected President of Mexico, as candidate of the rightist PAN (National Action Party), ending 71 years of PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) rule.
- July 10
- July 13–July 25 – Israel's prime minister Ehud Barak and PLO leader Yasser Arafat meet at Camp David, but fail to reach an agreement.
- July 14 – A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth.
- July 18 – Alex Salmond resigns as the leader of the Scottish National Party.
- July 21–July 23 – G-8 Nations hold their 26th Annual Summit; issues include AIDS, the 'digital divide', and halving world poverty by 2015.
- July 25 – Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde aircraft, crashes into a hotel in Gonesse just after takeoff from Paris, killing all 109 aboard and 4 in the hotel.
- July 30 – Venezuela's president Hugo Chávez is reelected with 59% of the vote.
- July 31-August 3 – The Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania nominates George W. Bush for President of the United States and Dick Cheney for Vice President.
- August 3 – Rioting erupts on the Paulsgrove estate in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, after more than 100 people besiege the home of a block of flats allegedly housing a convicted paedophile. This is the latest vigilante violence against suspected sex offenders since the beginning of the "naming and shaming" anti-paedophile campaign by the tabloid newspaper News of the World.
- August 8 – The Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor.
- August 12 – The Russian submarine Kursk sinks in the Barents Sea during one of the largest Russian naval exercises since the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, resulting in the deaths of all 118 men on board.
- August 14
- August 14–August 17 – The Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles nominates U.S. Vice President Al Gore for President and Senator Joe Lieberman for Vice President.
- August 23 – John Anthony Kaiser, a Roman Catholic priest, is murdered in Morendat, Kenya.
- August 24 – The Nintendo GameCube is revealed.
- September 5 – Tuvalu joins the United Nations.
- September 6 – The last wholly Swedish-owned arms manufacturer, Bofors, is sold to American arms manufacturer United Defense.
- September 6–September 8 – World leaders attend the Millennium Summit at U.N. Headquarters.
- September 7–September 14 – The UK fuel protests take place, with refineries blockaded, and supply to the country's network of petrol stations halted.
- September 8
- September 15–October 1 – The 2000 Summer Olympics are held in Sydney, Australia.
- September 16
- September 26
- September 28 – Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount, protected by a several-hundred-strong Israeli police force. Palestinian riots erupt, leading to a full-fledged armed uprising (called the Al-Aqsa Intifada by sympathizers and the Oslo War by opponents).
- September 29 – The Long Kesh prison in Northern Ireland is closed.
- October 1 – The 2000 Summer Olympics close in Sydney, Australia.
- October 5 – President Slobodan Milošević leaves office after widespread demonstrations throughout Serbia.
- October 6 – The last Mini is produced in Longbridge.
- October 11
- October 12 – In Aden, Yemen, USS Cole is badly damaged by two Al-Qaeda suicide bombers, who place a small boat laden with explosives alongside the United States Navy destroyer, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.
- October 21 – Fifteen Arab leaders convene in Cairo, Egypt, for their first summit in 4 years; the Libyan delegation walks out, angry over signs the summit will stop short of calling for breaking ties with Israel.
- October 22 – The Mainichi Shimbun newspaper exposes Japanese archeologist Shinichi Fujimura as a fraud; Japanese archaeologists had based their treatises on his findings.
- October 23 – Madeleine Albright holds talks with North Korean dictator Kim Jong-il.
- October 26 – Pakistani authorities announce that their police have found an apparently ancient mummy of a Persian Princess in the province of Balochistan. Iran, Pakistan and the Taliban all claim the mummy until Pakistan announces it is a modern-day fake on April 17, 2001.
- October 27
- October 30 – This is the final date during which there is no human presence in space; on October 31, Soyuz TM-31 launches, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The ISS has been continuously crewed since.
- October 31 – Singapore Airlines Flight 006 collides with construction equipment in the Chiang Kai Shek International Airport, resulting in 83 deaths.
- November – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq rejects new U.N. Security Council weapons inspections proposals.
- November 1 - Serbia is admitted to the United Nations as the 190th member.
- November 2 – The first resident crew enters the International Space Station.
- November 3 – Widespread flooding occurs throughout England and Wales after days of heavy rain.
- November 7
- In London, a criminal gang raids the Millennium Dome to steal the Millennium Star diamond, but police surveillance catches them in the act.
- Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first First Lady of the United States to win public office.
- United States presidential election, 2000: Republican Governor of Texas George W. Bush defeats Democratic Vice President Al Gore in the U.S. presidential election but there is a miscount in Florida resulting in a recount of the votes.
- November 11 – Kaprun disaster, Austria: A funicular fire in an Alpine tunnel kills 155 skiers and snowboarders.
- November 15 – A new Indian state called Jharkhand is formed, carving out the South Chhota Nagpur area from Bihar in India.
- November 16 – Bill Clinton becomes the first sitting U.S. President to visit Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.
- November 17
- November 27 – Jean Chrétien is re-elected as Prime Minister of Canada, as the Liberal Party of Canada increases its majority in the House of Commons of Canada.
- November 28 – Ukrainian politician Oleksandr Moroz touches off the Cassette Scandal by publicly accusing President Leonid Kuchma of involvement in the murder of journalist Georgiy Gongadze. The accusation creates the Orange Revolution in 2004.
- December 1 – Vicente Fox takes office as President of Mexico.
- December 12 – Bush v. Gore: The U.S. Supreme Court stops the Florida presidential recount, effectively giving the state, and the Presidency, to George W. Bush.
- December 15
- December 24 – Christmas Eve 2000 Indonesia bombings: 18 people are killed in multiple Islamist bomb attacks on churches across Indonesia.
- December 25 – A shopping center fire at Luoyang, Henan, China, kills 309.
- December 30 – Rizal Day bombings: A series of bombs explode in various places in Metro Manila, Philippines, within a span of a few hours, killing 22 and injuring about 100.
- December 31 – The Millennium Dome closes its doors one year to the day of its opening.
- January 8 – Noah Cyrus, American actress
- February 5 – Jordan Nagai, American actor
- March 27 – Sophie Nélisse, Canadian actress
- April 6 – CJ Adams, American actor
- April 9 – Jackie Evancho, American soprano
- April 11 – Morgan Lily, American actress
- June 1 – Willow Shields, American actress
- September 28 – Frankie Jonas, American actor
- October 31 – Willow Smith, American actress and singer
- November 8 – Jasmine Thompson, British singer
- November 10 – Mackenzie Foy, American model and actress
- November 20 – Connie Talbot, British singer
- January 2 – Patrick O'Brian, English writer (b. 1914)
- January 15 – Željko Ražnatović, Serbian mobster and paramilitary leader (b. 1952)
- January 18 – Frances Drake, American actress (b. 1912)
- January 19
- January 20 – Izabella Yurieva, Russian singer (b. 1899)
- January 24 – Rex Nelon, American Southern Gospel singer (b. 1932)
- February 5
- February 7
- February 8
- February 9 – Beau Jack, American boxer (b. 1921)
- February 10 – Jim Varney, American actor noted for his character, Ernest P. Worrell (b. 1949)
- February 11 – Roger Vadim, French film director and producer (b. 1928)
- February 12
- February 13 – Anders Aalborg, Canadian politician (b. 1914)
- February 19 – Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Austrian artist (b. 1928)
- February 23
- March 3 – Toni Ortelli, Italian composer and alpinist (b. 1904)
- March 7 – Charles Gray, English actor (b. 1928)
- March 9 – Jean Coulthard, Canadian composer and music educator (b. 1908)
- March 11 – Alfred Schwarzmann, German Olympic gymnast (b. 1912)
- March 27 – Ian Dury, English singer, songwriter (b. 1942)
- March 28 – Anthony Powell, British author (b. 1905)
- March 30 – Rudolf Kirchschläger, former President of Austria (b. 1915)
- April 2 – Tommaso Buscetta, Sicilian mafioso informant (b. 1928)
- April 3 – Terence McKenna, writer, philosopher, writer and entheogen advocate (b. 1946)
- April 4 – Derek Allhusen, British equestrian (b. 1914)
- April 5 – Lee Petty, American race-car driver (b. 1914)
- April 6 – Habib Bourguiba, Tunisian politician, 1st President of Tunisia (b. 1903)
- April 8 – Bernie Grant, British Labour MP (b. 1944)
- April 10 – Rabah Bitat, former President of Algeria (b. 1925)
- April 11 – Diana Darvey, British actress, singer and dancer (b. 1945)
- April 14 – Phil Katz, American computer programmer (b. 1962)
- April 15 – Edward Gorey, American writer and illustrator (b. 1925)
- April 25 – David Merrick, American stage producer (b. 1911)
- April 29 – Phạm Văn Đồng, Vietnamese politician, Prime Minister of Vietnam (b. 1906)
- May 1
- May 7 – Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., American actor (b. 1909)
- May 8 – Maria Do Carmo Geronimo, The last Brazilian slave who claimed to be 129 before she died (b. 1871)
- May 10
- May 11 – René Muñoz, Cuban actor, screenwriter of telenovelas and the cinema of Mexico (b. 1938)
- May 12 – Adam Petty, American NASCAR driver (b. 1980)
- May 13 – Tomomi Tsuruta, Japanese professional wrestler, better known as Jumbo Tsuruta (b. 1951)
- May 14 – Keizō Obuchi, Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1937)
- May 20 – Edward Bernds, American director (b. 1905)
- May 21
- May 25 – Francis Lederer, film and stage actor (b. 1899)
- May 27
- May 30 – Doris Hare, English actress, well known for her role in the 1970s comedy, On the Buses (b. 1905)
- May 31 – Tito Puente, American jazz musician (b. 1923)
- June 10
- June 14 – Robert Trent Jones, English-born golf course designer (b. 1906)
- June 16 – Empress Kōjun of Japan (b. 1903)
- June 17 – Ismail Mahomed, South African and Namibian Chief Justice (b. 1931)
- June 19 – Noboru Takeshita, former Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1924)
- June 21 – Alan Hovhaness, American composer (b. 1911)
- June 24 – David Tomlinson, English actor (b. 1917)
- June 27 – Pierre Pflimlin, French politician (b. 1907)
- June 29 – Vittorio Gassman, Italian actor (b. 1922)
- July 1 – Walter Matthau, American actor (b. 1920)
- July 6 – Lazar Koliševski, 2nd President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (b. 1914)
- July 7 – James C. Quayle, American newspaper publisher (b. 1921)
- July 8 – FM-2030, Transhumanist philosopher (b. 1930)
- July 10
- July 11 – Robert Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1921)
- July 12 – Charles Merritt, Canadian Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross during World War II (b. 1908)
- July 15 – Kalle Svensson, Swedish footballer (b. 1925)
- July 21 – Yosef Qafih, Israeli rabbiYemenite Jewish (b. 1917)
- July 28 – Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (b. 1918)
- July 29 – René Favaloro, Argentinian cardiologist who created the technique for coronary bypass surgery (b. 1923)
- August 5
- August 6 – Sir Robin Day, British political broadcaster (b. 1923)
- August 9 – John Harsanyi, Hungarian-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1920)
- August 12
- August 13 – Nazia Hassan, Pakistani singer (b. 1964)
- August 19 – Bineshwar Brahma, Bodo activist and leader (b. 1946)
- August 21 – Daniel Lisulo, Zambian politician (b. 1930)
- August 25 – Carl Barks, American cartoonist and screenwriter (b. 1901)
- August 26 – Bunny Austin, English tennis player (b. 1906)
- September 2
- September 14 – Beah Richards, American actress (b. 1920)
- September 16 – Georgiy Gongadze, Ukrainian journalist (b. 1969)
- September 19 – Anthony Robert Klitz, British artist (b 1917)
- September 22 – Saburō Sakai, Japanese fighter ace (b. 1916)
- September 25 – R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (b. 1913)
- September 26 – Richard Mulligan, American actor (b. 1932)
- September 27 – Sammy Luftspring, Canadian boxer (b. 1916)
- September 28
- October 3 – Benjamin Orr, American singer-songwriter, guitarist and singer for the band The Cars (b. 1947)
- October 4 – Michael Smith, English-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1932)
- October 6 – Richard Farnsworth, American actor (b. 1920)
- October 7 – Walter Krupinski, German World War II fighter ace and postwar general (b. 1920)
- October 8 – Sheila Holland (Sheila Coates, Charlotte Lamb, Sheila Lancaster, Victoria Wolf, Laura Hardy), English writer (b. 1937)
- October 9 – Patrick Anthony Porteous, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (b. 1918)
- October 13
- October 15 – Konrad Emil Bloch, German-born biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
- October 18 – Julie London, American singer and actress (b. 1926)
- October 21 – Reginald Kray, leading figure in organised crime in London, UK (b. 1933)
- October 23 – Rodney Anoa'i, American wrestler known as Yokozuna (b. 1966)
- October 27 – Walter Berry, Austrian bass-baritone (b. 1929)
- October 29 – Andújar Cedeño, Dominican Major League Baseball player for the Houston Astros (b. 1969)
- October 30 – Steve Allen, American comedian, composer, talk show host, and author (b. 1921)
- October 31 – Ring Lardner, Jr., American screenwriter, one of the Hollywood Ten (b. 1915)
- November 2 – Eva Morris, last surviving person documented as born in 1885 (b. 1885)
- November 5
- November 6 – L. Sprague de Camp, American writer (b. 1907)
- November 7
- November 11 – Hugh Paddick, British actor (b. 1915)
- November 16 – DJ Screw, American hip hop DJ (b. 1971)
- November 22
- November 28 – Liane Haid, Austrian actress (b. 1895)
- December 2 – Gail Fisher, American actress (b. 1935)
- December 3 – Gwendolyn Brooks, African American-writer (b. 1917)
- December 10
- December 19 – Roebuck "Pops" Staples, patriarch of The Staple Singers (b. 1914)
- December 18 – Kirsty MacColl, English singer (b. 1959)
- December 23
- December 26 – Jason Robards, American actor (b. 1922)
- December 30 – Julius J. Epstein, American screenwriter (b. 1909)
- Chemistry – Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa
- Economics – James Heckman and Daniel McFadden
- Literature – Gao Xingjian
- Peace – Kim Dae Jung
- Physics – Zhores Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, and Jack Kilby
- Physiology or Medicine – Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric Kandel
- International Year for the Culture of Peace (2000)
- Isaak Newton Maths posters in the London Underground
- "Y2K, After the Hype". CalendarHome.com. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- By TINA KELLEYPublished: December 27, 1999 (1999-12-27). "'Y2K' Stands for the Year 2000. Now That Wasn't Really Difficult, Was It? - New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- BBC News | SCOTLAND | Solway Harvester: A tale of tragedy. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- CNN.com – World – War crimes tribunal hands Croat general lengthy sentence – March 3, 2000. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Fifth Anniversary: Nasdaq's record all-time closing high 5,048.62. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Smith, D. R.; Padilla, WJ; Vier, DC; Nemat-Nasser, SC; Schultz, S (2000). "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity". Physical Review Letters 84 (18): 4184–7. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84.4184S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4184. PMID 10990641.
- McDonald, Kim (2000-03-21). "UCSD Physicists Develop a New Class of Composite Material with 'Reverse' Physical Properties Never Before Seen". UCSD Science and Engineering. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
- "Planetary Alignment of 5 May 2000". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- India:1 billion population marks milestone
- Baby girl gives India 1 billion
- "PRESIDENT CLINTON ANNOUNCES THE COMPLETION OF THE FIRST SURVEY OF THE ENTIRE HUMAN GENOME". The White House. 2000-06-25. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- World Population Prospects. Retrieved 19 November 2007.