2000–09 in fashion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Young women in Portugal with straightened hair and thick makeup, 2007.

The 2000s fashion are often described as being a "mash-up",[1] where trends saw the fusion of previous styles, global and ethnic clothing (e.g. boho), as well as the fashions of numerous music-based subcultures, especially hip-hop, emo, and indie-pop. Several late 1990s fashions remained relevant in the early 2000s among both genders worldwide. For the most part, the mid-late 2000s did not have one particular style but recycled vintage clothing styles from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s and 1980s.

Despite the numerous and mixed fashion trends of the 2000s, items of clothing which were predominant or popular throughout the decade among women include Ugg boots,[2] High-tops, hoodies, and skinny jeans.[3] Globalization also influenced the decade's clothing trends, with the incorporation of Middle Eastern and Asian dress into mainstream European, American and Australasian fashion.[4] Furthermore, eco-friendly and ethical clothing, such as recycled fashions and fake fur, were prominent in the decade.[5]

The leading fashion designers between 2000–2009 included the late Alexander McQueen, Vera Wang, Christian Louboutin, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Vivienne Westwood,[6] and Karl Lagerfeld.[7] The top supermodels of the decade were Kate Moss, Gisele Bündchen,[8] Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, Heidi Klum, Naomi Campbell, Tyra Banks, Karolína Kurková, Miranda Kerr, Izabel Goulart, Selita Ebanks, Christie Brinkley, Christy Turlington, Linda Evangelista, Marisa Miller, Doutzen Kroes, Agyness Deyn, Hilary Rhoda, Raquel Zimmermann, Coco Rocha, Lily Donaldson, Chanel Iman, Sasha Pivovarova, Caroline Trentini, and Jessica Stam.[9]

Women's fashion[edit]

German woman wearing hot pants, popular from 2001-2008.

Early 2000s[edit]

Y2K Era Minimalism[edit]

  • The 2000s started off with a futuristic twist to fashion, largely stemming from excitement as it was the beginning of a new millennium. The year 2000, and most of 2001, had featured what is known as "Y2K fashion", with metallics, shiny blacks, straps, and buckles becoming commonplace. Silver and black clothing became the norm during this time. When the original iPod was introduced in 2001, the earbuds, as well as the gadget itself, became somewhat of an accessory for early adopters.[10]
  • The fashion world changed drastically as 9/11 occurred, perhaps almost overnight. The innovative fashions of the Y2K era had lost it's appeal in favor of more conventional, conservative clothing, such as jeans. This led to the mass acceptance of denim, arguably more so than in previous decades. Around this time, the low rise jean had been introduced in America, and the flare leg remained the most popular pant style, carrying on from the Y2K era. Perhaps in reaction to the glossy, dark, futuristic fashions that were so popular just shortly before, heavily distressed denim became ubiquitous, purposely looking old and worn out.[11]

Casual Chic[edit]

Mid 2000s[edit]

Zooey Deschanel wearing 1960s inspired Boho-chic dress.

Boho and Vintage[edit]

  • In 2005, skinny jeans were reintroduced to the mainstream. At first, they were not well received by the public, and bootcut jeans continued to be popular. Skinny jeans were sold exclusively on the internet in their first year of introduction, and were not sold in shopping malls. However, by spring 2006, skinny jeans had increased in sales by 80% from summer 2005, hence 2006 being their mainstream breakthrough. It was around this time that skinny jeans had started to become available in retail, and even more conservative clothing stores had started carrying the jeans.[13]
  • Throughout the mid 2000s, many early 2000s fashions remained relevant, albeit with a newer twist. The biggest trends of 2004 had all started in the early 2000s. This included uggs, ruffled miniskirts, velour tracksuits, trucker hats, pointed toe heels, graphic tee shirts, and the boho chic.[14]
  • Other popular mid 2000s trends were lycra yoga wear, knee-high boots with pointed toes, 1960s style trenchcoats and peacoats, tunics worn with wide or thin belts, capri pants, longer tank tops worn with a main blouse or shirt, 1940s inspired New Look dresses and sandals,[15] leggings, and "vintage clothing" including hippie and Boho inspired dresses with paisley patterns. Crocs were a brief fad for both sexes in the summer of 2006, despite their kitsch connotations.[16][17][18]
  • The canary yellow dress Reese Witherspoon wore to the Golden Globes helped establish that hue as a signature color in 2007.[19] Around this time, it was also popular for women to wear short 1960s style cocktail dresses, especially the LBD.

Eastern and Fairtrade Fashion[edit]

Late 2000s[edit]

Young woman wearing sundress and Christian Louboutin shoes.

1980s Revival[edit]

  • Beginning in 2006, men and women's fashion was influenced by 1980s punk, especially acid wash skinny jeans, bright neon colors, fishnet stockings, and jackets customised with metal studs. Shirts and jeans featured ripped fabric held together by an array of safety pins and leather jackets made a comeback. Celebrities sporting the look included singers, Madonna[28] and Mariah Carey. By 2008, this look had gone mainstream due to the popularity of indie pop influenced by rave and New Wave music. This second, larger wave incorporated more general items of 80s streetwear, like animal print headbands, denim-print jeggings, knitted sweater dresses, Nike Tempo shorts, wonderbra and sloggi underwear, geometric pattern tops, slap bracelets, ballet flats, black spandex leggings, and light, translucent tartan shirts worn with a camisole underneath. Long, baggy empire line shirts were taken in at the bustline and often paired with a belt. Fur coats made a comeback, although many women used "fish fur" due to real fur's association with animal cruelty.[29]

Activist Chic[edit]

Men's fashion[edit]

Early 2000s[edit]

Three button business suit commonly worn in the UK, France and the US until the late 2000s.

Y2K Era and Leisurewear[edit]

  • At the very beginning of the decade, the excitement of entering the new millennium had become evident in the fashion in the first couple of years. This became known as the "Y2K Era", where normal articles of clothing (pants, shirts, jackets, tracksuits, etc.) were made in slinky blacks, metallics, silvers, and whites. It lasted until late 2001.[10]
  • Generally, the early 2000s saw the continuation of the late 1990s fashion of wearing sportswear as everyday clothes, including tracksuits,[32] light-colored polo shirts[33] (sometimes striped), white Adidas or Nike trainers, cargo pants with zip-off legs, rugby shirts,[34] and baseball caps bearing the logos of football, soccer, basketball, and baseball teams.[35] Practical hiking jackets (of the type made by Berghaus), fleeces, puffer jackets, and padded tartan lumberjack-type shirts were worn as winter outerwear, with functionality taking precedence over aesthetics.[34]

Mass Acceptance of Denim[edit]

  • After the events of 9/11, fashion became more conservative, effectively forgoing the futuristic styles of before. The general public had started to yearn for American-made clothing that they were going to wear more often. Distressed denim made a comeback, with sandblasted highlights and whiskering becoming extremely popular. A lower rise jean had become popular during this part of the decade, forgoing the high waisted styles of the 1990s.[11]


Mid 2000s[edit]

1960s revival[edit]

Winklepicker boots fashionable in England, Italy and Mexico from 2005 onwards.

Business Suits[edit]

Late 2000s[edit]

Example of the two button slim-fit suit popular from the late 2000s onwards in the UK, US and China.
Converse All Stars with Ed Hardy style graphic, popular in the US from 2008 onwards.

Throwback fashions[edit]

Ed Hardy[edit]

  • Due to the mainstream acceptance of body modification, T shirts, baseball caps and hoodies featuring vintage tattoo designs were desirable items in the US, Britain and India, where they were worn with black leather jackets, gold chains, and dark slim-fit jeans.[66] V neck Ed Hardy T-shirts, often embellished with rhinestones, were fashionable from 2008 until the mid-2010s, when they fell out of favour due to their unintended popularity among young clubgoers stereotyped for being thugs, jocks or guidos.[67]

Slim-fit suits[edit]

  • In the European workplace, the cut of suits changed, as the three buttoned jackets popular in the 1990s were replaced with suits comprising a two-buttoned blazer and matching trousers[68] while in the US the power suit made a comeback.[69] Single-breasted European suits sometimes featured contrasting Edwardian style piping on the lapels and were often worn with slim ties and waistcoats.[70]

Youth fashion[edit]

Youth fashion was strongly influenced by many music-based subcultures such as Emo, Indie kids, scene kids,[71] Psychobilly, Preppy, Skater, Goth, Nu-Metal (known as Moshers in the UK),[72] ravers and Hip-Hop,[73] including the British chav, US gangsta rapper and Mexican Cholo styles of the early 2000s.[74]


Chavs and Moshers[edit]

Nu-Metal, Rave and Goth[edit]

Psychobilly and Rockabilly[edit]

Indie and Emo[edit]

Russian hipsters wearing vintage clothings influenced by indie rock and rockabilly, late 2000s.

Scene Kids[edit]

Hair and makeup of the 2000s[edit]

Bob cut popular in Europe from 2003-2009.

Women's hairstyles[edit]

In the early 2000s, women's hair was long and straight. From 1995 until 2007 it was fashionable for women to have dyed highlights and lowlights with red, blonde or light brown streaks, reaching its peak in the early 2000s. During this time, bold, unblended highlights called "chunky highlights" burst onto the scene. This trend was started by Kelly Clarkson in 2002 during her time on American Idol. They lasted from 2002 to 2006. [108] The trend for highlighted hair became so popular that men actually adopted the look.

Another popular look throughout the decade was the braid, rejuvenated by the likes of Alicia Keys and Lauren Conrad. Throughout the decade braids and plaits would often be meticulously put in intricate patterns and would purposely be styled as a way to blend in better with the boho look.[108]

In mid-late 2000s, dark haired women (and even light-haired ones) favored the jet black hair, as worn by Katy Perry or Amy Winehouse with her trademark beehive hairstyle. Textured hair with volume, natural wavy hair, the bob cut, and side-swept bangs become popular from 2007 onwards in both Britain and the USA.

In 2009, many women sought to imitate the hairstyle Kate Gosselin had that year, briefly bringing back blended highlights into the mainstream. This look ended up only being a fad.[108]

For black women, cornrows, dreadlocks and curly weaves were popular until the late 2000s, when tamed-down versions of the Afro, Jheri curl and short pixie cuts were popularized by artists like Janet Jackson and Rihanna.

Men's hairstyles[edit]

1950s inspired haircut worn by many British men from 2008 onwards.

For men aged 25–40, shorter hair styles that usually took the form of a quiff were fashionable in the early 2000s, although collar-length centrally parted curtained hair (as worn by Tom Cruise) was also briefly popular in the US and remains so in Japan. In the first half of the 2000s, the metrosexual look was very popular among young American men, with hairstyles such as the fauxhawk. A clean-shaven face was heavily favored during this time, and can contribute to making an adult man look underage, which may be the reason why the look was so commonplace. Another common haircut was the spiky hair with frosted tips,[108] popularized by boybands and pop punk bands from around 1997 to about 2006.

Dark haired men often had dyed-blonde weaves and streaks until the late 2000s where dark natural hair became the norm again. In America, the fauxhawk, Buzzcut, and spiked hair were popular among young men aged 18–25 emulating their favorite hardcore punk bands.

In the UK, long, shaggy Mod or surfer hair and Bed head became popular among many young men between 2003–2006 as many bands moved away from punk rock and rap metal in favor of a 1960s inspired indie or garage rock sound pioneered by groups like The Strokes, Jet, The Killers, The Hives, The Vines, Coldplay, and The White Stripes.

By the late 2000s, many young British men opted for a clean-cut 1950s inspired hairstyle, kept in place with pomade.[109] Shaved and bald hairstyles along with beards, moustaches, stubble, sideburns, and the goatee became popular in Europe and North America in reaction to the effeminate early 2000s metrosexual look, with charitable events like Movember further increasing their acceptability.[110]

Teenage hairstyles[edit]

For teenagers, short haircuts like spiky hair, dyed hair, the buzzcut and Caesar cut were popular in the early 2000s. Girls favored straight hair extensions, large hoop earrings and fake tan makeup.

In the mid-2000s, longer hair became popular in the UK and America, including the wings haircut inspired by surfers, the 1960s Mod subculture, and British indie pop stars.[111] Many girls favored straight or wavy hair in natural brown, often tied into a ponytail and incorporating long bangs or a fringe.

In the late 2000s, the androgynous Harajuku inspired scene hairstyles (often dyed bright colors) and eyeliner were popular among girls and boys alike: first in Japan, and later in the US and Europe.[112] As an alternative to the scene hairstyles, many teenage girls in the US and Australasia opted for a preppy hairstyle that involved long, straight hair, side-swept bangs and a side part, while boys wore side-swept surfer hair.[113]

Tattoos and Piercings[edit]

The 2000s continued the trend of tattoos and piercings among both genders which had began in the 1990s. In the early 2000s, popular tattoos included tramp stamps, tribal arm tattoos, and more. In the early 2000s, navel piercings reached their peak, as did tongue rings. Other popular piercings throughout the decade in general include nostril piercings, labret piercings, nipple piercings, and eyebrow piercings. Piercings in general continued to be popular in the mid 2000s until they began their decline from 2007 onwards.[108]


A selection of images related to the period.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rindfuss, Bryan (30 December 2009). "San Antonio Current". Sacurrent.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  2. ^ Love this 10 (28 December 2009). "Fashion trends 2000–2009". Emergingfervour.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Feldman, Jenny. "10 best fashion trends". Glamour.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  4. ^ Rindfuss, Bryan (30 December 2009). "Arts: What ought to wear, San Antionio Current". Sacurrent.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Rindfuss, Bryan (30 December 2009). "Arts: What ought to wear, San Antonio Current". Sacurrent.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Barcelona 2012. Thebrandery.com.
  7. ^ Karl Lagerfeld Interview
  8. ^ Forbes Magazine top earning models. Forbes.com (19 July 2007).
  9. ^ Vogue's ten covergirls. Style.com (14 September 2012).
  10. ^ a b Brillson, Leila (26 February 2013). "Millennial Trends - Clothing Popular in the 2000s". refinery29.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Brillson, Leila (26 February 2013). "Millennial Trends - Clothing Popular in the 2000s". refinery29.com. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  12. ^ Kays Catalog
  13. ^ "Skinny legs and all: Jeans get slender". usatoday. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "2014 Fashion Trends: Do The Biggest Trends Of 2004 Still Hold Up? (PHOTOS)". huffingtonpost. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  15. ^ Tortora, Phyllis G. and Keith Eubank. Survey of Historic Costume. 4th Edition, 2005. Fairchild Publications.
  16. ^ Madden, Mike (27 July 2009). "Admit it – you used to wear Crocs – The Brand Graveyard". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2010. 
  17. ^ Luscombe, Belinda (10 July 2008). "10 Questions for Tim Gunn". Time Magazine. Retrieved 25 June 2010. 
  18. ^ Oloffson, Kristi (27 May 2010). "The 50 Worst Inventions". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2010. 
  19. ^ "The Best of 2007: Reese Witherspoon". InStyle. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  20. ^ "Deepika always wanted to wear saree at international do". Movies.ndtv.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  21. ^ ""Ravan's star-studded premiere in London," ''The Indian Express''". The Indian Express. India. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "Saree jahan se achha, ''The Times of India''". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "Firang babes in saree-Ashley Judd". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "Ashley Judd Is So Very Sari". TMZ. 28 May 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  25. ^ "Around the world in 9 yards". Hindustan Times. India. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  26. ^ PTI (14 May 2010). ""Deepika walks Cannes red carpet in saree," ''The Hindu''". The Hindu. India. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  27. ^ Contemporary southwestern jewelery. Books.google.co.uk.
  28. ^ Quitkin, Megan. (8 December 2000) Safety First. Ew.com.
  29. ^ fake or real fur?. Slate.com.
  30. ^ "The Last Keffiyeh Factory In Palestine". Palestinemonitor.org. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  31. ^ Che chic
  32. ^ BBC Inside Out – Charvers Webchat" BBC Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  33. ^ 2001 summer fashion. Uk.askmen.com.
  34. ^ a b c Fall 2001. Uk.askmen.com.
  35. ^ Seattle Post Intelligencer. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2009
  36. ^ Winter style 2002. Uk.askmen.com.
  37. ^ Fall 2001 fashion
  38. ^ "If it's cool, creative and different, it's indie" . Edition.cnn.com. CNN.com . Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  39. ^ 2004 fall fashion. Uk.askmen.com.
  40. ^ Summer 2003 trends. Uk.askmen.com.
  41. ^ 2004 trends. Uk.askmen.com.
  42. ^ "Ralph Lauren Western shirt". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  43. ^ Karin Eldor. "Western shirts, Spring 2005". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  44. ^ Nehru Suit on BBC News. Bbc.co.uk (13 January 2012).
  45. ^ Summer 2003. Uk.askmen.com.
  46. ^ Fall fashions, 2005. Uk.askmen.com.
  47. ^ 2004 trends. Uk.askmen.com.
  48. ^ Mens fashions, fall 2005. Uk.askmen.com.
  49. ^ Leather coats. Uk.askmen.com.
  50. ^ Tweed jacket, 2004. Uk.askmen.com.
  51. ^ Farah Averill. "Top 10 hype worthy 2009 fashion trends". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  52. ^ Farah Averill. "Jay-Z: Style icon". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  53. ^ Jackets for fall 2007. Uk.askmen.com.
  54. ^ Anyiam, Thony C. (2007), Jumping the Broom in Style, Authorhouse, ISBN 1-4259-8638-2.
  55. ^ Mens beachwear
  56. ^ Ski jackets, fall 2009. Uk.askmen.com.
  57. ^ Brandon Dyce. "Denim labels you should own". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  58. ^ Farah Averill. "Jeans for Fall 2009 on Askmen". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  59. ^ Brandon Dyce. "2008 sunglasses". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  60. ^ Michael A. Lubarsky. "2008 winter overcoats". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  61. ^ Michael A. Lubarsky. "Throwback writstwatches". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  62. ^ ["Bang Face – The Rebirth of Rave, Part One" Rave Talk Retrieved 2008-10-18.
  63. ^ [Susan Wloszczyna and Ann Oldenburg, USA TODAY. "USATODAY.com – Geek chic" USA Today. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
  64. ^ "Sneaker Archive". Sneakers.bz. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  65. ^ "Sneaker Files". Sneaker Files. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  66. ^ What not to wear
  67. ^ How men dress their age
  68. ^ Farah Averill. "Two button or three button suit?". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  69. ^ Farah Averill. "Power dressing". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  70. ^ Jeremy Berger. "Timeless men's lines". Uk.askmen.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  71. ^ ["The Scene Kid Subculture vs. Emos – News Article" Absolute Punk Retrieved 2008-10-18
  72. ^ Moshing and Moshers (8 August 2005) BBC
  73. ^ [Keyes, Cheryl. Rap Music and Street Consciousness, p. 152]
  74. ^ [Cummings, L. (Spring 2004). "Cloth-Wrapped People, Trouble and Power: Pachuco Culture in the Southwest". Journal of the Southwest.]
  75. ^ Hip hop style. Uk.askmen.com.
  76. ^ Wilbekin, Emil. "Great Aspirations: Hip Hop and Fashion Dress for Excess and Success." The Vibe History of Hip Hop. Three Rivers Press 1999. Page 280.
  77. ^ Last White Superstar. Web.archive.org (10 January 2010).
  78. ^ ^ Cummings, L. (Spring 2004). "Cloth-Wrapped People, Trouble and Power: Pachuco Culture in the Southwest". Journal of the Southwest.
  79. ^ Why is chav still controversial?. Bbc.co.uk (3 June 2011).
  80. ^ Croydon facelift. Thesun.co.uk (27 July 2011).
  81. ^ Peterson, Brian (2009). Burning Fight: The Nineties Hardcore Revolution in Ethics, Politics, Spirit, and Sound. Revelation Books. ISBN 978-1-889703-02-2.
  82. ^ Denim guide. Uk.askmen.com.
  83. ^ Ryan Shckler interview. Askmen.com.
  84. ^ All American back from Japan. Nytimes.com (17 June 2009).
  85. ^ Dead fashionable. Theage.com.au (13 September 2002).
  86. ^ [Lauren M. E. Goodlad, Michael Bibby: Goth. Undead subculture, Duke University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8223-3921-2, p. 47]
  87. ^ Rivethead fashion. Voices.yahoo.com.
  88. ^ [Baddeley, Gavin (2002). Goth Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture. London: Plexus Publishing, p. 204.]
  89. ^ Raggare comes of age. Guardian.
  90. ^ Buszek, Maria Elena (2006). Pin-up grrrls: feminism, sexuality, popular culture. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3746-0.
  91. ^ Ed Hardy shop. Ed Hardy shop.
  92. ^ Ed Hardy hat. Uk.askmen.com.
  93. ^ Dress like an indie frontman. Uk.askmen.com.
  94. ^ Birth of uncool. Guardian.
  95. ^ Kanye West. Uk.askmen.com.
  96. ^ Grillo, Ioan. (27 March 2008) Emo bashing in Tijuana. Time.com.
  97. ^ "Switch". BBC. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  98. ^ "Travis Haight "New Haights: Scene kids ought to receive a crash course on their group" 23 May 2007
  99. ^ "The Scene Kid Subculture vs. Emos – News Article". AbsolutePunk.net. 29 March 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  100. ^ Grant Woodward Finding Emos ...and goths, moshers and scene kids Yorkshire Evening Post 9 March 2007
  101. ^ Marina Yakhnis "'Scene kids' will destroy democracy" 14 December 2006 The Times-Delphic
  102. ^ "Apparel". Hottopic.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  103. ^ ^ a b Haenfler, Ross (2006). Straight Edge: Hardcore Punk, Clean Living Youth, and Social Change (p. 11). Piscataway: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3851-3
  104. ^ Caroline Marcus "Inside the clash of the teen subcultures" Sydney Morning Herald 30 March 2008
  105. ^ Robert Urban, Robert Urban. "Ragged Blade Reviews: Queen's Freddie Mercury and his Legacy" Retrieved 1 August 2010.
  106. ^ Audrey Kitching's website. Audrey.buzznet.com.
  107. ^ Audrey Kitching: Fashion disaster. Cosmopolitan.com.
  108. ^ a b c d e "Beauty Trend of the 2000s". Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  109. ^ Old school grooming
  110. ^ ["Marksimpson.com 'Here come the mirror men' by Mark Simpson – first usage of the word 'metrosexual'" Mark Simpson . Retrieved 18 October 2008.
  111. ^ "Wings Haircut Retrieved 2008-10-18". Hair-style-salon.org. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  112. ^ ["Metropolis – Tokyo feature stories: Face to face with Harajuku – Pictures of Japanese youth" Metropolis.co.jp Retrieved 2008-10-18.
  113. ^ Julian Wilson