2000s European sovereign debt crisis timeline

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
  Countries using the Euro de jure
  Countries and territories using the Euro de facto

From late 2009, fears of a sovereign debt crisis developed among fiscally conservative investors concerning some European states, with the situation becoming particularly tense in early 2010.[1][2] This included Eurozone members Greece,[3] Ireland and Portugal and also some European Union (EU) countries outside the area.[4] In the EU, especially in countries where sovereign debt has increased sharply due to bank bailouts, a crisis of confidence has emerged with the widening of bond yield spreads and risk insurance on credit default swaps between these countries and other EU members, most importantly Germany.[5]

This was the first Eurozone crisis since its creation in 1999. As Samuel Brittan pointed out,[6] Jason Manolopoulos "shows conclusively that the Eurozone is far from an optimum currency area".[7] Niall Ferguson also wrote in 2010 that "the sovereign debt crisis that is unfolding... is a fiscal crisis of the western world".[8] Axel Merk argued in a May 2011 Financial Times article that the dollar was in graver danger than the euro.[9]

Concern about rising government deficits and debt levels[10][11] across the globe together with a wave of downgrading of European government debt[12] created alarm in financial markets. The debt crisis is mostly centred on events in Greece, where the cost of financing government debt has risen. On 2 May 2010, the Eurozone countries and the International Monetary Fund agreed to a €110 billion loan for Greece, conditional on the implementation of harsh austerity measures.[13] On 9 May 2010, Europe's Finance Ministers approved a comprehensive rescue package worth €750 billion (then almost a trillion dollars) aimed at ensuring financial stability across Europe by creating the European Financial Stability Facility.[14] The Greek bail-out was followed by a €85 billion rescue package for Ireland in November,[15] and a €78 billion bail-out for Portugal in May 2011.[16][17]

While the sovereign debt increases have been most pronounced in only a few Eurozone countries they have become a perceived problem for the area as a whole.[18] In May 2011, the crisis resurfaced, concerning mostly the refinancing of Greek public debt.[19] The Greek people generally rejected the austerity measures and have expressed their dissatisfaction with protests.[20][21] In late June 2011, the crisis situation was again brought under control with the Greek government managing to pass a package of new austerity measures and EU leaders pledging funds to support the country.[22] In May 2012 the crisis escalated to new levels following the national Greek legislative election, May 2012. Greek parties failed to form a coalition Government following the election and there was widespread speculation of Greece exiting the Eurozone, termed a "Grexit". A new election is scheduled for June 2012: Next Greek legislative election

Below is a brief summary of some of the main events since the Greek government debt crisis.[23]

2009[edit]

October[edit]

2010[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

  • 2 February – The Greek Government extended public sector wage freeze to those earning less than €2,000 a month.[26]
  • 3 February – The EU Commission backed Greece's Stability and Growth Programme and urged it to cut its overall wage bill.[25][27]
  • 10 February – Thousands of Greek civil servants staged a 24-hour strike shutting schools and grounding flights as the government planned to freeze pay and pensions.[28]
  • 24 February – One-day general strike against the austerity measures halted public services and transport system.[29]
  • 25 February – EU mission in Athens with International Monetary Fund (IMF) experts delivered a grim assessment of the country's finances.[30]
The first round of austerity in 2010 failed to stop Greece's rising debt, which is expected to go up by 10% in 2011.[31]

March[edit]

  • 5 March – New Greek public sector wage cuts and tax increases were passed to generate an estimated saving of €4.8 billion. Measures include increasing value-added tax by 2% to 21%, cutting public sector salary bonuses by 30%, increases in fuel, tobacco and alcohol consumption taxes and freezing state-funded pensions in 2010.[32]
  • 11 March – Greek public and private sector workers strike.[33]
  • 15 March – European Monetary Union (EMU) finance ministers agree on a mechanism to help Greece but reveal no details.[34]
  • 18 March – Papandreou warns Greece will not be able to cut deficit if borrowing costs remain as high as they are and may have to go to the IMF.[35]
  • 19 March – European Commission President, José Manuel Barroso urges EU member states to agree a standby aid package for Greece. José Manuel Barroso says the EMU countries should be on stand by to make bilateral loans.[36]
  • 25 March – European Central Bank (ECB) President, Jean-Claude Trichet says his bank will extend softer rules on collateral (accepting BBB? instead of the standard A-) for longer (up to 2011) in order to avoid a situation where one ratings agency (Moody's) basically decides if an EMU country's bonds are eligible for use as ECB collateral.[37]
  • March – €5 billion in 10-year Greek bonds sold – orders for three times that amount are received.[38]

April[edit]

Former President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy
  • 9 April – Government of Greece announces that the deficit for the first trimester was reduced by 39,2%.[39]
  • 11 April – EMU leaders agree bailout plan for Greece. Terms are announced for €30 billion of bilateral loans (roughly 5% for a three-year loan). EMU |countries will participate in the amount based on their ECB country keys. Rates for variable rate loans will be 3m-Euribor plus 300 basis points (bp) + 100 bp for over three-year loans plus a one-off 50 bp charge for operating expenses. For fixed rate loans rates will be swap rate for the loan's maturity, plus the 300 bp (as in variable) plus the 100 bp for loans over three years plus the 50 bp charge.
  • 13 April – ECB voices its support for the rescue plan.
  • 15 April – Olli Rehn says there is no possibility of a Greek default and no doubt that Germany will participate in the bailout plan. In the meantime there had been serious objections from parts of German society to the country's participation in the Greek bailout.
  • 23 April – Greece officially asks for the disbursement of money from the aid package effectively activating it.
  • 27 April:
  • 28 April – S&P downgrades Spanish bonds from AA to AA-.
  • April – Sale of more than €1.5 billion Greek Treasury bills met with "stronger-than-expected" demand, albeit at a high interest rate.

May[edit]

Clash between riot police and a citizen – 29 June 2011.
  • 1 May – Protests, yearly taking place for the day, this year add "the proposed austerity measures", in Athens.
  • 2 May – Greece announces the latest, fourth, raft of austerity measures.
  • 3 May – The ECB announces that it will accept Greek Government bonds as collateral no matter what their rating is. This effectively means scrapping the BBB-floor in the case of Greece and increasing the likelihood of similar announcements in case other countries run the risk of being downgraded to junk status.[40]
  • 4 May – First day of strikes against the austerity measures. Global stock markets react negatively to fears of contagion.[41]

June[edit]

  • 4 June – The Hungarian PM Viktor Orban's spokesman said it was not an exaggeration that the prospect of a national default is very real, although Moody's still affirmed that Hungary had a good record of paying its obligations.[47] The Euro fell to a four-year low[48] and major American markets fell more than 3%.

July[edit]

  • 5 July – The central Bank of Greece announced a reduction of central government cash deficit by 41.8%, for the first half-year 2010.[49]

September[edit]

  • 5 September – Spreads on longer-term Greek government debt have surged back to crisis levels of about 800 basis points, implying a high risk of default.[50]
  • 7 September – Finance Ministers of the EU countries approve the second of the bailout installments for Greece (€6.5 billion).
  • 11 September – The IMF also approves the second installment of their bailout package for Greece (€2.57 billion).

October[edit]

Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany
  • 31 October – Angela Merkel's coalition, trailing in the German polls and with lander elections due in 2011, backs proposals to make bondholders pay for any future euro-area crises.[51][52]

November[edit]

  • 13 November – The potential for loss in value of government bonds or an interest holiday triggers selling of Irish debt. The 10-year Irish government bond premium surged to a record 652 basis points premium against the German bond.[53]
  • 16 November – Ireland started talks with the EU over a bailout. The move prompted further worry that Greece and Portugal were also in poor fiscal shape.[54] The move follows previous denials that Ireland would need external help to alleviate its debt burden.[54]
  • 21 November – Ireland controversially[55] accept an EU-IMF multi-billion euro package to help alleviate its debt burden.[56]
  • 22 November – Following the withdrawal of the Irish Green Party from the governing coalition, a new election is called.[57]

2011[edit]

January[edit]

Demonstrators in front of the Greek parliament, 29 May.

May[edit]

  • 2 May – Finance Minister George Papaconstantinou again rules out a debt restructuring, adding that he has just "expressed the hope" that the EU and IMF will agree to extend bailout loan repayments.
  • 21 May – Mr Papandreou and senior ECB officials say Greece must avoid debt restructuring and push on with budget cuts and privatisations to overcome its debt crisis.
  • 23 May – Greece unveils a series of privatisations, part of a goal to raise €50 billion by 2015 to pay down its debt mountain.

June[edit]

Indignants cleaning the streets around Syntagma Square on their 22nd day of protest on 15 June.
  • 1 June – The Greek government criticised Moody's decision to cut its credit rating to Caa1, which brought it seven notches into junk territory, saying the move did not take into account the country's effort to tidy up the country's finances.[58]
  • 4 June – Greece hit by further protests in central Athens, as PM Papandreou agreed to make "significant" cuts in public sector employment.[59]
  • 9 June – In an open letter to European and international authorities, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble said that "Any additional financial support for Greece has to involve a fair burden sharing between taxpayers and private investors."[60]
  • 11 June – Jean-Claude Juncker, head of the Eurozone finance ministers, backed Germany's proposal for a "soft restructuring" of Greek debt, but said any contribution from private sector creditors should be "voluntary".[61]
  • 15 June – Waiting from both markets and the Greek population turned violent. The failure of European leaders to resolve their disagreements over the Greek debt crisis combined to rattle credit markets.[62]
  • 17 June – The French President, Nicolas Sarkozy and the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel agreed to a voluntary Greece bondholder role, backing down from earlier demands that bondholders be forced to shoulder a "substantial" share of a Greek rescue.[63]
  • 18 June – Angela Merkel changes her position and confirms she will work with the European Central Bank to resolve the Mediterranean nation’s sovereign debt crisis.[64]

July[edit]

George Papandreou, the previous Prime Minister of Greece.

August[edit]

  • 18 August – The European stock markets suffered further heavy falls due to persistent fears about the world economic outlook.[66]
  • 24 August – The French government unveiled a €12 billion deficit cutting package that raised taxes on the rich and closed some tax loopholes.[67]

September[edit]

  • 13 September – An international alarm over a Eurozone crisis grows.[68]
  • 21 September – S&P have downgraded seven Italian banks after they've dropped Italy's sovereign rating two days ago.[69]
  • 22 September – Greeks reacted with anger and disbelief at a new wave of austerity cuts enacted to keep the country in the Eurozone.[70]
  • 24 September - The IMF urged EU leaders to act decisively on Greece to stem the debt crisis.[71]
  • 26 September - The US president, Barack Obama, says the debt crisis in Europe is "scaring the world" and that leaders in the Eurozone are not dealing with the issue quickly enough.[72]
  • 29 September - The Bundestag approved expanded EU bailout fund, reducing market concerns.[73]

October[edit]

Silvio Berlusconi, a former Prime Minister of Italy.
  • 4 October - European shares declined for a second day on fears that Franco-Belgian bank Dexia may need to be rescued due to its exposure to Greek debt. Concern increased that the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis is spreading to the banking sector.[74]
  • 7 October - Credit ratings agency Fitch cut Italy's credit rating by one notch to A+ from AA- and cut Spain's rating to AA- from AA+.[75]
  • 9 October - British PM David Cameron exhorted EU leaders to act more quickly as[76] French and German leaders promised new crisis plan as pressure builds.[77]
  • 10 October - Belgium nationalised Dexia Bank Belgium, stricken with Greek debt.[78]
  • 13 October - S&P cut Spain's long-term credit rating by one notch from AA to AA- with a negative outlook.[79]
  • 28 October:
    • The German government found itself €55 billion richer after a discovery of an accounting error at Hypo Real Estate, the troubled bank it nationalised in 2009.[80]
    • The head of the Eurozone's bailout fund has begun attempts to persuade the People's Republic of China to invest in a scheme to help rescue member countries facing debt crises.[81]

November[edit]

  • 1 November - The Greek PM Papandreou has announced a referendum on the new Eurozone debt deal which shocked European markets and had thrown the future of the euro back into disarray.[82]
  • 3 November - Prime Minister Papandreouthe withdraws from promised Greek referendum on the bailout package amid heavy pressure from Germany and France.
  • 8 November - Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said that he will resign of his office after budget reforms were passed, while Italy's cost of borrowing had hit record levels on bond markets.[83]
  • 11 November, Italian 10-year borrowing costs fall sharply from 7.5 to 6.7 % after Italian legislature approves further austerity measures and the formation of an emergency government to replace that of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.[84]
  • 13 November - Silvio Berlusconi resigns as Prime Minister of Italy as a result of the country's debt crisis.[85]
  • 15 November - The Lisbon Council publishes the Euro Plus Monitor 2011, which attests the most critical eurozone member countries Greece, Ireland and Spain to be in the process of rapid reforms.[86]
  • 21 November - The European Commission suggests "stability bonds" (eurobonds) issued jointly by the 17 euro nations would be an effective way to tackle the financial crisis.[87][88]
  • 25 November - Standard and Poor's downgrades Belgium's long-term sovereign credit rating from AA+ to AA,[89] and 10-year bond yields reach 5.66%.[90]
  • 30 November - The European Central Bank, the U.S. Federal Reserve Federal Reserve, the central banks of Canada, Japan, Britain and the Swiss National Bank provide global financial markets with additional liquidity to ward off the debt crisis and to support the real economy. The central banks agree to provide each other with abundant liquidity to make sure that commercial banks stay liquid in other currencies.[91]

December[edit]

  • 2 December - Belgian negotiating parties reach an agreement to form a new government. The deal includes spending cuts and tax rises worth about €11 billion, which should bring the budget deficit down to 2.8% of GDP by 2012, and to balance the books in 2015.[92] Following the announcement Belgium 10-year bond yields fell sharply to 4.6%.[93]
  • 5 December - The central banks agree to lower the cost of dollar currency swaps by 50 basis points.[91]
  • 7 December - The new interim national union government led by Lucas Papademos submits its plans for the 2012 budget, promising to cut its deficit from 9% of GDP 2011 to 5.4% in 2012, mostly due to the write-off of debt held by banks.[94]
  • 8 December – Fitch cuts Greece's rating to BBB+ from A-, with a negative outlook.[95]
  • 9 December - All 17 members of the eurozone and six countries that aspire to join agree at the European Council meeting on a new intergovernmental treaty to put strict caps on government spending and borrowing, with penalties for those countries who violate the limits.[96] All other non-eurozone countries except Great Britain are also prepared to join in, subject to parliamentary vote.[97]
  • 14 December – Greek PM Papandreou outlines the first round of policies to cut deficit and regain investor trust.[98]
  • 22 December - Portugal reports its estimated budget deficit of 4.5 % in 2011 will be substantially lower than expected and it will meet its 2012 target already a year earlier due to a one-off transfer of pension funds.[99]
    Moody's cuts Greece's rating to A2 from A1.[100]
    The ECB starts the biggest infusion of credit into the European banking system in the euro's 13 year history, loaning €489 billion to 523 banks for an exceptionally long period of three years at a rate of just one per cent.[101]

2012[edit]

January[edit]

  • 13 January - Standard & Poor’s downgrades France and Austria from AAA rating, lowers Spain, Italy and five other euro members further, and maintains the top credit rating for Finland, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.[102]
  • 16 January - S&P downgrades the EFSF from AAA to AA+.[102][103]
  • 30 January - German consulting company Roland Berger says it has started collecting funds from financial institutions and business intelligence agencies to set up an independent non-profit ratings agency by Mid-2012, which could provide its first country ratings by the end of the year.[104]

February[edit]

  • 21 February - The Eurogroup finalises the second bailout package with the private holders of Greek governmental bonds accepting a slightly bigger haircut of 53.5%. EU Member States agree to an additional retroactive lowering of the bailout interest rates and pass on all central bank profits related to Greece until 2020. Altogether this should bring down Greece's debt to 120.5% by 2020.[105]
  • 29 February 2012 - The ECB holds a second auction, providing 800 Eurozone banks with further €529.5 billion in cheap loans.[106]

May[edit]

  • 6 May - In Greek legislative election, May 2012 no party gains an overall majority, this worsens market falls.
  • 13 May - Greece's President tries to form a coalition government.
  • 18 May - German Chancellor Angela Merkel allegedly tells the Greek president to hold a referendum on euro memberships. The Bundestag denies this.

2013[edit]

May[edit]

November[edit]

  • 7 November - European Central Bank cuts its bank rate to 0.25% to aid recovery.[107]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ George Matlock (16 February 2010). "Peripheral Eurozone government bond spreads widen". Reuters. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  2. ^ "Acropolis now". The Economist. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  3. ^ Brian Blackstone, Tom Lauricella, and Neil Shah (5 February 2010). "Global Markets Shudder: Doubts About U.S. Economy and a Debt Crunch in Europe Jolt Hopes for a Recovery". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010. 
  4. ^ Bruce Walker (9 April 2010). "Greek Debt Crisis Worsens". The New American. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  Iceland, the country which experienced the largest crisis in 2008 when its entire international banking system collapsed has emerged less affected by the sovereign debt crisis as the government was unable to bail the banks out.
  5. ^ "Gilt yields rise amid UK debt concerns". Financial Times. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Samuel Brittan. "Who is winning in the race for recovery". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  7. ^ Manolopoulos, J. Greece's 'Odious' Debt: The Looting of the Hellenic Republic by the Euro, the Political Elite and the Investment Community.. London, May 2011: Anthem Press. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Niall Ferguson (10 February 2010). "A Greek crisis is coming to America". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  9. ^ "Dollar in graver danger than the euro". Merk, Axel (The Financial Times). 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.  This reference links to a Google search where the first result is the correct link. Following the link directly would result in the news site requiring a subscription to access the article. Going through Google allows you to access the article without paying for a subscription.
  10. ^ "Britain's deficit third worst in the world, table". The Daily Telegraph (London). 19 February 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  11. ^ "Fiscal Deficit and Unemployment Rate, FT". Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  12. ^ "Timeline: Greece's economic crisis". Reuters. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  13. ^ Gabi Thesing and Flavia Krause-Jackson (3 May 2010). "Greece Gets $146 Billion Rescue in EU, IMF Package". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 May 2010. 
  14. ^ "EU ministers offer 750bn-euro plan to support currency". BBC News. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  15. ^ Treanor, Jill and Elliott, Larry Ireland to get €85bn loan in deal that will nationalise its banks The Guardian, 24 November 2010, Retrieved 19 May 2011
  16. ^ Sarah Butler (11 April 2011). "Portugal prepares to meet EU and IMF to negotiate bail-out". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  17. ^ "Portugal's 78bn euro bail-out is formally approved". BBC Business (BBC). 16 May 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  18. ^ "How the Euro Became Europe's Greatest Threat". SPIEGEL staff (Der Spiegel). 20 June 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "Greek debt crisis: Eurozone ministers meet amid deepening gloom". Ian Traynor (London: The Guardian). 19 June 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. [dead link]
  20. ^ "A long day in Greece". K.H. (The Economist). 16 June 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  21. ^ "Athens protests: Syntagma Square on frontline of European austerity protests". Aditya Chakrabortty (London: The Guardian). 19 June 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "EU leaders pledge to do what is needed to help Greece". BBC Business (BBC). 23 June 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "Reuters Timeline of Greek Crisis". Reuters. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  24. ^ "Greeks to vote on 4 October". RFI. 2009-09-03. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  25. ^ a b "Update of the Hellenic Stability and Growth Programme". European Commission. European Commission. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "EU Back to Greek Deficit Plan; Wage Freeze is pledged (Update2)". Maria Petrakis and Meera Louis (Bloomberg). 2 February 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  27. ^ "Brussels endorses Greek deficit cutting plan". EurActiv (EurActiv). 3 February 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  28. ^ "Greek workers strike over pay freeze". Channel 4 News (Channel 4 News). 10 February 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  29. ^ "General strike by the GSEE and massive demonstrations". European Trade Union Confederation (European Trade Union Confederation). 24 February 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  30. ^ "Greece Crisis". Mohammad Naveed. Slideshare. April 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  31. ^ "Προβλέψεις της Ευρ. Επιτροπής". To Vima. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  32. ^ "Greece cuts public payroll in effort to cut budget deficit". Irish Times (Irish Times). 3 March 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  33. ^ "Greece strike protests turn violent". The Guardian (London: guardian.co.uk). 11 March 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  34. ^ "Greece's debt crisis timeline". DNA - Daily News & Analysis (DNA - Daily News & Analysis). Reuters. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  35. ^ Grajewski, Marcin (18 March 2010). "Greece ups stakes in quest for EU help". Reuters (Reuters). Reuters. Retrieved 1 November 2011. [dead link]
  36. ^ "President José Manuel Barroso - European Commission - Speeches and statements". EUROPA.EU. europa.eu. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  37. ^ riskviews (6 August 2010). "GFC 2010 - Riskviews". riskviews.wordpress.com. Riskviews. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  38. ^ "CADTM - The great Greek bond bazaar". Eric Toussaint. www.cadtm.org. 14 September 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  39. ^ "ToVima: Greek deficit reduction for Q1". To Vima News. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010. 
  40. ^ "ECB extends financial lifeline to Greece". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  41. ^ Booth, Jenny; Lindsay, Robert (4 May 2010). "World shares dive as Greeks strike over cuts". The Times (UK). Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  42. ^ "Three dead as Greece protest turns violent". BBC News. 5 May 2010. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  43. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (5 May 2010). "Three Reported Killed in Greek Protests". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010. 
  44. ^ Lauren Frayer, "Europe Tries to Calm Fears Over Greek Debt Crisis", AOL News. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
  45. ^ "Greek government deficit reduction for first 4 months". Skai News. 21 May 2010. 
  46. ^ Duarte, E and Ross-Thomas, E (29 May 2010). "Spain Loses AAA Rating at Fitch as Europe Battles Debt Crisis". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 May 2010. 
  47. ^ Barak, Tal (2010-06-04). "Hungary `is not Greece,' Moody's Says Following Bond Tumble – Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  48. ^ Levisohn, Ben (2010-06-05). "Euro Weakens Below $1.20 for First Time Since 2006 on Debt Crisis Concern – Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  49. ^ "Greece announces deficit reduction by 41.8%". Bank of Greece. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2010. 
  50. ^ Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (3 September 2010). "EU austerity policies risk civil war in Greece, warns top German economist Dr Sinn". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010. 
  51. ^ Angela Merkel consigns Ireland, Portugal and Spain to their fate Yahoo! UK and Ireland Finance, 31 October 2010, Retrieved 17 November 2010
  52. ^ Merkel backs plan to put burden on bondholders The Independent, 9 November 2010, Retrieved 17 November 2010
  53. ^ Global Foreign Exchange Market The Star online  13 November 2010, Retrieved 17 November 2010
  54. ^ a b Neuger, James G. (2010-11-16). "Ireland Weighs Aid as EU Spars Over Debt-Crisis Remedy – Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  55. ^ "Was it for this? – The Irish Times – Thu, 18 November 2010". Irishtimes.com. 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  56. ^ "Ireland confirms EU bailout deal – Europe – Al Jazeera English". English.aljazeera.net. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  57. ^ Doyle, Dara (2010-11-22). "Irish Aid Bid Prompts Moody's Warning, Threat of Elections – Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  58. ^ "FOREX-Euro off 4-week high; Moody's cuts Greece rating". Nick Olivari (Reuters). 1 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  59. ^ "Greeks protest after nation pledges 'significant cuts' to secure €12bn IMF bail-out". Rowena Mason (London: telegraph.co.uk). 4 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  60. ^ "German plan for Greek bailout would enlist private investors". Matthew Saltmarsh (Boston.com). 9 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  61. ^ "Juncker backs a 'soft' Greek debt restructuring". Garry White (London: The Telegraph). 12 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  62. ^ Economics (16 June 2011). "Timeline of European sovereign debt crisis – Greece". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  63. ^ Czuczka, Tony (2011-06-17). ""Merkel Agrees to Voluntary Greece Bondholder Role." Bloomberg, 17 June 2011". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  64. ^ Madden, Caroline (2011-06-18). ""Hopes for 'Greek miracle' as Merkel changes position." The Irish Times". Irishtimes.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  65. ^ ""Statement By The Heads Of State Or Government Of The Eurozone And Eu Institutions." Brussels." (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  66. ^ "New slump fears rock stock markets". RTE (RTE). 18 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  67. ^ "France unveils austerity plan as growth slows". RTE (RTE). 24 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  68. ^ Barkin, Noah (2011-09-13). "International alarm over Eurozone crisis grows". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  69. ^ "S&P's cuts ratings of seven italian banks". Rte.ie. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  70. ^ "Greece protests over fresh cuts". RTE (RTE). 22 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  71. ^ "IMF promises decisive action for Eurozone debt crisis". BBC (BBC). 24 September 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  72. ^ "Euro crisis 'scaring the world'". Irish Times (Irish Times). 26 September 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  73. ^ "German parliament approves expanded EU bailout fund". BBC (BBC). 30 September 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  74. ^ "European Shares Close Lower on Contagion Fears". CNBC (CNBC). 4 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  75. ^ "Fitch cuts Italian, Spanish ratings". RTE (RTE). 7 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  76. ^ "‘Time short’ for Eurozone, says Cameron". FT (FT). 9 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  77. ^ "Berlin, Paris vow new crisis plan as global pressure builds". Reuters (Reuters). 9 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. [dead link]
  78. ^ "‘Bad bank’ key to new Dexia structure". FT (FT). 10 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  79. ^ "S&P lowers Spain's debt rating a notch to AA-". RTÉ News. RTÉ News. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  80. ^ "Germany finds extra 55bn euros after accounting error". BBC Business (bbc.co.uk). 28 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  81. ^ "Eurozone seeks bailout funds from China". BBC Business (bbc.co.uk). 28 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  82. ^ "Greek referendum: What happens next?". Nick Thompson (cnn.com). 1 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  83. ^ "Italy borrowing costs hit record 7%". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). BBC. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  84. ^ Moody, Barry (11 November 2011). Italy pushes through austerity, US applies pressure. Reuters. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  85. ^ "Italy crisis: President holds talks to find new leader". BBC Business News (bbc.co.uk). BBC. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  86. ^ "Euro Plus Monitor 2011". The Lisbon Council. 15 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  87. ^ "Europe Agrees to Basics of Plan to Resolve Euro Crisis". Associated Press. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  88. ^ "EU's Barroso: Will present options on euro bonds". Associated Press. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  89. ^ Gill, Frank (25 November 2011) Ratings On Belgium Lowered To 'AA' On Financial Sector Risks To Public Finances; Outlook Negative Standard and Poors Rating Service, Retrieved 1 December 2011. Archived 2012-02-23.
  90. ^ Bowen, Andrew and Connor, Richard (28 November 2011) Belgian budget breakthrough builds hopes for new government Deutsche Welle, DW-World.DE, Retrieved 1 December 2011
  91. ^ a b „Grosse Notenbanken versorgen Banken mit Liquidität – Kursfeuerwerk an den Börsen – auch SNB beteiligt“ NZZ Online
  92. ^ "An end to waffle?". Economist magazine. 2011-12-02. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  93. ^ "Belgium Govt Bonds 10 YR Note Belgium BB". Bloomberg. 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  94. ^ "Greek budget will 'cut deficit' by 2012". BBC News. 2012-12-07. Retrieved 2012-12-07. 
  95. ^ Smith, Helena (8 December 2011). "Financial markets tumble after Fitch downgrades Greece's credit rating". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 October 2011. [dead link]
  96. ^ Baker, Luke (2011-12-09). "WRAPUP 5-Europe moves ahead with fiscal union, UK isolated". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  97. ^ "European Council Press releases". European Council. 2011-12-09. Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  98. ^ "Greece PM Papandreou sets out anti-corruption plan". news.bbc.co.uk (BBC News). 15 December 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  99. ^ "Portugal 2011 deficit to beat goal on one-off revs-PM". Reuters UK. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  100. ^ "Greece debt rating downgraded by third agency.". news.bbc.co.uk (BBC News). 22 December 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  101. ^ "ECB Lends 489 Billion Euros for 3 Years, Exceeding Forecast". Business Week. 2011-12-21. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  102. ^ a b Gibson, Kate, "S&P takes Europe's rescue fund down a notch", MarketWatch, January 16, 2012 2:37 pm EST. Retrieved 2012-01-16. Archived 2012-02-23.
  103. ^ Standard & Poor's Ratings Services quoted at "S&P cuts EFSF bail-out fund rating: statement in full". BBC. 2012-01-16. "Standard & Poor's Ratings Services today lowered the 'AAA' long-term issuer credit rating on the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) to 'AA+' from 'AAA' . . . We lowered to 'AA+' the long-term ratings on two of the EFSF's previously 'AAA' rated guarantor members, France and Austria. The outlook on the long-term ratings on France and Austria is negative, indicating that we believe that there is at least a one-in-three chance that we will lower the ratings again in 2012 or 2013. We affirmed the ratings on the other 'AAA' rated EFSF members: Finland, Germany, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands." 
  104. ^ Eder, Florian (2012-01-20). "Bonitätswächter wehren sich gegen Staatseinmischung". Die Welt. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  105. ^ "Eurogroup statement". Eurogroup. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  106. ^ "Eurozone crisis live: ECB to launch massive cash injection". Guardian. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  107. ^ a b "ECB cuts interest rates to record low". BBC News. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013.