2001 in paleontology

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2001.

Arthropods[edit]

Newly named insects[edit]

Fishes[edit]

Newly named bony fishes[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Newly named amphibians[edit]

Anapsids[edit]

Newly named turtles[edit]

Ichthyosaurs[edit]

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named plesiosaurs[edit]

Newly named sphenodonts[edit]

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named crurotarsans[edit]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list[19] and Dr. Jeremy Montague's dinosaur genus database.[20]

Laelaps trihedrodon synonymized with Allosaurus[edit]

Laelaps trihedrodon was one of the many species described by Edward Drinker Cope that he referred to his preoccupied genus Laelaps, later renamed Dryptosaurus. Although the type specimen included a partial dentary, all material except for a collection of five damaged partial tooth crowns (AMNH 5780) has been lost.[50] The rediscovered material had lately been mistaken by Mcintosh for the type specimen in 1998. However this identification was impossible because the type's teeth were described by Cope as "smooth" and having a "fine silky luster," while the AMNH 5780 teeth were thoroughly worn and had matrix clinging to them. Most of the type specimen's teeth were successional, but all the AMNH 5780 teeth were functional.[51] AMNH 5780 has many features in common with Allosaurus and is probably referrable to that genus. However some of the Allosaurus-like characters of the tooth are primitive to theropods as a whole and may have been present in the less studied or poorly preserved Morrison theropod species. Consequently the synonymization of L. trihedrodon with Allosaurus is tentative, despite its high likelihood.[52]

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Apsaravis[53]

Valid

  • Norell
  • Clarke

Late Cretaceous

Djadokhta Formation

 Mongolia

The type species is Apsaravis ukhaana.

Limenavis[54]

Valid

  • Clarke
  • Chiappe

Late Cretaceous

Allen Formation

 Argentina

The type species is Limenavis patagonica.

Longipteryx[55]

Valid

  • Zhang
  • Zhou
  • Hou
  • Gu

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Longipteryx chaoyangensis.

Yanornis[56]

Valid

  • Zhou
  • Zhang

Early Createcous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Yanornis martini.

Yixianornis[56]

Valid

  • Zhou
  • Zhang

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Yixianornis grabaui.

Newly named pterosaurs[edit]

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Delectosaurus[59]

Valid

  • Kurkin

Late Permian

Vyazniki Assemblage

 Russia

A dicynodont. Two species are described Delectosaurus arefjevi and D. berezhanensis.

Interpresosaurus[59]

Valid

  • Kurkin

Late Permian

Vyazniki Assemblage

 Russia

A dicynodont. The type species is Interpresosaurus blomi.

Lumkuia[60]

Valid

  • Hopson
  • Kitching

Middle Triassic

Burgersdorp Formation

 South Africa

A cynodont. The type species is Lumkuia fuzzi.

Malasaurus[61]

Valid

  • Tatarinov

Late Triassic

Vyazniki Assemblage

 Russia

A therocephalian. The type species is Malasaurus germanus.

Mitredon[62]

Valid

  • Shapiro
  • Jenkins

Late Triassic

Fleming Fjord Formation

 Greenland

A cynodont. The type species is Mitredon cromptoni.

Prozostrodon[63]

Valid

  • Bonaparte
  • Barberena

Late Triassic

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

New genus for "Thrinaxodon" brasiliensis Barberena, Bonaparte & Sá Teixeira, 1987

Riograndia[64]

Valid

  • Bonaparte
  • Ferigolo
  • Ribeiro

Late Triassic

Caturrita Formation

 Brazil

A cynodont. The type species is Riograndia guaibensis.

Mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abdounodus [65]

Valid

  • Gheerbrant
  • Sudre

early Eocene

Ouled Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A Mioclaneid condylarth assigned to Bulbulodentata. The type species is Abdounodus hamdii.

Ocepeia[65]

Valid

  • Gheerbrant
  • Sudre

early Eocene

Ouled Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A condylarth assigned to Phenacodonta, later assigned to stem-Paenungulata. [66] The type species is Ocepeia daouiensis.

Plants[edit]

Pteridophyta[edit]

Conifers[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Kenneth Carpenter, James Kirkland, Burge, Bird.
  2. ^ Hutt, Naish, Martill, Barker, Newberry.
  3. ^ Matthew K. Vickaryous, Anthony P. Russell, Phillip Currie, Zhao Xijin.
  4. ^ Tang F., Kang, Jin X., Wei, Wu W. T.
  5. ^ Zhang X. H., Xu Xing, Zhao X., Paul Sereno, Kuang, Tan L.
  6. ^ J. B. Smith, Lamanna, Lacovara, Dodson, J. R. Smith, Poole, Giegengack, Attia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Johnson, M.S.; et al (2001). "Acropyga and Azteca Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Scale Insects (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea): 20 Million Years of Intimate Symbiosis". American Museum Novitates 3335: 1–18. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2001)335<0001:AAAAHF>2.0.CO;2. 
  3. ^ Szwedo, J.; Stroiński, A. (2001). "Tainosia quisqueyae gen. and sp. nov. from the Oligocene/Miocene Dominican amber (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Nogodinidae)". Genus 12 (1): 29–34. 
  4. ^ Zhu, M, Yu, X. & Ahlberg, P.E. (2001). "A primitive sacropterygian fish with an eyestock". Nature 410: 81–84. doi:10.1038/35065078. 
  5. ^ Schultze, H.-P. (2001). "Melanognathus, a primitive dipnoan from the Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic and the interrelationships of Devonian dipnoans". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (4): 781–794. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0781:mapdft]2.0.co;2. 
  6. ^ a b Gao, K.-Q. & Shubin, N.H. (2001). "Late Jurassic salamanders from northern China". Nature 410 (6828): 574–577. Bibcode:2001Natur.410..574G. doi:10.1038/35069051. PMID 11279493. 
  7. ^ Blob, R.W., Carrano, M.T., Rogers, R.R., Forster, C.A. & Espinoza, N.R. (2001). "A new fossil frog from the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation of Montana". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (1): 190–194. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0190:ANFFFT]2.0.CO;2. 
  8. ^ de la Fuente, M.S. & Iturralde-Vinent, M. (2001). "A new pleurodiran turtle from the Jagua Formation (Oxfordian) of western Cuba". Journal of Paleontology 75 (4): 860–869. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2001)075<0860:anptft>2.0.co;2. 
  9. ^ Gaffney, E.S., de Almedia Campos, D. & Hirayama, R. (2001). "Cerachelys, a new side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil". American Museum Novitates (3319): 1–20. 
  10. ^ Gaffney, E.S., Chatterjee, S., Rudra, D.K. (2001). "Kurmademys, a new side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of India". American Museum Novitates (3321). 
  11. ^ Nichollis, E.L. & Manabe, M. (2001). "A new genus of ichthyosaur from the Late Triassic Pardonet Formation of British Columbia: bridging the Triassic-Jurassic gap". Canadian Journal of Earth Science 38: 983–1002. 
  12. ^ Colbert, E.H. & Olsen, P.E. (2001). "A new and unusual aquatic reptile from the Lockatong Formation of New Jersey (Late Triassic, Newark Supergroup)". American Museum Novitates 3334: 1–15. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2001)334<0001:anauar>2.0.co;2. 
  13. ^ O'Keefe, F.R. (2001). "A cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)". Acta Zoologica Fennica 213: 1–63. 
  14. ^ a b Evans, S.E., Prasad, G.V.R. & Manhas, B.K. (2001). "Rhynchocephalians (Diapsida: Lepidosauria) from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 309–334. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2001.tb00629.x. 
  15. ^ Wu, X.-C., Liu, J. & Li, J.-L. (2001). "The anatomy of the first archosauriform (Diapsida) from the terrestrial Upper Triassic of China". Vertebrata PalAsiatica 39 (4): 251–265. 
  16. ^ Wilson, J. A., Malkani, M.S. & Gingerich, P.D. (2001). "New crocodyliform (Reptilia, Mesoeurocodylia) from the Upper Cretaceous Pab Formation of Vitakri, Balochistan (Pakistan)". Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 30 (12): 321–336. 
  17. ^ Wu, X.-C., Wu, Z.-W. & Russell, A.P. (2001). "Cranial anatomy of a new crocodyliform (Archosauria: Crocodylomorpha) from the Lower Cretaceous of Song-Liao Plain, northeastern China". Canadian Journal of Earth Science 38 (12): 1653–1663. Bibcode:2001CaJES..38.1653W. doi:10.1139/cjes-38-12-1653. 
  18. ^ Campos, D. de A., Suarez, J.M., Riff, D. & Kellner, A.W.A. (2001). "Short note on a new Baurusuchidae (Crocodyliformes, Metasuchia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Brazil". Boletim do Museu Nacional, Geologia (57): 1–7. 
  19. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  20. ^ Montague, Jeremy. "Dr. Montague's Database". Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  21. ^ a b Chure, D. 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (UT-CO) and a revision of the theropod Family Allosauridae. Note: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.
  22. ^ Ford, T.L. and J.I. Kirkland. 2001. Carlsbad ankylosaur (Ornithischia, Ankylosauria): an ankylosaurid and not a nodosaurid. Chapter 12 (pp. 239-260) in: The Armored Dinosaurs (K. Carpenter, ed.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IA (483 pages): 239-260.
  23. ^ Dong Z. 2001. Primitive Armored Dinosaur from the Lufeng Basin, China. pp. 237-242 In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie (D.H. Tanke and K. Carpenter, eds.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IA: xviii + 542 pages.
  24. ^ Carpenter, K., J.I. Kirkland, D. Burge, and J. Bird. 2001. Disarticulated Skull of a New Primitive Ankylosaurid from the Lower Cretaceous of Eastern Utah. Chapter 11 of The Armored Dinosaurs (K. Carpenter, ed.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IA: pp. 211-238.
  25. ^ a b Clark, J.M., M.A. Norell, and P. Barsbold. 2001. Two new oviraptorids (Theropoda: Oviraptorosauria), Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation, Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (2): pp. 209–213.
  26. ^ Mateus, O. and M.T. Antunes. 2001. Draconyx loureiroi, a new Camptosauridae (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) from the Late Jurassic of Lourinha, Portugal. Annales Paleontol. 87 (1): pp. 61-73.
  27. ^ Hutt, S., D. Naish, D.M. Martill, M.J. Barker, and P. Newbery. 2001. A preliminary account of a new tyrannosauroid theropod from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous) of southern England. Cretaceous Research 22 (2): pp. 227-242.
  28. ^ Xu, X., X. Zhao, J.M. Clark. 2001. A new therizinosaur from the Lower Jurassic lower Lufeng Formation of Yunnan, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (3): pp. 477–483.
  29. ^ Vickaryous, M.K., A.P. Russell, P.J. Currie, and X.- J. Zhao. 2001. A new ankylosaurid (Dinosauria: Ankylosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous of China, with comments on ankylosaurian relationships. In: The Sino-Canadian Dinosaur Project 3. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38 (12): pp. 1767-1780.
  30. ^ Xinhua News Service news articles
  31. ^ Li, W. and J. Jin. 2001. On the Upper Cretaceous Jiayin Group of Heilongjiang Province, China (Deng and Wang, eds): 65-74.
  32. ^ Carpenter, K., C.A. Miles, and K. Cloward. 2001. New primitive stegosaur from the Morrison Formation, Wyoming. In: The Armored Dinosaurs (Carpenter, K., ed.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IA: pp. 55-75.
  33. ^ Tang F., X.-M. Kang, X.-S. Jin., F. Wei, and W.- T. Wu. 2001. A new sauropod dinosaur of Cretaceous from Jiangshan, Zhejiang Province. Vertebrate Palasiatica 39 (4): pp. 272-281.
  34. ^ Wang, X. and X. Xu. 2001. A new iguanodontid (Jinzhousaurus yangi gen. et sp. nov.) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China. Chinese Science Bulletin 46 (19): pp. 1669-1672.
  35. ^ Xu, X., X.-L. Wang, and H.-L. You. 2001. A juvenile ankylosaur from China [Liaoningosaurus paradoxus]. Die Naturwissenshaften 88 (7): pp 297-300.
  36. ^ Casanovas, M.L., J.V. Santafe, and J.L. Sanz. 2001. Losillasaurus giganteus, un nuevo sauropodo del transito Jurasico-Cretacico de la cuenca de "Los Serranos" (Valencia, España). Paleontologia i Evolucio, 32-33: pp. 99-122.
  37. ^ Sampson, S. D. M.T. Carrano, and C.A. Forster. 2001. A bizarre predatory dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Nature 409: pp. 504-509.
  38. ^ Ivie, M.A., S.A. Slipinski, and P. Wegrzynowicz. 2001. Generic homonyms in the Colydiinae (Coleoptera: Zopheridae). Insecta Mundi 15: pp.63-64.
  39. ^ Zhang, X-H., X. Xu, P. Sereno, X.-W. Kuang, and L. Tan. 2001. A long-necked therizionosauroid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Iran Dabasu Formation of Nei Mongol, People's Republic of China. Vertebrate Palasiatica 39 (4): pp. 282-290.
  40. ^ Kirkland, J.I. and D.G. Wolf. 2001. First definitive therizinosaurid (Dinosauria; theropoda) from North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (3): pp. 410-414.
  41. ^ Smith, J.B., M.C. Lamanna, K.J. Lacovara, P. Dodson, J.R. Smith, J.C. Poole, R. Giegengack, and Y. Attia. 2001. A Giant Sauropod Dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous Mangrove Deposit in Egypt. Science 292: pp. 1704-1706.
  42. ^ DiCroce, T. and K. Carpenter. 2001. New ornithopod from the Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of eastern Utah. In: Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie (D.H. Tanke, Darren and K. Carpenter, eds.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IA (xviii + 542 pages): pp. 183-196.
  43. ^ Dong Z., I.-S. Paik, H.-J. Kim. 2001. A preliminary report on a sauropod from the HasanDong Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Korea. In: Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Chinese Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (Deng & Wang, eds.). China Ocean Press, Beijing: pp. 41-53.
  44. ^ Coria, R.A. 2001. New Theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. In: Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie (D.H. Tanke and K. Carpenter, eds.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IA (xviii + 542 pages): pp. 3-9.
  45. ^ Curry-Rogers, K. and C.A. Forster. 2001. The last of the dinosaur titans: a new sauropod from Madagascar. Nature 412: pp. 530-534.
  46. ^ Galton, P. M. 2001. Prosauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic of Germany. In: Colectivo Arqueologico-Paleontologico de Salas, C.A.S. (eds.). Actas de las I Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontologia de Dinosaurios y su Entorno (Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Paleontology of Dinosaurs and their Environment). Burgos (Spain),: pp. 25-92.
  47. ^ Elzanowski, A. 2001. A new genus and species for the largest specimen of Archaeopteryx. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 46 (4): pp. 519-532.
  48. ^ Tidwell, V., K. Carpenter, and S. Meyer. 2001. New Titanosauriform (Sauropoda) from the Poison Strip Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Utah. In: Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie (D.H. Tanke and K. Carpenter, eds.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IA, xviii + 542 pages): pp. 139-165.
  49. ^ Chongqing Natural History Museum guidebook.
  50. ^ "Abstract," in Chure (2001). Pg. 10.
  51. ^ "Discussion: The Type Specimen of L. trihedrodon," in Chure (2001). Pp. 14-15.
  52. ^ "Affinities of AMNH 5780," in Chure (2001). Pg. 17.
  53. ^ Norell, M.A. & Clarke, J.A. (2001). "Fossil that fills a critical gap in avian evolution". Nature 409 (6817): 181–184. doi:10.1038/35051563. PMID 11196639. 
  54. ^ Clarke, J.A. & Chiappe, L.M. (2001). "A new carinate bird from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina)". American Museum Novitates (3323): 1–23. 
  55. ^ Zhang, F., Zhou, Z., Hou, L. & Gu, G. (2001). "Early diversification of birds: evidence from a new opposite bird". Chinese Science Bulletin 46 (11): 945–950. doi:10.1007/BF02900473. 
  56. ^ a b Zhou, Z. & Zhang, F. (2001). "Two new ornithurine birds from the Early Cretaceous of western Liaoning, China". Chinese Science Bulletin 46 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1007/bf03184320. 
  57. ^ Wang, X. & Lu, J. (2001). "Discovery of a pterodactylid pterosaur from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China". Chinese Science Bulletin 5 (12): 1112–1117. 
  58. ^ Howse, S.C.B., Milner A.R., and Martill, D.M., 2001, Pterosaurs: In: Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight, edited by Martill, D.M., and Naish, D., The Palaeontological Association, p. 324-335.
  59. ^ a b Kurkin, A.A. (2001). "New Late Permian dicynodonts from the Vyazniki Assemblage of terrestrial tetrapods of Eastern Europe". Paleontological Journal 35 (1): 53–59. 
  60. ^ Hopson, J.A. and Kitching, J.W. (2001). "A Probainognathian cynodont from South Africa and the phylogeny of nonmammalian cynodonts": In: Studies in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology in honor of A. W. Crompton, edited by Jenkins Jr, F.A., Shapiro, M.D., and Owerkowicz, T. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156 (1): 5-35.
  61. ^ Tatarinov, L.P. (2002). "Gomphodont cynodonts (Reptilia, Theriodontia) from the Middle Triassic of Orenburg Region". Paleontological Journal 36 (3): 176–179. 
  62. ^ Shapiro, M.D. and Jenkins Jr., F.A. (2001). "A cynodont from the Upper Triassic of East Greenland: tooth replacement and double-rootedness": In: Studies in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology in honor of A. W. Crompton, edited by Jenkins Jr, F.A., Shapiro, M.D., and Owerkowicz, T. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156 (1): 49-58.
  63. ^ Bonaparte, J.F. and Barberena, M.C. (2001). "On two advanced carnivorous cynodonts from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil": In: Studies in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology in honor of A. W. Crompton, edited by Jenkins Jr, F.A., Shapiro, M.D., and Owerkowicz, T. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156 (1): 59-80.
  64. ^ Bonaparte, J.F., Ferigolo, J. and Ribeiro, A.M. (2001). "A primitive Late Triassic 'Ictidosaur' from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil". Palaeontology 44 (4): 623–638. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00194. 
  65. ^ a b Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Sudre, Jean; Iarochene, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelkader (2001). "First ascertained African “Condylarth” mammals (primitive ungulates: cf. Bulbulodentata and cf. Phenacodonta) from the earliest Ypresian of the Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (1): 107–118. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0107:FAACMP]2.0.CO;2. 
  66. ^ Gheerbrant, E.; Amaghzaz, M.; Bouya, B.; Goussard, F.; Letenneur, C. (2014). "Ocepeia (Middle Paleocene of Morocco): The Oldest Skull of an Afrotherian Mammal". PLoS ONE 9 (2): e89739. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089739. 
  67. ^ Pigg, K.B. (2001). "Anatomically preserved Woodwardia virginica (Blechnaceae) and a new Filicalean fern from the Middle Miocene Yakima Canyon Flora of central Washington, USA". American Journal of Botany 88 (5): 777–787. doi:10.2307/2657030. 
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