2002 Pacific hurricane season

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2002 Pacific hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed May 24, 2002
Last system dissipated November 16, 2002
Strongest storm Kenna – 913 mbar (hPa) (26.97 inHg), 165 mph (270 km/h) (1-minute sustained)
Total depressions 19 official, 1 unofficial
Total storms 15
Hurricanes 8
Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+) 6
Total fatalities 4
Total damage $101 million (2002 USD)
Pacific hurricane seasons
2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004

The 2002 Pacific hurricane season saw three tropical cyclones reach Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The strongest storm this year was Hurricane Kenna, which reached Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It made landfall near Puerto Vallarta, located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, on October 25. The hurricane killed four people and was the third most powerful hurricanes to ever strike the western coast of Mexico, hitting with winds of 140 mph (as well as the strongest landfall in terms of windspeed since Hurricane Madeline in 1976). Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Julio made landfall in Mexico, and Tropical Storm Boris dumped torrential rain along the Mexican coast, despite remaining offshore.

The season officially began on May 15, 2002 for the Eastern Pacific, and June 1, 2002 for the Central Pacific. It ended on November 30 for both regions. These dates delimit the time when most tropical cyclones form in this part of the Pacific Ocean. The first system formed on May 24 and the final depression dissipated on November 16.

Other storms were individually unusual. Hurricanes Elida and Hernan also reached Category 5 intensity, but neither caused any damage. Hurricane Fausto had no effect on land, but it regenerated into a weak tropical storm at an abnormally high latitude.

Season summary[edit]

Hurricane Kenna Hurricane Hernan (2002) Hurricane Fausto(2002) Hurricane Elida (2002) Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

The 2002 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 2002 in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 2002 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 2002. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.[1] In practice, however, the season lasted from May 24, the formation date of its first system, to November 16, the dissipation date of the last.[2]

There were 15 tropical storms in the eastern Pacific Ocean in the 2002 season. Of those, eight became hurricanes, of which six became major hurricanes by reaching Category 3 or higher on the Saffir Simpson Scale. Three reached Category 5 intensity,[2] a record shared with the 1994 season.[3] Four tropical depressions formed and dissipated before reaching the intensity of a tropical storm.[4] In the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, one tropical storm and two hurricanes formed, with one of the hurricanes intensifying into a major hurricane.[2] In the eastern Pacific proper, the season saw below average activity in terms of the number of total storms and hurricanes, but about average activity in terms of major hurricanes.[5][6] A moderately strong El Niño, ongoing during the season, may have contributed to the disproportionate number of major hurricanes,[7] as well as reduced activity in the Atlantic.[8] Also of note was an unusual gap in storm formation during the first three weeks of August in this season.[2] That time usually sees several total storms, but for some reason there were none.[9]

Only three systems, Tropical Storms Boris and Julio and Hurricane Kenna, had significant impact on land. Julio and Kenna caused the only two landfalls this year. Most of the season's impact, including all casualties and most of the damage, was caused by Kenna.[5]

Storms[edit]

Tropical cyclones of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season

3 Alma
TS Boris
TD Three-E
TS Cristina
2 Douglas
5 Elida
TD Seven-E
4 Fausto
TS Alika
TS Genevieve
3 Ele
5 Hernan
TD Eleven-E
TS Iselle
TS Julio
5 Kenna
TS Lowell
1 Huko
TD Sixteen-E
2002 Pacific hurricane season summary.jpg
Timeline

Hurricane Alma[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration May 24 – June 1
Peak intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  960 mbar (hPa)

A complex formation involving a tropical wave and a gale over the Gulf of Tehuantepec formed Tropical Depression One-E on May 24. It slowly strengthened into the first tropical storm of the season two days later. Alma then turned north, moving near the edge of a subtropical ridge over Mexico. Its rate of intensification picked up, and Alma became a hurricane on May 28. Alma reached Category 3 intensity on May 30. The hurricane began to weaken almost immediately thereafter under the influence of wind shear and cool water. Alma rapidly fell apart, and degenerated into a weak low pressure area by June 1.[30]

The hurricane did not impact land.[30] A special feature about Alma was that it was one of only three Pacific major hurricanes in May.[2]

Tropical Storm Boris[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration June 8 – June 11
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

On June 8, an area of disturbed weather that had absorbed a tropical wave spawned Tropical Depression Two-E. It became a tropical storm the next day. After peaking on June 9, with a pressure of 997 mb, steering currents collapsed and Boris stalled out in the ocean between two ridges of high pressure. Shear increased, and the cyclone weakened to a depression on June 10. The next day, Boris degenerated into a remnant low. The remnant drifted east and then southeast before dissipating on June 12.[31]

Boris dumped heavy rains on sections of the Mexican coast. The maximum amount was 10.60 inches (269 mm) at San Felipe Usila.[32] These rains damaged several homes at an unspecified location. In addition, rainfall damaged several homes in Tequila, Jalisco, but the National Hurricane Center believes that Boris likely did not cause the rain. No deaths were attributed to this storm.[31]

Tropical Depression Three-E[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration June 27 – June 29
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave that crossed Central America organized and developed into a tropical depression on June 27.[33] Contrary to forecasts,[34] the depression did not strengthen further because of strong wind shear. By June 29, the depression had become a remnant low, which was observed as a swirl of clouds for a few more days before dissipating.[33]

Tropical Storm Cristina[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration July 9 – July 16
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather near Panama drifted to a location south of Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, and organized into Tropical Depression Four-E on July 9. It moved westward through a hostile environment of strong shear. The wind shear disrupted the cyclone's convection and weakened its circulation. Despite the shear, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm early on July 12 and was named Cristina. This broke down the steering ridge, and Cristina turned to the north and peaked on July 14. Then, the wind shear won out and Cristina quickly weakened. Cristina dissipated into a swirl of clouds on July 16, without ever threatening land. No impact was reported.[35]

Tropical Depression Kalmaegi[edit]

Tropical depression (JMA)
Duration July 20 – July 20 (crossed basin)
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

On July 18, an area of convection persisted near a developing circulation about 575 mi (925 km) west-southwest of Johnston Atoll. An upper-level low to the northeast provided outflow, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a tropical cyclone formation alert early on July 19.[36] Although not classified by the CPHC, the Japan Meteorological Agency remarked that a tropical depression had developed by early on July 20, just east of the International Date Line. Soon after, it crossed into the western Pacific and briefly intensified into Tropical Storm Kalmaegi.[37]

Hurricane Douglas[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 20 – July 26
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  970 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa on July 8 and crossed the Atlantic without much development. In the Caribbean, showers increased, but wind shear prevented development. The wave crossed into the eastern Pacific on July 16, and wind shear decreased to allow the convection to organize. Tropical Depression Five-E developed on July 20 about 395 miles (636 km) south of Manzanillo, Mexico.[38] At that time, gradual strengthening was anticipated.[39] The depression quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Douglas.[38] Around that time, most of the deep convection was situated south of the atmospheric circulation.[40] Initially expected to become a hurricane only briefly,[41] late on July 21, the NHC reported that Douglas had become a hurricane.[42] Upon becoming a hurricane, Douglas was situated in low wind shear environment; however, Hurricane Douglas was expected to reach cold waters in 36 hours, and thus was not predicted to become a major hurricane.[43] Douglas became a Category 2 hurricane on July 22, reaching peak winds of 105 miles per hour (170 km/h).[44] Douglas held this intensity for 18 hours as it traveled westward.[38] When Douglas weakened from its peak intensity, it had an organized cloud pattern, but the thunderstorm activity was weakening, typical of most Pacific hurricanes that reach cooler waters.[45] The weakening briefly stopped after Douglas went through an eyewall replacement cycle,[46] but Douglas was downgraded to a tropical storm late on July 24 as the storm only had a small area of deep convection left.[38] Tropical storm Douglas briefly stopped weakening as convection increased, only to fade away again hours later.[47] The storm was downgraded to a tropical depression early on July 26,[38] and later that day degenerated into a remnant low pressure area.[48] The remnant low dissipated the next day.[38]

Hurricane Elida[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 23 – July 30
Peak intensity 160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  921 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave generated into Tropical Depression Six-E on July 23. It moved westward and reached storm strength 12 hours after it formed. Elida rapidly deepened, developing a pinhole eye, and becoming a hurricane on July 24 and further reaching major hurricane intensity six hours later. Elida's rapid intensification continued, becoming a Category 5 hurricane for six hours on July 25.[49]

Despite moving over warm waters, Elida began to weaken because it began an eyewall replacement cycle. When the cycle ended, the cyclone was over cooler water and unsteadily weakened. Elida fell to a tropical storm on July 27, then degenerated into a remnant low and turned to the northeast. The remnant dissipated over the open ocean about 535 mi (861 km) west of Los Angeles.[49]

Elida is one of the fastest intensifying eastern Pacific hurricanes. Its rate of intensification is rivaled only by 1997's Linda. Elida had no direct impact on land. However, it did send heavy waves along the shores of Mexico. No one was killed and no damage was reported.[49]

Tropical Depression Seven-E[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration August 6 – August 8
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1008 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave that had reached the Eastern Pacific from Africa was first spotted on July 23. The wave continued westward with little development occurring until August 3, when convection increased. After additional slow organization, the wave was classified as Tropical Depression Seven-E on August 6 near the tip of Baja California. The system did not strengthen much, and development was halted when wind shear destroyed the system on August 8. The depression never came near land and hence no one was killed or injured.[50] Like Tropical Depression Three-E, this cyclone was forecast to reach tropical storm intensity, but it never did.[51]

Hurricane Fausto[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 21 – September 3
Peak intensity 145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  936 mbar (hPa)

After a rather lengthy lull punctuated by only Tropical Depression Seven-E, a tropical wave formed Tropical Depression Eight-E on August 21. Initially taking a westward track, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Fausto on August 22. It turned to the west-northwest and stayed on that path for the next six days. Fausto steadily strengthened and intensified into a hurricane on August 22. It continued to intensify, peaking as a Category 4 on August 24, and also substantially increased in size. The hurricane began to weaken thereafter, and was a minimal tropical storm by the time it entered the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility on August 27.[52] The tropical cyclone dropped to a depression and degenerated into a non-convective swirl of clouds on August 28.[53]

Fausto's remnants passed north of the Hawaiian Islands uneventfully until they interacted with a tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) on August 30. In combination with warm waters, a tropical depression with some subtropical features developed. At this time it was located around latitude 30°N. By September 1, Fausto had redeveloped into a tiny but tropical ministorm. Its rebirth was brief, however, as a mid-latitude cyclone absorbed the system early on September 3.[52]

Fausto's regeneration north of Hawaii was unusual but not unprecedented. The other time this happened since 1966 was in the 1975 season. That time, another TUTT absorbed the remnant of Hurricane Ilsa, which led to the formation of an unnamed hurricane at high latitude. Other tropical cyclones have strengthened north of Hawaii, but the actual formation of one is rare.[53]

Tropical Storm Alika[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 22 – August 28
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

An area of convection acquired a closed circulation and became Tropical Depression One-C on August 22. It stayed disorganized for the next several days. It organized more fully and intensified into a tropical storm on August 25 and was named Alika. After peaking as a moderately strong tropical storm on August 25, wind shear caused by the pre-Ele tropical depression and an upper-level low near Hawaii weakened the storm to a depression on August 27. Alika dissipated the next day, having never threatened land.[53]

Tropical Storm Genevieve[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 26 – September 1
Peak intensity 70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave formed Tropical Depression Nine-E on August 26. It was upgraded to a tropical storm and named Genevieve the next day. It moved westward and nearly strengthened to a hurricane, peaking in intensity on August 28. At that point, the cyclone encountered cooler waters, which caused it to weaken slowly, weakening to a depression on August 30. The depression hung on until it lost convection on the September 2. A swirl of remnant clouds persisted for a few more days. Genevieve had no impact on land, with no reports of casualties or damage being received by the National Hurricane Center.[54]

Hurricane Ele[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 27 – August 30 (Exited Basin)
Peak intensity 125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  945 mbar (hPa)

An eastern extension of the monsoon trough south of Hawaii organized into Tropical Depression Two-C on August 27 and strengthened into Tropical Storm Ele six hours later. Despite the nearby presence of Alika, Ele developed rapidly and strengthened into a hurricane on August 28. After contributing to the dissipation of Alika, Ele continued intensifying. It reached Category 2 intensity late on August 28 and quickly became a major hurricane six hours later. The hurricane then crossed the International Date Line and became a typhoon in the 2002 Pacific typhoon season. Typhoon Ele turned to the northwest after crossing the dateline and continued to strengthen. It reached Category 4 before turning north and weakening again. After briefly restrengthening back into a Category 4, the typhoon weakened and turned to the northwest. Ele was downgraded to a tropical storm on September 7, a depression on September 9, and then dissipated shortly afterwards. Ele did not affect land.[53]

Hurricane Hernan[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 30 – September 6
Peak intensity 160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  921 mbar (hPa)

A weak wave in the ITCZ organized into Tropical Depression Ten-E on August 30. It headed west-northwest and quickly intensified into a tropical storm and eventually, a hurricane. Hernan then began rapidly deepening, reaching Category 5 intensity on September 1. It maintained that intensity for 12 hours before tracking over cooler waters. The storm weakened steadily, with wind shear contributing to its deterioration. Hernan then degenerated into a remnant low on September 6. The low turned to the southwest and dissipated three days later.[55]

Hernan passed close enough to Socorro Island to bring strong winds to the island.[55] In addition, the hurricane's large and powerful wind field caused waves between 12 foot (3.7 m) and 20 foot (6.1 m) in height and strong rip currents on the southwest coast of California.[56] Other than the aforementioned regions, Hernan had no significant impact on land.[55]

Tropical Depression Eleven-E[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration September 5 – September 8
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

Of the four tropical depressions this season that did not become named storms, only Eleven-E threatened land. An area of disturbed weather associated with a tropical wave formed into a tropical cyclone on September 5. It tracked northwestward, before turning southwest. It weakened into a remnant low on September 8. The remnant turned north and dissipated on September 10 offshore of the Baja California peninsula. The cyclone was nearly a tropical storm when it peaked on September 6. It was forecast to become a tropical storm and pass close to the peninsula. This prompted a tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch. With the weakening of the cyclone the watch and warning were discontinued. No damage or casualties were reported in association with this tropical cyclone.[57]

Tropical Storm Iselle[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 15 – September 20
Peak intensity 70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Part of the same tropical wave that formed Tropical Depression Seven in the Atlantic basin organized into Tropical Depression Twelve-E on September 15. It strengthened further into Tropical Storm Iselle the next day. The storm headed northwest and paralleled the coast of Mexico, nearly strengthening into a hurricane late on September 17. While near its peak intensity, a trough abruptly recurved the system to the northeast. Wind shear also increased, and Iselle consequently fell apart on satellite imagery. It weakened to a depression on September 19. Iselle then degenerated into a remnant low the next day and rapidly degenerated, dissipating on September 20. Iselle never made landfall.[58]

Iselle threatened parts of southwestern Mexico and warnings and watches were issued for that area. Heavy rains were reported over parts of the Baja California Peninsula.[58] The highest amount of rainfall was 6.16 inches (156 mm) at Guadeloupe and Mulege, Baja California Sur.[59] There were no reports of damage or casualties.[58]

Tropical Storm Julio[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 25 – September 26
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

An area of convection and disturbed weather, possibly related to outflow from Hurricane Isidore in the Atlantic basin, developed a circulation on September 23 and organized into Tropical Depression Thirteen-E on September 25. The depression headed northward and strengthened into a tropical storm that same day. Julio turned to the northwest and peaked in intesty as a minial tropical storm near Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán. On September 26, Juli made landfall. The storm rapidly dissipated over Mexico.[60]

Three fatalities were reported from Julio. However, in Guerrero, around 100 houses in Acapulco and Zihuatanejo were damaged or washed away by flash flooding.[60] The highest rainfall reported was 16.10 inches (409 mm) at Zihuatanejo and La Unión, Guerrero.[61]

Hurricane Kenna[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration October 22 – October 26
Peak intensity 165 mph (270 km/h) (1-min)  913 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane Kenna

A disturbance possibly associated with a tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Fourteen-E on October 22. It strengthened into a tropical storm that same day and a hurricane on October 23. The next day, Kenna became the third Category 5 hurricane of the season. A trough over Mexico recurved the hurricane, and it started accelerating towards Mexico. Despite moving over waters that were still warm, wind shear weakened the system to a minimal Category 4 by the time of its landfall over Mexico late on October 25. Mountainous terrain rapidly weakened Kenna, and the system dissipated early on October 26.[62]

Hurricane Kenna was the third-strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall on record.[62] It was also the second-strongest October hurricane in any season, and the third strongest Pacific hurricane overall.[2] In San Blas, Nayarit, 8,800 people were affected; 1,540 houses were damaged or destroyed,[63] which was 80% to 90% of houses in the town.[62] In Santiago Ixcluintla, 3,770 houses were damaged. Agriculture in the affected area was disrupted. Farmers required aid, and many fruit crops were destroyed. Tourism in Puerto Vallarta was disrupted,[63] with much of the damage to hotels. Insurance companies reported that Kenna's total damage was $96 million (2002 USD).[64]

Kenna killed four people in Mexico and injured over a hundred. The low death toll is likely due to massive evacuations in San Blas, Nayarit, and elsewhere ahead of the hurricane.[62]

Tropical Storm Lowell[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration October 22 – October 31
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

A weak tropical wave located over the open Pacific Ocean organized into Tropical Depression Fifteen-E on October 22. It strengthened into a tropical storm the next day. Shortly afterwards, wind shear increased. Lowell's convection was disrupted, and its center of circulation became exposed. The cyclone crossed into the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility on October 26. The shear relaxed, and the depression restrengthened into a tropical storm. Lowell drifted in slow steering currents until it approached Hurricane Huko. The proximity of Huko caused a gradual weakening in Lowell, and it dissipated on October 31.[65]

Hurricane Huko[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration October 24 – November 3 (Crossed into the Western Pacific)
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

In late October, an active monsoon trough persisted south of Hawaii along 10°N latitude, developing an area of convection on October 24. Later that day, the disturbance was classified as Tropical Depression Three-C about 850 mi (1,370 km) south-southeast of Honolulu. Initially poorly organized, it moved to the north and steadily intensified, becoming Tropical Storm Huko early on October 26 while turning northwestward. Late on October 28, Huko reached hurricane strength, but its close proximity to Tropical Storm Lowell and a brief increase in wind shear weakened it back to a tropical storm on October 30. Shortly after turning to the west, conditions allowed for Huko to re-attain hurricane strength on October 31 while it was passing around 140 mi (225 km) south of Johnston Atoll. On November 2, a ridge caused the hurricane to accelerate, and the next day it crossed the International Date Line into the Western Pacific, becoming a typhoon.[53][66]

While passing near Johnston Atoll, the outer rainbands of the hurricane produced wind gusts up to 30 mph (48 km/h) and locally heavy rainfall.[66] The remnants of Huko later reentered the basin, eventually affecting California. The system was responsible for heavy rains, causing flooding along a small stream in Bakersfield. Total damage was approximately $23,000 (2002 USD).[67]

Tropical Depression Sixteen-E[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration November 14 – November 16
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Sixteen-E formed from a disturbance in the intertropical convergence zone. Despite being located in a hostile environment, it managed to organize into a tropical depression on November 14.[68] It was briefly forecast to strengthen into a tropical storm.[69] However, wind shear prevented that from occurring. Consequently, the depression degenerated into a remnant low on November 16 and dissipated soon after that.[68]

Accumulated Cyclone Energy[edit]

Accumulated Cyclone Energy
Rank Name ACE Rank Name ACE
1 Hernan 20.0 9 Genevieve 3.60
2 Elida 18.1 10 Iselle 3.15
3 Fausto 16.6 (0.735) 11 Cristina 2.46
4 Kenna 14.2 12 Lowell 0.885 (1.09)
5 Huko (12.9) 13 Alika (1.74)
6 Alma 10.3 14 Boris 1.40
7 Douglas 9.33 15 Julio 0.565
8 Ele (7.24)
Total ACE: 101 (23.7) 104 kn2

Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) is a measure of the activity of a hurricane season. It is calculated by squaring the windspeed of a cyclone with at least tropical storm-force winds every six hours, summing the results, and dividing that total by 104.[6] As a tropical cyclone does not have gale-force winds until it becomes a tropical storm, tropical depressions are not included in these tables. For all storms, ACE is given to three significant figures. The ACE in the east Pacific proper (140°W to North America) is given; the ACE in the central Pacific (the International Date Line to 140°W) is given in parentheses.

The table includes the ACE for Ele and Huko accumulated only when those storms were located east of the dateline; their ACE west of the dateline is part of the totals of the 2002 typhoon season.

The National Hurricane Center uses ACE to rank hurricane seasons as above-normal, near-normal, and below-normal. It defines below-normal as having an ACE less than 95*104 kn2; It defines above normal as having an ACE above 150*104 kn2 along with the numbers of any two of the following above average: tropical storms (15), hurricanes (9), or major hurricanes (4); It defines near-normal as having an ACE between 100*104 kn2 and 150*104 kn2, or an ACE above 150*104 kn2 with fewer than two of the numbers of the following above average: tropical storms (15), hurricanes (9), or major hurricanes (4).[6]

The 2002 season had a total of fifteen tropical storms, eight hurricanes, and 6 major hurricanes.[2] The total ACE of the season was 101*104 kn2 in the east Pacific proper. This qualifies the 2002 season as near to slightly above normal.[70]

Storm names[edit]

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2002. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 2008 season. This is the same list used for the 1996 season.[2] Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.

  • Iselle
  • Julio
  • Kenna
  • Lowell
  • Marie (unused)
  • Norbert (unused)
  • Odile (unused)
  • Polo (unused)
  • Rachel (unused)
  • Simon (unused)
  • Trudy (unused)
  • Vance (unused)
  • Winnie (unused)
  • Xavier (unused)
  • Yolanda (unused)
  • Zeke (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. The next four names that were slated for use in 2002 are shown below. Three of them, Alika, Ele, and Huko, were used throughout the course of the year.

  • Alika
  • Ele
  • Huko
  • Ioke (unused)

Retirement[edit]

The World Meteorological Organization retired one name in the spring of 2003, Kenna.[71] It was replaced in the 2008 season by Karina.[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Neal Dorst. "Subject: G1) When is hurricane season?". FAQ: Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Eastern North Pacific Tracks File 1949–2007" (Plaintext). National Hurricane Center. March 21, 2008. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2008. 
  3. ^ "The 1994 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 14, 2008. 
  4. ^ "2002 Eastern Pacific Hurricane Season". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008. 
  5. ^ a b Franklin, Avila, Beven, Lawrence, Pasch, & Stewart (November 30, 2002). "Monthly Tropical Weather Summary". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  6. ^ a b c "Background Information: Eastern Pacific Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. Archived from the original on May 18, 2009. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  7. ^ "Figure 19. Tropical Storms, El Niño, and the Southwest". University of Arizona. August 2002. Retrieved September 16, 2008. [dead link]
  8. ^ Gerald Bell, Eric Blake, Muthuvel Chelliah, Stanley Goldenberg, Chris Landsea, & Richard Pasch. "The 2002 North Atlantic Hurricane Season" (PDF). Climate Prediction Center. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b c Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j National Hurricane Center (2002). "Hurricane Alma Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  12. ^ a b c d National Hurricane Center (2002). "Tropical Storm Boris Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  13. ^ a b National Hurricane Center (2002). "TD 3-E Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  14. ^ a b c d National Hurricane Center (2002). "Tropical Storm Cristina Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h National Hurricane Center (2002). "Hurricane Douglas Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m National Hurricane Center (2002). "Hurricane Elida Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  17. ^ a b National Hurricane Center (2002). "TD 7-E Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o National Hurricane Center (2002). "Hurricane Fausto Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Tropical Cyclone Report:Tropical Storm Alika". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. May 2003. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  20. ^ a b c d Avila, Lixion A. (October 12, 2002). "Tropical Cyclone Report:Tropical Storm Genevieve". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Tropical Cyclone Reports:Hurricane Ele". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. May 2003. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
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