|Discovered by||Lynne Jones,
John J. Kavelaars,
|Discovery date||December 11, 2004|
|MPC designation||2004 XR190|
|Minor planet category||cubewano
|Epoch 2456200.5 (2012-Sep-30.0)|
|Perihelion||51.60 AU (7691 Gm)|
|Semi-major axis||57.77 AU (8599 Gm)|
|Orbital period||439.05 a (160,363 d)|
|Longitude of ascending node||252.352°|
|Argument of perihelion||280.938°|
425–850 km (albedo 0.16-0.04)
|Mass||0.6–4.8×1020 kg|
|Absolute magnitude (H)||4.4|
2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a possible dwarf planet located in the scattered disc. Astronomers led by Lynne Jones of the University of British Columbia made the discovery as part of the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) using the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The discovery team nicknamed the object "Buffy", after the fictional vampire slayer, and proposed a different official name to the IAU.
Considered a detached object, 2004 XR190 is particularly unusual for two reasons. With an inclination of 47 degrees, it is the most "tilted" possible dwarf planet discovered thus far, traveling further "up and down" than "left to right" around the Sun when viewed edge-on along the ecliptic. Second, it has an unusually circular orbit for a scattered-disc object (SDO). While it is thought that traditional scattered-disc objects have been ejected into their current orbits by gravitational interactions with Neptune, the low eccentricity of its orbit and the distance of its perihelion (SDOs generally have highly eccentric orbits and perihelia less than 38 AU) seems hard to reconcile with such celestial mechanics. This has led to some uncertainty as to the current theoretical understanding of the outer Solar System. The theories include close stellar passages, rogue planets/planetary embryos in the early Kuiper belt, and resonance interaction with an outward-migrating Neptune. The Kozai mechanism is capable of transferring the orbital eccentricity into an elevated inclination.
Eleventh-most-distant large body
2004 XR190 came to aphelion around 1901. Other than long-period comets and space probes, it is currently the eleventh-most-distant known large body (57.9 AU) in the Solar System after Eris and Dysnomia (both 96.6 AU), Sedna (87.2 AU), 2007 OR10 (86.3 AU), 2006 QH181 (82.4 AU), 2006 AO101 (63.9 AU), 2004 UT10 (61.1 AU), 2007 TB418 (59.4 AU), 2003 QX113 (59.3 AU), and 1999 DP8 (59.2 AU).
A side view of 2004 XR190's orbit, showing the object's high inclination. Units are AUs.
- "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2004 XR190)". 2011-01-10 last obs. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- R. L. Allen, B. Gladman (2006). "Discovery of a low-eccentricity, high-inclination Kuiper Belt object at 58 AU". The Astrophysical Journal 640: L83. arXiv:astro-ph/0512430. Bibcode:2006ApJ...640L..83A. doi:10.1086/503098. Discovery paper. Preprint
- E. L. Schaller and M. E. Brown (2007). "Volatile loss and retention on Kuiper belt objects". Astrophysical Journal 659: I.61–I.64. Bibcode:2007ApJ...659L..61S. doi:10.1086/516709. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
- "AstDys 2004 XR190 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-16.
- Jewitt, David, Morbidelli, Alessandro, & Rauer, Heike. (2007). Trans-Neptunian Objects and Comets: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 35. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-71957-1.
- Lykawka, Patryk Sofia & Mukai, Tadashi. (2007). Dynamical classification of trans-neptunian objects: Probing their origin, evolution, and interrelation. Icarus Volume 189, Issue 1, July , Pages 213-232. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.001.
- "Horizon Online Ephemeris System". California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- Chris Peat. "Spacecraft escaping the Solar System". Heavens-Above. Retrieved 2008-04-03.
- "AstDys (136199) Eris Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- "AstDys (90377) Sedna Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- "AstDys (225088) 2007 OR10 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- "AstDys 2006 QH181 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- "AstDys 2003 QX113 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- "MPEC 2010-A05 Distant Minor Planets (2010 JAN. 14.0 TT)". IAU Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- MPEC circular detailing discovery
- Discovery webpage by research team
- Maggie McKee (2005-12-13). "Strange new object found at edge of Solar System". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 25 January 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2005.
- Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey
- Orbital simulation from JPL (Java) / Ephemeris