2005 Atlantic hurricane season statistics

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A collage of several storms during the 2005 season

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season broke numerous records for cyclonic formation and intensity. It saw a total of thirty-one tropical and subtropical cyclones form, many of which broke records as individual storm as well as contributing to a number of season records. This article is an in-depth look at the statistics of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season.

Number of storms[edit]

Sea surface temperatures on December 15, 2005. Areas in orange indicate temperatures at or above 28 °C (82 °F).

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, with 28 nameable storms (wind speed ≥ 39 mph), is the most active season on record, surpassing the 1933 season's 21 nameable storms.[1][2] With 15 hurricanes, the 2005 season also has had the most hurricanes formed, surpassing the 1969 season's 12. The season holds the record for the most major hurricanes, seven, tied the 1999 season's record of five Category 4 and 5 hurricanes and holds the record for the most Category 5 hurricanes in a single season, four (see below).

Statistics of the 2005 hurricane season compared to the August 2005 prediction.

With the formation of Tropical Storm Vince, Tropical Storm Wilma, and Tropical Storm Alpha, 2005 became the first season to use the 'V', 'W' and Greek Letter names, respectively, since naming of Atlantic storms began in the 1950 season.[1] It also has the distinction of being only the second season to use the 'R', 'S', and 'T' names. Only the 1995 season had previously used these letters.[3]

Sea surface temperatures during the time of Hurricane Philippe

2005 holds the record for the most storms to ever form during the month of July. Five storms (Cindy, Dennis, Emily, Franklin, and Gert) formed during that period. The previous record for most storms to form in the month of July was four; this record was held by the 1966 and 1995 seasons.[2] The number of storms before the end of July (seven) is also a record, breaking the record of five set in the 1887, 1933, 1936, 1959, 1966, and 1995 seasons.[2]

2005 and 1933 share the record for the most storms (17) forming before the end of September. The 2005 season now also holds the record for most storms (24) forming before the end of October (but not the record for within the month itself, the 1950 season had eight storms). 2005 also broke the record for most storms forming in November, with 3 storms (Gamma, Delta and Epsilon).[4]

Total activity[edit]

Tropical activity during the 2005 season was unusually continuous from start to finish, unlike most hurricane seasons, which have significant quiet periods. Out of the 26 weeks in the hurricane season, just two had no tropical cyclones active at some point (the weeks of June 19 and November 6). For a 126 day stretch (June 28–October 31), only 16 didn't have a storm active and never more than three consecutive. There was record or near-record activity in every month of the season except for June.[2] The 2005 season was the first time since reliable measurements began that the Atlantic basin recorded more tropical storms than the Western Pacific Ocean,[citation needed] which is typically the most active basin worldwide.[citation needed]

Statistics[edit]

This table gives the number of storms by month of formation and storm category on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The meanings of the one-letter (or number) categories can be ascertained by placing the cursor on that heading.

Entries which are bolded surpassed or tied records established by previous seasons.

Month # Storms of class # Storms at least of class
D S 1 2 3 4 5 D S 1 2 3 4 5
Jan-May 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
June 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
July 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 5 5 3 2 2 2 1
August 1 3 0 1 0 0 1 6 5 2 2 1 1 1
September 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 6 5 5 2 2 1 1
October 1 3 2 0 1 0 1 8 7 4 2 2 1 1
November 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 0 0
December 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Season 3 13 7 1 2 1 4 31 28 15 8 7 5 4

Strongest storms[edit]

Most intense Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Pressure
hPa inHg
1 Wilma 2005 882 26.05
2 Gilbert 1988 888 26.23
3 "Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34
4 Rita 2005 895 26.43
5 Allen 1980 899 26.55
6 Camille 1969 900 26.58
7 Katrina 2005 902 26.64
8 Mitch 1998 905 26.73
Dean 2007 905 26.73
10 "Cuba" 1924 910 26.88
Ivan 2004 910 26.88
Source: HURDAT[4]

Hurricane Katrina was briefly the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record, with a minimum central pressure of 902 mbar on August 28.[5] It was surpassed by hurricanes Rita[6] and Wilma[7] later that season.

Hurricane Rita became the third most intense Atlantic hurricane and the most intense hurricane on record in the Gulf of Mexico after reaching a pressure of 895 mbar on September 21.[6] It was surpassed by Wilma later in the season.[7]

Hurricane Wilma became the most intense North Atlantic hurricane in recorded history shortly before 5:00 am EDT on October 18, when the central pressure was measured at 884 mbar.[7] At 8:00 am EDT, Wilma continued to intensify, reaching 882 mbar.[7] Wilma also holds the record of being the only storm recorded in the Atlantic basin to have a minimum central pressure below 900 mbar without also having Category 5 winds: on October 20 its winds were 155 mph and its a central pressure was 894 mbar.[7] Katrina, Rita and Wilma are the three most intense storms ever in a single Atlantic hurricane season.

2005 was the first time two storms recorded pressures below 900 millibars in a single season (Rita, 895; and Wilma, 882).[4]

Hurricane Wilma also underwent the most rapid deepening for a 24-hour period ever measured.[7] At noon on October 18, Wilma had a central pressure of 980 mbar (28.93 inches). At noon on October 19, Wilma had a central pressure of 882 mbar (26.04 inches), a pressure fall of 98 mbar (2.89 inches),[7] breaking the previous record of 92 mbar (2.71 inches) set by Super Typhoon Forrest in the Western Pacific in 1983.[8] Some sources, however, say that Forrest's pressure was lower than originally measured (876 mbar instead of 883 mbar). This would imply that Forrest retains the record with a pressure fall of 100 mbar in 24 hours, and thus this uncertainty is noted here.[citation needed]

In addition, Hurricane Dennis and Hurricane Emily, both in July, reached 930 mbar[9] and 929 mbar[10] respectively, becoming the two strongest storms on record in July.[4]

Katrina was also the third most intense hurricane on record to make landfall in the United States in terms of pressure (920 mbar), behind the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 and Hurricane Camille in 1969.[5][4]

When Emily reached Category 5 intensity on July 16, it became the earliest Category 5 hurricane ever, shattering the record set by Hurricane Allen in the 1980 season.[4][10] When Katrina reached Category 5 intensity on August 28, it became only the third time in recorded history (and the first time since the 1961 season) that there had been two Category 5 hurricanes in a single season.[5][4] When Rita reached Category 5 intensity on September 21, 25 days after Katrina, the 2005 season became the first that had three Category 5 storms.[6][4] When Wilma became a Category 5 storm on October 19, the 2005 season doubled the record set by the 1960 and 1961 seasons, becoming the first that had four Category 5 storms.[4][11]

Rapid formation[edit]

Almost every storm in 2005 has set a record for early formation. The table shows the dates on which each storm formed, and the old record for earliest-forming storm of that number.

Early formation of storms in 2005
From the NHC "best track" data[4]
Storm # Formation Day Name Previous Record Difference
1 June 9 Arlene January 3, 1938 +157 days
2 June 28 Bret May 17, 1887 +42 days
3 July 5 Cindy June 11, 1887 +24 days
4 July 5 Dennis Cindy - July 7, 1959 -2 days
5 July 11 Emily Danny - July 16, 1997 -5 days
6 July 21 Franklin August 4, 1936 -14 days
7 July 24 Gert August 7, 1936 -14 days
8 August 3 Harvey August 15, 1936 -12 days
9 August 7 Irene August 20, 1936 -13 days
10 August 22 Jose Jerry - August 23, 1995 -1 day
11 August 24 Katrina August 28, 1933/1936/
Karen - 1995
-4 days
12 August 31 Lee Luis - August 29, 1995 +2 days
13 September 2 Maria September 8, 1936 -6 days
14 September 5 Nate September 10, 1936 -5 days
15 September 7 Ophelia September 16, 1933 -9 days
16 September 17 Philippe September 27, 1933 -10 days
17 September 18 Rita September 28, 1933 -10 days
18 October 2 Stan October 1, 1933 +1 day
19 October 4 Unnamed October 25, 1933 -21 days
20 October 5 Tammy October 26, 1933 -21 days
21 October 8 Vince November 15, 1933 -38 days
22 October 17 Wilma none N/A
23 October 22 Alpha none N/A
24 October 27 Beta none N/A
25 November 18 Gamma none N/A
26 November 23 Delta none N/A
27 November 29 Epsilon none N/A
28 December 29 Zeta none N/A

† Hurricane Dennis was later surpassed by Tropical Storm Debby in 2012, which developed on June 23.

Season effects[edit]

This is a table of all of the storms that formed in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, damages, and death totals. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or low, and all of the damage figures are in 2005 USD.

Name Dates active Category at
peak intensity
Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Land areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Arlene June 8 – 13 Tropical storm 70 mph (110 km/h) 989 hPa (29.21 inHg) Greater Antilles, Southern and Midwestern United States $11.8 million 1
Bret June 28 – 29 Tropical storm 40 mph (65 km/h) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Mexico $9.3 million 1
Cindy July 3 – 7 Category 1 hurricane 75 mph (120 km/h) 991 hPa (29.27 inHg) Yucatan Peninsula, Eastern United States $320 million 5
Dennis July 4 – 13 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Greater Antilles, Southeastern United States $4 billion 89 [12][13]
Emily July 10 – 21 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 929 hPa (27.44 inHg) Windward Islands, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Texas 1.01 billion 17
Franklin July 21 – 29 Tropical storm 70 mph (110 km/h) 997 hPa (29.27 inHg) The Bahamas, Bermuda, Newfoundland None None
Gert July 23 – 25 Tropical storm 45 mph (75 km/h) 1005 hPa (29.68 inHg) Mexico 6 million 1
Harvey August 2 – 8 Tropical storm 65 mph (100 km/h) 994 hPa (29.36 inHg) Bermuda None None
Irene August 4 – 14 Category 2 hurricane 105 mph (165 km/h) 970 hPa (28.65 inHg) East Coast of the United States None 1
Ten August 13 – 14 Tropical depression 35 mph (55 km/h) 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) None None None
Jose August 22 – 23 Tropical storm 60 mph (95 km/h) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Mexico $45 million 8
Katrina August 23 – 30 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg) Bahamas, Cuba, Southern and Midwestern United States $108 billion 1,836 [14]
Lee August 28 – September 2 Tropical storm 40 mph (65 km/h) 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) None None None
Maria September 1 – 10 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 962 hPa (29.41 inHg) New Jersey, Iceland, Scotland, Norway 3.1 million 4
Nate September 5 – 10 Category 1 hurricane 90 mph (150 km/h) 979 hPa (28.91 inHg) Bermuda, New Jersey None 1
Ophelia September 6 – 17 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) 976 hPa (28.82 inHg) East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada 70 million 3
Philippe September 17 – 23 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) None None None
Rita September 18 – 26 Category 5 hurricane 180 mph (290 km/h) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) Cuba, United States Gulf Coast $12 billion 62 [15]
Nineteen September 30 – October 2 Tropical depression 35 mph (55 km/h) 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) None None None
Stan October 1 – 5 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 977 hPa (28.85 inHg) Mexico, Central America $3.96 billion 1,668 [16][17]
Unnamed October 4 – 5 Subtropical storm 50 mph (85 km/h) 997 hPa (29.27 inHg) Azores None None
Tammy October 5 – 6 Tropical storm 50 mph (85 km/h) 1001 hPa (29.56 inHg) Southeastern United States 30 million None
Twenty-Two October 8 – 10 Subtropical depression 35 mph (55 km/h) 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) Mid-Atlantic states None None
Vince October 8 – 11 Category 1 hurricane 75 mph (120 km/h) 988 hPa (29.18 inHg) Iberian Peninsula Minimal None
Wilma October 15 – 26 Category 5 hurricane 185 mph (295 km/h) 882 hPa (26.05 inHg) Greater Antilles, Central America, Florida $29.3 billion 23 [12][18][19][20]
Alpha October 22 – 24 Tropical storm 50 mph (85 km/h) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Hispaniola 26
Beta October 26 – 31 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 962 hPa (29.41 inHg) Panama, Colombia, Nicaragua, Honduras $15.5 million 9
Gamma November 14–22 Tropical storm 50 mph (85 km/h) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Lesser Antilles, Honduras, Belize $18 million 39
Delta November 22 – 29 Tropical storm 70 mph (110 km/h) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Canary Islands, Morocco, Algeria $364 million 7
Epsilon November 29 – December 8 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) 981 hPa (28.97 inHg) None None None [12]
Zeta December 30 – January 7 Tropical storm 65 mph (100 km/h) 994 hPa (29.36 inHg) Central Atlantic Ocean None None [12]
Season Aggregates
31 systems June 8 - January 6 185 mph (295 km/h) 882 hPa (26.05 inHg) 159 billion 3913


Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE)[edit]

ACE (104kt²) (Source) — Storm:
1 38.9 Wilma 15 5.95 Philippe
2 32.9 Emily 16 5.39 Harvey
3 25.1 Rita 17 2.68 Vince
4 20.0 Katrina 18 2.56 Arlene
5 18.8 Dennis 19 2.36 Stan
6 15.7 Ophelia 20 1.52 Cindy
7 14.3 Maria 21 1.33 Gamma
8 13.4 Epsilon 22 0.810 Tammy
9 13.1 Irene 23 0.650 Alpha
10 7.17 Nate 24 0.528 Gert
11 6.72 Franklin 0.528 Unnamed
12 6.47 Beta 26 0.448 Jose
13 6.27 Zeta 27 0.368 Bret
14 6.02 Delta 28 0.245 Lee
Total: 250

The table to the right shows the tropical storms of the 2005 season ranked from highest to lowest Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), given to three significant figures. The total for the season was 248 x 104 kt2 which is the highest seasonal ACE value recorded. It is slightly higher than that for 1950 season which had an ACE of 243 x 104 kt2. ( the final storm of the season, Zeta, lasted into 2006. In calculating the seasonal ACE, the whole ACE of Zeta, including the contribution made in 2006, was used.)

ACE measures a combination of both the strength and duration of a tropical cyclone, so longer-lasting storms may accumulate more ACE than stronger storms with shorter durations. This discrepancy is most obvious in the comparatively high ACE value of Hurricane Emily to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Emily was not as strong as either storm, but formed out in the Atlantic and made a long track across the Caribbean Sea before making landfall. Katrina and Rita, however, both developed in the Bahamas, close to the U.S. mainland, and lasted for much shorter periods of time. In addition, Ophelia and Epsilon are high for their intensity because they maintained themselves for a long period of time and were slow to build and dissipate, as neither was ever more intense than a Category 1 storm.

The average ACE per storm in 2005 was actually close to the seasonal average. In comparison with previous seasons with high seasonal ACE values, relatively few strong, long-lasting storms, such as Cape Verde-type hurricanes, formed. Thus, although the number of named storms in 2005 was about 40% greater than that in any season since 1950, the seasonal ACE was only marginally greater than the previous record, set in 1950 itself, when the average ACE per storm was approximately double that of 2005.

Source: Best Track data from the Tropical Cyclone Reports.[21]

Other records[edit]

Hurricane Vince developed in an unusual location in the northeastern Atlantic,[22] well away from where tropical cyclones are usually found,[23] though it is neither the most northerly-forming nor the most easterly-forming Atlantic tropical storm.[4] It did, however, develop into a hurricane further east than any known storm, at 18.9° W. The National Hurricane Center declared that Vince was the first tropical cyclone on record to have made landfall on the Iberian Peninsula.[23]

In the spring of 2006, the World Meteorological Organization retired five hurricane names: Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, and Wilma. Their replacements in the 2011 season will be Don, Katia, Rina, Sean, and Whitney, respectively.[24] This surpassed the previous record for the number of hurricane names retired after a single season, four (held by the 1955, 1995, and 2004 seasons).[25] The name Emily was not retired at the end of the season, making Hurricane Emily only the fourth Category 5 hurricane since 1953 (Hurricane Dog of 1950 and Hurricane Easy of 1951 are omitted, as the phonetic alphabet was used from 1950–1952). The others were Hurricane Edith (1971), Hurricane Ethel (1960), and Hurricane Cleo (1958), although the name Cleo was retired in 1964 due to another storm.[25]

Tropical Storm Zeta was one of only two Atlantic systems to exist in two calendar years (the other was Hurricane Alice in 1954-55). It was also one of three to exist in the month of January (the other two being Alice and a subtropical storm in 1978).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b NOAA (2006-04-13). "NOAA Reviews Record-Setting 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 23 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-26. 
  2. ^ a b c d National Climatic Data Center (2006-08-21). "Climate of 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season". NOAA. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  3. ^ National Hurricane Center (1998-12-26). "The 1995 Atlantic Hurricane Season". NOAA. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (April 1, 2014). "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 19, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c Knabb, Richard D.; Rhome, Jamie D.; Brown, Daniel P. (2005-12-20). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-21. 
  6. ^ a b c Knabb, Richard D.; Rhome, Jamie D.; Brown, Daniel P. (2006-03-17). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Rita" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-21. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Richard J. Pasch; Eric S. Blake; Hugh D. Cobb III; David P. Roberts (2006-01-12). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Wilma" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-21. 
  8. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Super Typhoon Forrest. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  9. ^ National Hurricane Center (2005). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Dennis" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-14. 
  10. ^ a b National Hurricane Center (2006). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Emily" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 18 March 2006. Retrieved 2006-03-13. 
  11. ^ National Hurricane Center (2006). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Wilma" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved 2006-02-14. 
  12. ^ a b c d Beven, John L; Avila, Lixion A; Blake, Eric S; Brown, Daniel P; Knabb, Richard D; Pasch, Richard J; Rhome, Jamie R; Stewart, Stacy R (March 1, 2008). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 136 (3): 1109–1173. doi:10.1175/2007MWR2074.1. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2014. 
  13. ^ Church World Service (August 23, 2005). "CWS emergency appeal: Cuba/Hurricane Dennis response". Relief Web. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  14. ^ Knabb, Richard D; Rhome, Jamie R; Brown, Daniel P; National Hurricane Center (December 20, 2005) (PDF). Hurricane Katrina: August 23 – 30, 2005 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL122005_Katrina.pdf. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  15. ^ Knabb, Richard D; Brown, Daniel P; Rhome, Jamie R; National Hurricane Center (March 17, 2006). Hurricane Rita: September 18 - 26, 2005 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL182005_Rita.pdf. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  16. ^ Université Catholique de Louvain (2007). "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database for the Caribbean". Retrieved September 7, 2007. 
  17. ^ Pasch, Richard J; Roberts, David P; National Hurricane Center (February 4, 2006). Hurricane Stan: October 1 - 5, 2005 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL202005_Stan.pdf. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  18. ^ Comisión Nacional del Agua (2006). "Resumen del Huracán "Wilma"" (PDF). Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  19. ^ Royster, Amy (December 4, 2005). "Wilma's Waves Devastate Grand Bahama Communities". Palm Beach Post. (subscription required)
  20. ^ "Hurricane Wilma exacts losses of 704 million dollars: Cuban government". Relief Web. Agence France-Presse. December 4, 2005. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  21. ^ List of Tropical Cyclone Reports for the 2005 AHS
  22. ^ Knabb (2005-10-09). "Tropical Storm Vince Advisory Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  23. ^ a b James L. Franklin (2006-02-22). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Vince" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-04. 
  24. ^ NOAA (2006). "Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan and Wilma "Retired" From List of Storm Names". Archived from the original on 7 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  25. ^ a b Faq : Hurricanes, Typhoons, And Tropical Cyclones "Faq : Hurricanes, Typhoons, And Tropical Cyclones". HURDAT. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 

References[edit]