The Ordinary Summit of ECOWAS was held in Niamey on 13 January 2006 with the Heads of State of Niger (Tandja Mamadou), Mali (Amadou Toumani Touré), Togo (Faure Gnassingbé), Guinea-Bissau (Joao Bernardo Vieira) and Nigeria (Olusegun Obasanjo). The 10 other member countries were represented by their Foreign Ministers. The ECOWAS asked the G8 to extend the cancellation of debt to the whole of the Member States of the organization. It re-elected its chair Tandja Mamadou and decided to transform the secretariat into a commission with a President, a Vice-President and 7 Commissioners. ECOWAS is pleased with the nomination by consensus of a Prime Minister and the composition of a government of national unity in Côte d’Ivoire, as well as the presidential elections being held in Liberia and in Guinea-Bissau. On the economic level, the Heads of State expressed their support for a plan to create a regional airline company "to overcome the difficulties in air transport" in the subregion.
During the summit in Abuja on 14 June 2006, the Heads of States of ECOWAS approved a modification of the organization's hierarchy. The secretariat is to be replaced by a commission of the nine police chiefs of the member states. The 4-year term of the police chiefs from Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo will begin in January 2007. Ghana will head the commission, while Burkina Faso will take the vice-presidency. ECOWAS also adopted a convention which aims "to prohibit the sale of light weapons within the community and between member states, except for the legitimate defense needs of these states or for their participation in peacekeeping operations".
The joint summit of ECOWAS and UEMOA planned for December 22 and December 23, 2006 was cancelled following confrontations between soldiers and police officers in Ouagadougou on December 20.
The 7th Summit of CEMAC was held in Libreville (Gabon) on March 16, 2006. The heads of state of the organization decided to form a strategic international committee to discuss and plan the proposed restructuring of the CEMAC's institutions. They were also concerned with the renewed spread of avian influenza brought up by Cameroon and gave its support to ChadianpresidentIdriss Déby Itno in his opposition of Sudanese actions. Idriss Déby holds the chair of CEMAC.
In the Beninese presidential election, 2006, held on March 5, the outgoing presidentMathieu Kérékou was barred from entering due to the age limit. However, he still actively criticised the organization of the election after the first round, and along with several other political parties (such as the opposition Benin Rebirth Party), openly suggested electoral fraud. International observers, some from ECOWAS, concluded that the poll had taken place under satisfactory conditions and transparency. According to results validated by the constitutional court, Yayi Boni took the lead in the first round with 35.60% of the vote, in front of Adrien Houngbédji with 24.23%. In the second round, Boni won the presidency with a majority of 74.29% against Houndbédji.
In the Gabonese legislative election, 2006, held on December 17, confirmed results from the constitutional court stated that the 7 government coalition parties in support of the incumbent president, Omar Bongo had garnered a majority. Out of the total 120 seats, coalition parties had won a total of 99 seats, compared to the 17 won by the 6 parties of the opposition. The remaining 4 seats were won by independents. An overwhelming 82 seats were won by Bongo's Gabonese Democratic Party alone. No major incidents related to the election were reported.
In the Malagasy presidential election, 2006, held on December 3, incumbent presidentMarc Ravalomanana was voted in for a second term in office with 54.80%, prevailing over 13 other candidates. Voter turnout was estimated at 61.45%. Confusion over preliminary results led opposition candidates to question the validity of the elections, and official complaints were filed to the constitutional court. On December 23, the court ruled that Ravalomanana had indeed won the election. Several weeks before, a coup attempt related to the election occurred. Furthermore, some candidates were barred from participating for various reasons.