2008–09 Australian region cyclone season

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2008–09 Australian region cyclone season
Season summary map
First system formed 18 November 2008
Last system dissipated 28 April 2009
Strongest storm Hamish – 924 hPa (mbar), 215 km/h (130 mph) (10-minute sustained)
Tropical lows 23
Tropical cyclones 11
Severe tropical cyclones 3
Total fatalities 4 direct, 1 indirect
Total damage $103.3 million (2008 USD)
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11
Related articles

The 2008–09 Australian region cyclone season was an event in the cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It officially started on 1 November 2008, and officially ended on 30 April 2009. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 2008 and ended on 30 June 2009.[1]

The scope of the Australian region is limited to all areas south of the equator, east of 90°E and west of 160°E. This area includes Australia, Papua New Guinea, western parts of the Solomon Islands, East Timor and southern parts of Indonesia.[1]

Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane; TCWC Jakarta in Indonesia; and TCWC Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea.[1] The Joint Typhoon Warning Center issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating tropical depressions with the "S" suffix when they form west of 135°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 135°E.

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Bureau of Meteorology[edit]

In October 2008 ahead of the season starting on November 1, the tropical cyclone warning centres in Perth, Darwin and Brisbane issued a seasonal outlook for their area of responsibility, which urged people to prepare for possible tropical cyclones. Within each outlook factors such as the high values of the Southern Oscillation Index, near average sea surface temperatures and the neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation conditions were taken into account.[2][3] TCWC Perth predicted within their seasonal outlook that the North-Western subregion between 105°E and 130°E would see an early start to the season.[2] They also predicted that between 5 - 7 tropical cyclones would occur in the region during the season compared to an average of about 5 and that there was a likelihood of two tropical cyclones and one severe tropical cyclone impacting Western Australia.[2] TCWC Darwin predicted that there might be an early start to the season within the Timor Sea and slightly above average numbers of tropical cyclones around northern Australia.[3] They also noted that there was an even chance of having a severe tropical cyclone in the region during the season.[3] Within their outlook TCWC Brisbane predicted that there would be a high amount of activity within the Australian Monsoon, and that the chances of a repeat of the widespread flooding rains were not great due to their being no well-established La Nina.[4]

Others[edit]

During September 2008, the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and its partners issued a tropical cyclone outlook, for the South Pacific region between 135°E and 120°W.[5]

On 26 September 2008 the New Zealand National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research issued a seasonal forecast for the whole of the southern Pacific Ocean to the east of 150°E. They predicted that the 2008-09 South Pacific cyclone season would see an average risk of cyclones forming, which meant that 8-10 tropical cyclones with wind speeds greater than 35 knots would form east of 150°E.

Seasonal summary[edit]

Cyclone Hamish (2009) Cyclone Innis (2009) Tropical Storm Bernard Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Storms[edit]

Tropical Low 01U (Bernard)[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 21 November – 22 November
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min) 

On 21 November the remnant tropical disturbance of Tropical Storm Bernard, moved into the Australian region before it was last noted later that day.[6]

Tropical Cyclone Anika[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 17 November – 22 November
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

During 17 November TCWC Perth and TCWC Jakarta reported that Tropical Low 02U, had developed within the monsoon trough about 925 km (575 mi) to the northeast of the Cocos Islands.[7] During the next day the low quickly developed further as it was steered on a south-easterly course by an area of persisting north-westerly steering winds.[7] TCWC Perth, TCWC Jakarta and the JTWC then reported early on 19 November that the low had developed into a weak tropical cyclone with Perth naming it Anika.[7][8][9] On 20 November, Anika reached its peak intensity as a Category 2 cyclone with winds of 95 km/h (60 mph) and a pressure of 984 hPa.[10] The intensification was the result of deep convection wrapping around the center of circulation and Dvorak Technique intensity estimates reaching T3.5.[11] Cyclone Anika passed to the north of the Cocos Islands, and cyclone warnings were cancelled later that day.[10] Later that day, it weakened to a Category 1 cyclone.[12] As the storm tracked over cooler waters, it continued to weaken. By 21 November, the storm weakened to a tropical low due to increasing wind shear. The next day, the Anika dissipated over open waters.[10]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Billy[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHS)
Duration 17 December – 28 December
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

On 17 December, a tropical low formed in the Arafura Sea north-west of Darwin in the Northern Territory. It moved into the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and was very slow moving. On the night of 18 December it intensified into a Category 1 cyclone and was named Billy. On 20 December, Billy made landfall as a Category 2 cyclone approximately 65 kilometres north of Wyndham. After then, it weakened to a tropical low and moved slowly south westwards. It then moved off the coast just north of Kuri Bay and redeveloped into a tropical cyclone on 22 December as the storm turned to the north-north east. Late on 24 December, Billy began to rapidly intensify and reached Category 4 strength early on 25 December and became a typical annular cyclone. Later that same day, Billy weakened into a category 3 cyclone as it replaced its eyewall and TCWC Perth issued their final tropical advice as the system was moving away from land. Billy weakened into a category 1 cyclone on 27 December and weakened into a tropical low on 28 December. Later that day, TCWC Perth issued their final advisory as it continued to weaken.[13]

Two remote indigenous communities, Kalumburu and Oombulgurri were cut off by flood waters with roads and the airstrips closed.[14]

Tropical Low 04U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Duration 21 December – 24 December
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

On 20 December, an area of low pressure, associated with developing convection, formed about 1000 km (560 mi) east of Darwin in the Gulf of Carpentaria.[15] The next day, the Bureau of Meteorology in Darwin designated the system as a tropical low.[16] Banding features developed along the southern portion of the system and further development was anticipated as the low was located underneath an anticyclone.[17] Around 5:26 a.m. local time on 23 December, the low made landfall near Port Roper, preventing further development of the storm.[18] About 36 hours after landfall, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology issued their final advisory on the system as it dissipated over land.[19]

Tropical Low 05U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 23 December – 28 December
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

On 23 December, TCWC Brisbane noted that a weak tropical low had formed within the Solomon Sea, about 1330 kilometres to the north east of Cairns.[20] Over the next few days the low moved towards the south west into the Coral Sea.[21]

Tropical Cyclone Charlotte[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 8 January – 12 January
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  987 mbar (hPa)

On 8 January, TCWC Darwin identified a Tropical Low in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria. The next day TCWC Brisbane begin to issue advices on the low issuing Cyclone Watches for coastal communities between Aurukun on the Cape York Peninsula and the Northern Territory/Queensland border. On 11 January, the Tropical Low developed into Tropical Cyclone Charlotte, and on 12 January at 4:00am (AEST), crossed the coast near the Gilbert River Mouth with wind gusts of 120 km/h (70 mph).

Heavy rains, estimated at over 150 mm (5.9 in), from Tropical Cyclone Charlotte flooded at least 100 homes in low-lying areas on Cape York including Babinda, Mount Sophia and at Normanton.[22] The rains also caused mudslides which, as described by an affected home-owner "...it's just mud, mud everywhere". The main road to Karumba was also cut off by flood waters.[23] Damages from the storm are estimated at $15 million (USD).[24]

Tropical Low 07U (05F)[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 11 January – 11 January
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min) 

On 11 January a tropical low formed in the Coral Sea. The winds peaked at 35 miles per hour (56 km/h). The low exited the basin and intensified into Tropical Depression 05F.

Tropical Cyclone Dominic[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 22 January – 27 January
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  976 mbar (hPa)

On 22 January, TCWC Perth noted that Tropical Low 08U had formed overland, to the north of Broome in North-West Australia. JTWC had upgrade this system become a significant tropical cyclone as "good".[25] On 25 January at 11:15am (AWDT), TCWC Perth issued a Tropical Cyclone Warning for coastal areas from Wickham to Exmouth. Later that day, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert as a tropical cyclone was likely to form within the following 48 hours.[25] TCWC Perth begun issuing advices for the developing tropical low and posted tropical cyclone warning along the far western coastline of the Western Australia region. On 26 January, the system became Tropical Cyclone Dominic. Further intensification followed and Dominic was upgraded to a Category 2 cyclone several hours later. Morning of 27 January, Dominic made landfall just after 7am (AWDT) near Onslow.[26][27] Later that day Dominic weakened to a Category 1 cyclone before weakening into a tropical low during the day. JTWC issued its last advisory on this system on 27 January as it continued to weaken inland.

The formation of Dominic in an area that produces significant amounts of oil resulted in numerous evacuations of offshore oil platforms. The platforms remained closed for several days until the storm dissipated, resulting in a loss of roughly 200,000 barrels (32,000 m3) per day, increasing global gasoline prices.[28] A red alert was declared for Onslow In preparations for the landfall of Dominic a crane worker was killed in Port Hedland while dismantling a crane.[29]

In Onslow, the roof of the local library was blown off, resulting in flooding within the building. A nearby hospital also sustained flood damage.[28] Several trees and power lines were downed by high winds and some roads were flooded.[30]

Following the storm, the shires of Ashburton, Carnarvon, Upper Gascoyne, Murchison, Yalgoo, Moora, Northam, York, Quairading and Beverley were eligible for disaster assistance from the Australian Government.[31]

Tropical Cyclone Ellie[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 30 January – 4 February
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

Early on 30 January, the TCWC in Brisbane noted that a Tropical Low, had formed within a monsoon trough.[32] Later that day the JTWC, reported that multi spectral imagery had shown a developing low level circulation center with deep convection located over the western quadrant of the Low level circulation centre.[33] Late the next day the Bureau of Meteorology reported that the low had intensified into a tropical cyclone and assigned the name of Ellie to the cyclone.[34] They also reported that Ellie had reached its peak winds of 80 km/h, (50 mph), which made Ellie a Category one cyclone on the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale.[34] Later that day the Joint Typhoon Warning Center initiated issuing warnings on Ellie designating it as Tropical Cyclone 12P and also reported peak wind speeds of 75 km/h, (45 mph) which made Ellie equivalent to a Tropical Storm on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[35] Ellie made landfall near Mission Beach at about Midnight AEST, 2 February (1400 UTC), as a Category 1 system and weakened into a Tropical Low.[36] TCWC Brisbane was expecting Tropical Low ex-Ellie to move back over the Coral Sea within 24 to 36 hours after Ellie made landfall and possibly reintensify into a tropical cyclone.[36] However, this did not happen. The low that had been Ellie redeveloped within the south eastern Gulf of Carpentaria. Torrential rain from the remnants of Ellie flooded areas in Northern Queensland, causing about A$110 million (US$70.7 million) in damages. In Ingham, between Cairns and Townsville, some 50 homes were flooded, with 32 people evacuated to emergency accommodation at a local high school.[37]

Tropical Cyclone Freddy[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 2 February – 10 February
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  992 mbar (hPa)

On 2 February, TCWC Perth noted that a Tropical Low had developed in the monsoon trough, which was located over the Kimberly region. On 3 February, at 03:45 WDT TCWC Perth issued a cyclone watch for the area between Kalumburu and Broome as the storm continued to move west winds intensified to 75 km/h and warning that the storm may develop into a cyclone later in the day.[38] The system was located 500 km north west of Port Hedland on 5 February and is forecasted to continue moving westward into the Indian Ocean and strengthen into a cyclone although its not expected to affect the West Australian coast line.[39] On 6 February at 1200Z, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center identified the system as Tropical Cyclone 14S. Freddy tracked slowly south westward and steadily weakened as it was affected by more shear and cooler waters. The JTWC issued its final advisory on 9 February, as the system had dissipated. The outer bands of Freddy produced heavy rains in Indonesia. A landslide triggered by these rains killed two people.[40]

Tropical Low 11U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 4 February – 5 February
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min) 

TCWC Brisbane — Coral sea

Tropical Low 12U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 10 February – February
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min) 

TCWC Perth — Timor Sea

Tropical Low 13U (Innis)[edit]

Main article: Cyclone Innis (2009)
Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 18 February – 18 February Out of area
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

On 18 February, the extra tropical remnants of Cyclone Innis, briefly curved into the Australian Region, as a result the remnants were designated as Tropical Low 13U by TCWC Brisbane. However as Innis was expected to recurve into the South Pacific within 24 hours primary warning responsibility remained with TCWC Wellington. Later that day Innis recurved into the south Pacific.

Tropical Low 14U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 25 February – 28 February
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 mbar (hPa)

On 25 February, TCWC Darwin reported a Tropical Low developed within the monsoon trough west of Darwin, Northern Territory. JTWC forecasted of this system becoming a tropical cyclone as "fair". The next early morning TCWC Perth begun issuing tropical cyclone advices on the developing low, posting a cyclone watch for the Pilbara coastal areas. On 26 February, JTWC upgraded the system's chances to "good" and issued the Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. The low made landfall over Port Hedland without becoming a tropical cyclone.

The tropical low dropped upwards of 112 mm (4.4 in) of rain along the Pilbara coast, causing minor flooding. Flood warnings and watches were issued for areas around several rivers due to the rains.[41]

Tropical Low Hina[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 22 February
(Entered Basin) – 23 February
(Crossed Basin)
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 mbar (hPa)

TCWC Darwin

Tropical Low Gabrielle[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 1 March – 5 March
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  996 mbar (hPa)

Gabrielle formed out of a low pressure system that quickly developed. It begin to move south east and soon weakened into a tropical low. It slowly tracked south and south westwardly, it slowly reintensified and gained tropical cyclone status. As an anticyclone possibly forming to the south of the system. This might have allowed the storm to strengthen a bit before dissipating over cooler waters later in the week, but it then unexpectedly turned the west and dissipated on 5 March.

Bureau of Meteorology in Perth noted that in post-analysis determined that Gabrielle did not meet the minimum requirements of a tropical cyclone by the Australian definition. Gales were observed in one quadrant or another throughout most of Gabrielle's life but at no one time did they extend more than halfway around the low level circulation center.[42]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Hamish[edit]

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHS)
Duration 4 March – 11 March
Peak intensity 215 km/h (130 mph) (10-min)  924 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Hamish

On 4 March, a weak Tropical Low developed in an active trough located over the north western Coral Sea slowly moving south east. The low began to intensify despite its proximity to land. At 11pm EST (1100 UTC), the Tropical Low developed into Tropical Cyclone Hamish and convective band begin to develop. The next day, the cyclone strengthened into a Category 2 cyclone, and by the 11pm advisory, had strengthen further to a Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone and a defined eye showed on the satellite. Later that day it begin to affect the north eastern Queensland. On 7 March, Hamish was located approximately 230 kilometres from Cairns with the Bureau of Meteorology expecting Hamish to intensify into a Category 4 with the cyclone expecting to brush through near Mackay on Sunday night or Monday morning.[43] during that day Hamish had intensified to a Category 4 cyclone.[44] Later that day the storm intensified into a Category 5 cyclone, the first since Cyclone George, during its closest approach to Hayman Island. During 8 March, Severe Tropical Cyclone Hamish weakened to a Category 4 cyclone. The cyclone was forecasted to make landfall near Bundaberg however the Bureau of Meteorology then expected Hamish not to make landfall and to continue to move in a south easterly direction and slowly weaken. A trawler caught in rough seas produced by the storm sent out a distress signal as it was overcome by the storm. Rescue attempts to retrieve the three crew members were hampered by Hamish and were called off but expected to resume of 10 March.[45] On 10 March 11am EST (0100 UTC) Hamish had weakened to a Category 3 cyclone with the Bureau of Meteorology is expected that Hamish slow and continue to weaken. On 11 March 7am EST (2100 UTC) the Hamish weakened further to a Category 2 cyclone with the Bureau of Meteorology expected Hamish to continually be slow moving and weaken, with the cyclone beginning to move in a north west direction later in the day. The storm continued to weaken and BoM downgraded it to a tropical low later that day.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Ilsa[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHS)
Duration 12 March – 27 March
Peak intensity 165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  958 mbar (hPa)

On 12 March, TCWC Darwin identified that a weak tropical low had formed in the Arafura Sea.[46] On 17 March, TCWC Perth began issuing shipping warnings for the developing tropical low. The low developed into Tropical Cyclone Ilsa late on 17 March. Ilsa became a Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone on the evening of 19 March and continued to intensify, despite predictions that Ilsa would weaken. Ilsa quickly strengthened the next morning to a Category 4 cyclone, despite predictions that the cyclone would weaken before reaching that intensity. Steady weakening began soon after; Ilsa was downgraded to a Category 3 cyclone on 20 March and to Category 1 on 23 March. On 24 March, the cyclone was downgraded to a tropical low and advisories were discontinued.

Tropical Low 19U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 19 March – 20 March
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  999 mbar (hPa)

On 19 March, TCWC Brisbane identified that a weak tropical low had formed in the Coral Sea near 13S, 153E. Conditions remained unfavourable for development and the storm rapidly dissipated.

Forming in the same area as Cyclone Hamish did earlier in March, officials along the Sunshine Coast feared that it could track towards the disaster zones along the Queensland coast. The storm could hinder clean-up efforts of the large oil spill caused by Hamish. Another fear was that residents would panic upon hearing of another approaching cyclone, leading to unnecessary evacuations.[47] Up to 68 mm (2.6 in) of rain fell in South Johnstone.[48]

Tropical Cyclone Jasper[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 22 March – 24 March Out of area
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

On 23 March, the remnants of Tropical Low 20U combined with areas of the monsoon trough to form a new low pressure system. This area rapidly consolidated into a new Tropical Low and on 24 March, developed into Tropical Cyclone Jasper in the eastern Coral Sea. Jasper exited the Australian region and entered into the South Pacific, RSMC Nadi region of responsibility. It then weakened unexpectedly and dissipated as it began to move off the coast of New Caledonia.

Tropical Low 21U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 23 March –
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

TCWC Darwin - 23 March

Tropical Low 22U (15F)[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 11 April – 13 April
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

Early on 11 April, Tropical Disturbance 15F moved into TCWC Brisbane's area of responsibility and was re-designated as Tropical Low 22U.[49][50] Over the next couple of days, the disturbance remained weak as it moved towards the southern tip of Papua New Guinea. The tropical low then dissipated on 13 April.[51][52]

Tropical Cyclone Kirrily[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration 18 April – 1 May
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

On 18 April, TCWC Darwin and TCWC Jakarta reported that a weak tropical low, had developed within the Arafura Sea near the Tanimbar Islands.[53][54] Over the next week, the low remained weak as it moved towards the eastwards, before it turned towards the northwest during 25 April.[53][54] JTWC reported the system's chances forming into a significant Tropical Cyclone within 24 hours as "poor". Later on 26 April, JTWC upgraded the low's chances of forming from "poor" to "fair" and later in afternoon the low strengthened with JTWC upgrading the low from "fair" to "good" and issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. Joint Typhoon Warning Center designated the system as Tropical Cyclone 27S later on 27 April. In the afternoon, TCWC Darwin upgraded 23U to a Category 1 tropical cyclone and designated it as Tropical Cyclone Kirrily. Later that day, as it made landfall over Aru Islands, the low weakened slightly and JTWC downgraded Kirrily to tropical depression, and TCWC Darwin downgraded Kirrily to a tropical low. In the afternoon of the 27th, the JTWC again upgraded Kirrily into tropical storm. In the afternoon of the next day, JTWC issued their final warning on Kirrily (27S) and BoM downgraded the storm to a tropical low.

Season impact[edit]

Name Dates active Peak classification Windspeeds Pressure Areas affected Damages (AU) Damages (US) Deaths Refs
Bernard 21 November Tropical low 35 km/h, (25 mph) 1003 hPa (29.62 inHg) None None None None [6]
Anika 17 – 22 November Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h, (60 mph) 990 hPa (29.24 inHg) Cocos Island None None None [7]
Billy 15 December – 5 January Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 175 km/h, (110 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) North Western Australia 1 [55]
04U 22 – 24 December Tropical low 45 km/h, (30 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Northern Territory None None
05U 23 December – 28 December Tropical low 25 1003 none none
Charlotte 10 – 12 January Category 1 tropical cyclone 85 km/h, (50 mph) 987 hPa (29.14 inHg) Northern Territory, Cape York Peninsular
Dominic 24 – 27 January Category 2 tropical cyclone 100 km/h, (65 mph) 976 hPa (28.82 inHg) Kimberley, Pilbara
08U 25 January – 26 January Tropical low 35 1000 none none
09U 28 January – 30 January Tropical low 30 1001 none none
Ellie 30 January – 4 February Category 1 tropical cyclone 75 km/h (45 mph) 989 hPa (29.20 inHg) Cape York $110 million $70.7 million
Freddy 3 – 13 February Category 1 tropical cyclone 85 km/h, (50 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) None None None None
12U 5 February – 7 February Tropical low 30 1003 none none
13U 13 February – 16 February Tropical low 30 998 none none
14U 18 February – 18 February Tropical low 30 998 none none
15U 25 February – 28 February Tropical low 35 996 Port Hedland, Western Australia 28 February 35 minimal
Gabrielle 27 February – 6 March Tropical low 65 km/h, (40 mph) 996 hPa (29.42 inHg) None None None None [42]
Hamish 4 – 11 March Category 5 Severe Tropical Cyclone 215 km/h, (130 mph) 924 hPa (27.29 inHg) Queensland $46 million $46 million 2
Ilsa 12 – 27 March Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 165 km/h, (105 mph) 958 hPa (28.29 inHg)
19U 16 March – 20 March Tropical low 30 999 none none
Jasper 22 – 24 March Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h, (60 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) New Caledonia None None None
21U 27 March – 31 March Tropical low 35 1002 none none
22U 11 – 13 April Tropical low 25 1004 none none
Kirrily 18 April – 1 May Category 1 tropical cyclone 75 km/h, (45 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Indonesia Minimal Minimal None [53]
Season Aggregates
23 systems 18 November – 28 April   215 km/h (130 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg)   5


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Tropical Cyclone Operational plan for the South Pacific & Southeast Indian Ocean 2008" (PDF). WMO. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (20 October 2008). "Outlook for tropical cyclone season for North West Australia: Weather Bureau Warns of Early Cyclone Risk". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Darwin Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (20 October 2008). "Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Outlook for the Northern Region: Territorians urged to learn cyclone lessons from past few seasons". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Brisbane Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (20 October 2008). "A Tropical Cyclone Coastal Impact is more likely than not this season". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Average risk of tropical cyclones across the South Pacific" (PDF) (Press release). National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research. September 26, 2008. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b RSMC La Reunion. "RSMC La Reunion Best Track Anaylsis: Tropical Storm Bernard". Meteo France. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
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  8. ^ http://www.usno.navy.mil/NOOC/nmfc-ph/RSS/jtwc/best_tracks/2009/2009s-bsh/bsh022009.txt
  9. ^ "Cyclone Anika Advice Number 5". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2009. 
  10. ^ a b c Western Australian Regional Office (2009). "Preliminary Tropical Cyclone Report for Tropical Cyclone Anika". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 18 March 2009. 
  11. ^ "Cyclone Anika Technical Bulletin 20-11-08 00Z". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2009. 
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  13. ^ "TCWC Perth's final advisory on Billy". TCWC Perth. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 
  14. ^ "Cyclone Billy expected to intensify". The Age. 21 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 
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  18. ^ "Severe Weather Warning". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2009. 
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