2008–10 Thai political crisis

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The People's Alliance for Democracy laid siege to and occupied the Government House from August to December of 2008.

Since 2008, there has been an ongoing political crisis in Thailand in form of a conflict between the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) and the People's Power Party (PPP) governments of Prime Ministers Samak Sundaravej and Somchai Wongsawat, respectively, and later between the Democrat Party government of Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva and the National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD). It is a continuation of the 2005–2006 political crisis, wherein the PAD protested against the Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The PAD's followers usually dress in yellow, called 'the yellow shirts', the royal color of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. The UDD's followers dress in red, widely called 'the red shirts', known as the supporters of the deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

History[edit]

Timeline of key events
2008
29 January
Samak Sundaravej forms a coalition government and becomes prime minister, after winning the majority of seats in the 2007 general elections.
28 February Former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra returns to Thailand after his political allies won new elections and formed a coalition government. He and his wife face charges of corruption.
28 March The PAD regroups, threatening to resume protests against Thaksin.
25 May The PAD begins demonstrations at Democracy Monument, demanding Samak's resignation, and later settles at Makkhawan Rangsan Bridge.
27 June Samak's government survives no-confidence motion in parliament.
11 August Thaksin and his (then) wife, Potjaman Na Pombejra, skipped bail and fled to the UK two weeks after she was sentenced to three years in prison for fraud.
26 August PAD protesters invade Government House, three ministries and headquarters of the NBT. Little effort is made to remove the protesters from Government House, although minor clashes between police and protesters are seen.
01.08.2008 Train and air transport are disrupted by PAD supporters, although services would resume a few days later and state enterprise unions would not follow up on their threat to disrupt services.
2 September Anti-PAD protesters clash with the PAD, leaving 1 dead and 43 injured. A state of emergency is declared in Bangkok, which would last until 14 September.
9 September The Constitutional Court finds Samak guilty of conflict of interest, terminating his premiership.
17 September Somchai Wongsawat, Thaksin's brother-in-law, is ratified by the National Assembly and becomes prime minister. He is rejected by the PAD for being Thaksin's nominee.
29 September Deputy Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh begins negotiations with PAD leaders.
4–5 October PAD leaders Chaiwat Sinsuwongse and Chamlong Srimuang are arrested by police on insurrection charges filed since shortly after invasion of Government House in August.
6 October PAD protesters rally at parliament, attempting to block a parliament session in which Prime Minister Somchai is to seek approval of policies. Police attempt to disperse protesters using tear gas. Somchai is forced to cross a fence to exit, while members of parliament are stranded in the building for many hours. Intermittent clashes day-long leave 2 dead and over 300 injured, including 20 policemen. Military troops are deployed to help control the situation.
9 October An appeals court withdraws insurrection charges against PAD leaders and releases Chamlong and Chaiwat on bail. The following day, The remaining PAD leaders turn themselves in to police and are released on bail.
21 October The supreme court found Thaksin guilty in a land purchase conflict of interest case, and sentenced him to two years in prison.
8 November The Government of the UK, where Thaksin had been primarily residing, revoked the visas of Thaksin and his (then) wife, Potjaman Na Pombejra, while the couple were travelling in China.
25 November The PAD blockades Don Mueang, where the government held its temporary offices, and Suvarnabhumi International Airports, leaving thousands of tourists stranded and cutting off most of Thailand's international air connections. Several explosions and clashes occur in the following days.
2 December After weeks of opposition-led protests, the Constitutional Court of Thailand dissolved the governing People's Power Party and two coalition member parties and banned leaders of the parties, including Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat, from politics for five years. Wongsawat promptly resigns.
2009
11–12 April
The UDD protest group stormed the Fourth East Asia Summit in Pattaya, forcing its cancellation. Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva declares a state of emergency in Bangkok and five neighbouring provinces.
2010
March–April
"Red shirt" opposition supporter protests result in 18 deaths and over 800 injured.
2010
13–16 May
Violence escalates as police and troops besiege protest camp. At least 35 people are killed and over 250 injured in clashes, including foreign journalists and medical workers. First reports of police officers joining with protestors and shooting at the army. "Red Shirt" leaders warn of the possibility of civil war.
2010
19 May
Army overruns red shirt camp resulting in the death of 12 people. Red Shirt leaders surrender and are arrested which is followed by rioting across Bangkok in which many buildings are destroyed by arson attacks including the CentralWorld shopping centre.

The PPP won the December 2007 general election. Though it became the largest party in the House, it did not gain an absolute majority. However, PPP became the leading party when five other smaller parties, who had previously been allies of Thaksin Shinawatra, agreed to join the coalition government under Samak Sundaravej.

The coalition government vowed to amend the 2007 constitution they called undemocratic, prompting the PAD to resume protests against the constitutional amendment plan after having suspended its movement after the 2006 coup. The PAD protested that the amendment was aimed at revoking Thaksin's legal charges and the election fraud charges on PPP executive members. The Samak government finally suspended its amendment plan, yet the PAD vowed to continue their protest, calling for Samak Sundaravej's resignation, noting that during his election campaign, he had declared himself a nominee of Thaksin. The tension escalated when the PAD seized Government House.

Samak was forced to resign in September after the Constitutional Court found him guilty of being hired and paid by a cooking TV program after he became the prime minister. PPP deputy leader Somchai Wongsawat, vice president of PPP and a brother-in-law of Thaksin, was elected by the members of parliament and became the new prime minister. This change prompted a continuation of PAD protests. The protests led to violent clashes between the police, the PAD, and anti-PAD protesters on 7 October as the government aimed to disperse them from blocking the entrances of the House. Consequently, a PAD protester was killed due to a grenade near the premier's office, while a member of the PAD security forces was killed when his car exploded prematurely. Many protesters were also injured.

As the PAD was attacked, the PAD then stepped up their protests by seizing the government's temporary offices at Don Muang Airport, and the seizure and closure of Suvarnabhumi Airport after the arrest of Chamlong Srimuang, one of its leaders. The sieges ended in December due to the verdict of the Constitutional Court, which dissolved the PPP and banned its executive board from political office after finding it guilty of election fraud. The Constitutional Court dissolved two coalition partners of the PPP on similar charges, which broke the coalition apart. Prime minister Somchai resigned.

It is alleged that the army then urged MPs of a former PPP faction, the Friends of Newin Group, and MPs of the former PPP coalition partners to cross the aisle and form a coalition with the Democrat Party leader Abhisit Vejjajiva. After days of negotiations, Abhisit Vejjajiva, leader of the Democrat Party, was voted in eventually by a margin of 235 in favor and 198 against.

PPP members and its supporters, UDD, then protested Abhisit's rise to power and engaged in a mass protest in Bangkok in April 2009. The Government's House was under siege again and main roads, intersections and entrances to hospitals were blocked in downtown Bangkok.

The protest also took place in Pattaya, the site of the planned Fourth East Asia Summit. After clashes with security forces and government supporters called 'the blue-shirts', the Thaksin loyalists eventually stormed the hotel, disrupting the Fourth East Asia Summit in Pattaya. A state of emergency was then declared in Pattaya while protests in Bangkok became more violent. The next day the government arrested the leaders of the Pattaya protest, causing unrest at the Supreme Court and the Interior Ministry, where prime minister Abhisit was declaring the State of Emergency in Bangkok. The protesters finally stormed the ministry, 'hunting' the premier and ministers. The premier's secretary and several guards were injured. The situation became more intense in the evening after the government called in the military forces to secure the capital. The military forces began disbanding the protests on main roads. Violent clashes, burning buses, and wheels were seen in downtown. Clashes between the red-shirts and the 'Bangkokians' took place in many areas as the red-shirts tried to storm their homes, burning wheels and blocking the railway. The protesters claimed that at least two Bangkokians were shot dead in downtown, the charge was denied by the authority as there was no strong evidence supporting the charge. Eventually, on 14 April, the leaders of the red-shirts decided to end their protest at the Government House.

The People's Alliance for Democracy, comprising media activists, social activists, academics, and leaders of worker's unions, is opposed to what it calls the "Thaksin system", which is seen by some as the Thaksin' 'autocracy'; in what has been described as his domination of independent supervisory institutions and violations of human rights and the freedom of the press. It began the mass protest against Thaksin Shinawatra in 2006 after the removal of the critical TV program of Sondhi Limthongkul. In 2008, the PAD accused Samak Sundaravej and Somchai Wongsawat of being proxies for Thaksin. Samak had announced that he was Thaksin's nominee during his election campaign, Somchai is Thaksin's brother-in-law, and several new Pheu Thai Party members are former TRT/PPP members. The PAD is opposed to all attempts to reform the constitution in ways that would allow politicians banned from political office to re-enter politics, and to revoking the charges against Thaksin. The PAD has also called for "New Politics", a 'new age of politics, free from the corrupted politicians'. In May 2009, the PAD founded its party, the New Politics Party. One of the PAD's major aims is to oppose what it considers as the anti-monarchy movement, supposedly among some Thaksin supporters. PAD has promoted the role of the king as the 'guard' of the all people's power against the 'corrupted politician'. That is why the PAD uses the colour of yellow, the Rama IX's symbolic colour of his birthday, Monday, as its brand. Yet its ideology was blasted by some critics as 'anti-democratic'.

The National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship is the group consisting of mainly social activists, scholars, and Thaksin supporters which opposes the 2006 coup deposing Thaksin Shinawatra. It believes that the coup was supported by powerful persons, the 'elites' or 'nobles', targeting Prem Tinsulanonda, the Chief of the royal Privy Council. The UDD aims to topple the amatayathipatai (government run by traditional elites, nobles, and the bureaucratic polity). In the April 2009 protest, its aims were the immediate resignation of the prime minister Abhisit Vejjajiva and members of the Privy Council Prem Tinsulanonda and Surayud Chulanont as well as fresh elections. It also demanded that charges be brought against the PAD for the 2008 airport seizures and unrest. Several members of Parliament in the Pheu Thai Party are public in their support of UDD, as well as of Thaksin Shinawatra himself.

In early 2010 a series of events occurred in which the situation escalated. On 26 February, assets worth 46 billion Thai baht were seized from former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. On the evening of 27 February, M67 grenades were thrown from a motorcycle outside three branches of Bangkok Bank. By mid-March "red shirt" protesters, composed mainly of Thaksin supporters, had moved into Bangkok. Although relatively peaceful in nature, human blood donated by some of the protesters was poured outside parliament. On 10 April, the protesters took control of a TV broadcasting station causing Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva to vow to restore Thailand to normalcy. Clashes between protesters and military had resulted in 18 fatalities (both civilian and military) and over 800 injured by 11 April. On 22 April, a series of explosions in Bangkok killed at least three people and injured 75 more, including four foreigners. At least some of the explosions were caused by grenades, which the government claimed had been fired from the Red Shirt encampment.

Origins of the crisis[edit]

The 2008 crisis had its roots in the 2005–2006 Thai political crisis, the 2005 elections and 2006 elections, the 2006 coup, and the 2007 general election.

Thaksin Shinawatra's Thai Rak Thai party (TRT) won a landslide victory in the 2001 election, the first elections held under the Thai Constitution of 1997. Thaksin's grassroots economic policies helped reduce poverty and provided universal health care, making him hugely popular in rural Thailand. His drug policies were effective at reducing drug use but were attacked for the large number of extrajudicial executions that resulted. He was accused of conflicts of interest due to his family's continued holdings in Shin Corporation, the telecoms business that he founded prior to becoming Premier. Despite this, he became the first politician in Thai history to finish his term. Thaksin's re-election in 2005 election had the highest voter turnout in Thai history.[1][2][3]

Media mogul Sondhi Limthongkul had been a staunch supporter of Thaksin until major losses at state-owned Krung Thai Bank caused CEO Viroj Nualkhair to be fired. Viroj was Sondhi's former banker and had forgiven Sondhi for billions in bad personal debts. Sondhi's levied public criticisms of Thaksin on his TV show and his media outlets, the Manager Daily newspaper and ASTV.

Sondhi's People's Alliance for Democracy soon gathered supporters among Dhammayuttika Nikaya disciples of Luang Ta Maha Bua, prominent socialites and members of the Thai royal family who claimed that Thaksin frequently insulted King Bhumibol Adulyadej, several state-enterprise unions who were against Thaksin's state-enterprise privatization plans, and various factions in the Royal Thai Army who claimed that Thaksin promoted only those who were loyal to him. The movement gained in popularity after Thaksin's family sold their share in Shin Corporation to Temasek Holdings, while making use of a regulation that exempted individuals from paying capital gains tax. The PAD led protests demanding that Thaksin pay additional taxes, despite the SEC and the Revenue Department saying that no wrong was done.[4]

The protests escalated. In February 2006, Army Commander Sonthi Boonyaratglin started secretly planning for a military coup, despite regular denials.[5][6][7] On 14 July 2006, Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda addressed graduating cadets of the Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, telling them that the Thai military must obey the orders of the King – not the Government.[8]

The coup was executed on 19 September 2006 while Thaksin was attending a UN summit, just weeks before a planned Parliamentary election. The junta canceled the elections, abrogated the Constitution, dissolved Parliament, banned protests and all political activities, suppressed and censored the media, declared martial law, and arrested Cabinet members. The PAD voluntarily dissolved after announcing that its goals had been accomplished.[9] Surayud Chulanont, Prem's former close aide, was appointed Prime Minister. A junta-appointed court banned the TRT and 111 of its executives from politics for five years. Privy Council President Prem harshly criticized Thaksin, who was in exile, comparing him to Adolf Hitler.[10] A junta-appointed committee drafted a substantially revised constitution. Elections were scheduled for December 2007. Many TRT politicians moved to the People's Power Party. The PPP won the December elections and nominated Samak Sundaravej as Premier.

2008 resumption of PAD protests[edit]

A line of PAD demonstrators in Bangkok

The Samak Sundaravej government, elected in the December 2007 general elections, came under pressure to resign since May 2008, when the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) reformed and staged regular street protests. They protested the government’s proposals to amend the 2007 constitution, claiming that Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej and his government are acting as a proxy for former deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.[11] The PAD also criticized the Samak government's decision to support the Cambodian government's application for the listing of the disputed Preah Vihear Temple as a World Heritage site. Tensions rose between Thailand and Cambodia as the PAD called for Thai investors to withdraw from Cambodia, the closure of all 40 Thai-Cambodian border checkpoints, a ban on all flights from Thailand to Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, the construction of a naval base at Koh Kut near the border, and the abolition of the committee which oversees demarcation of overlapping sea areas and the unilateral declaration of a Thai marine map.[12]

In late June, the opposition filed a no-confidence motion in parliament, which the government survived. The PAD proposed that the constitution be amended to reduce the proportion of elected members of Parliament. This would disenfranchise the rural population, which the PAD viewed as being insufficiently educated to vote for anti-Thaksin Shinawatra parties.

Siege of Government House[edit]

PAD protesters at the Government House on 26 August

Tensions escalated to crisis when on Tuesday 26 August the protesters stormed and occupied the grounds of the Government House, displacing the prime minister from his offices.[13] Another armed group attacked the headquarters of the National Broadcasting Services of Thailand,[14] while the offices of three ministries were also partially invaded. Major roads into Bangkok were blocked by PAD supporters. Prime Minister Samak remained defiant, refusing to resign, while also vowing not to violently remove the protesters. Despite a court warrant for the arrest of the PAD’s nine leaders and a Civil Court order to evacuate, the PAD remained firmly lodged in the government compound.[15] Friday 29th saw semi-violent clashes at various protest sites between protesters and riot police, who were still largely unable to control the group.[16]

Transport infrastructure was disrupted beginning 29 August, with state railway workers union, the PAD's alliance, was on strike partially disabling train services. PAD demonstrators occupied the runways of and closed down airports in the southern cities of Hat Yai, Phuket and Krabi.[17] (The airports later reopened on the 30th and 31st.) The State Enterprise Worker’s Union threatened to disrupt public infrastructure services including electricity, waterworks, airline, bus, port and communications services, beginning with police and government offices, on 3 September.

Prime Minister Samak called an emergency session of parliament on 31 August to resolve the issue, but refused to dissolve parliament as suggested by the opposition.[18] Meanwhile, pro-Thaksin protesters calling themselves the United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship of Thailand (UDDT) began to gather in Sanam Luang.

September 2008 state of emergency[edit]

One week after the PAD began occupation of the Government House grounds, violence erupted as members of the UDDT clashed with the PAD in a melee involving firearms, resulting in 43 injuries and at least one death. Prime Minister Samak, by virtue of the Emergency Decree on Public Administration in Emergency Situation, BE 2548 (2005), declared a state of emergency in Bangkok at 07.00 hours of the following morning.[19]

Sundaravej also put Gen Anupong Paochinda, Army Commander in Chief, in charge of the remedy of the said State of Emergency, and appointed Pol Gen Patcharavat Wongsuwan, National Police Commander in Chief, and Lt Gen Prayuth Chan-ocha, 1st Army Area Commander as assistants to Gen Anupong.[20] He also issued bans on the gathering or assemblage of more than five persons within the Bangkok Metropolis; on the nationwide press release, distribution or dissemination of letters, publications or any other information containing the matters which may instigate apprehension amongst the people or is intended to distort information in order to mislead an understanding of the State of Emergency to the extent of affecting the security of state or public peace and order or good moral of the people; and on other matters which were a kind of public rights and liberties restriction.[21][22]

However, on the same day, Mr Nitithon Lamluea, a member of Thailand Lawyer Council’s Human Rights Committee, lodged with the Supreme Administrative Court a complaint against Prime Minister Samak accusing him of abuse of power as he imposed a state of emergency in Bangkok, but the circumstances on 2 September were not what was prescribed in said Emergency Decree as being a State of Emergency. The complaint also requested the Court to revoke the State of Emergency.[23] Tej Bunnag, then the Minister of Foreign Affairs, resigned from office as he disagreed with the Government’s measures to remedy the crisis and felt uneasy in representing the Government to foreigners when explaining the prevailing circumstances to them.[24][25]

On 14 September, the Government issued an Announcement revoking the State of Emergency throughout Bangkok together with all the pertinent announcements, orders, and articles.[26][27]

Fall of Samak[edit]

In 9 September 2008, the Constitutional Court of Thailand found that Samak had hosted and received payment for hosting two cooking TV shows, "Tasting and Grumbling" and "All Set at 6 am," for a few months after he had become Prime Minister. He had been hosting the shows for years prior to becoming Premier. Section 267 of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand forbids members of the Cabinet from being employees of any person; this was to prevent conflicts of interest. The court found that although Samak was a contractor to the show's producers, and did not fit the definition of the term "employee" as defined under the Civil and Commercial Code, the law on labour protection or the law on taxation, the spirit of the Constitution gave a broader definition to the term. It thus found Samak guilty of breaching the Constitution and terminated his Premiership.

A session of the House of Representatives was held on 12 September to vote for a new prime minister. The People Power Party decided to renominate Samak as Premier (he had stopped hosting the TV shows earlier that year and thus was no longer an employee). The session was cut short because the House lacked a quorum. The nomination of a new Prime Minister was postponed until 17 September, where the PPP successfully nominated Deputy Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat as Premier.

Reactions to court decision[edit]

Karn Tienkaew, deputy leader of Samak’s People Power Party, said the party planned to propose a parliamentary vote Wednesday on returning Samak to power: "Samak still has legitimacy. The party still hopes to vote him back unless he says no. Otherwise we have many other capable candidates."[28]

On 10 September 2008, however, the PPP shied away from their earlier statement they would renominate Sundaravej and was apparently looking for an alternative candidate instead;[29] the new PM was to be nominated on 12 September 2008.[30]

People Power Party’s deputy spokesman Kuthep Suthin Klangsang, on 12 September 2008, announced that: "Samak has accepted his nomination for prime minister. Samak said he is confident that parliament will find him fit for office, and that he is happy to accept the post. A majority of party members voted Thursday to reappoint Samak. Samak is the leader of our party so he is the best choice." Despite objections from its coalition partners, the PPP, in an urgent meeting, unanimously decided to renominate Samak Sundaravej. 5 coalition parties, namely Chart Thai, Neutral Democratic, Pracharaj, Puea Pandin and Ruam Jai Thai Chart Pattana, unanimously agreed to support the People Power party (PPP) to set up the new government and vote for the person who should be nominated as the new prime minister. Chart Thai deputy leader Somsak Prissananantakul and Ruam Jai Thai Chart Pattana leader Chettha Thanajaro said the next prime minister who will be nominated on Friday. Caretaker prime minister Somchai Wongsawat said PPP secretary-general Surapong Suebwonglee will notify the 5 parties who the PPP nominates to take office again.[31][32][33] Some lawmakers, however, said they will propose an alternate candidate. Meanwhile, Thailand’s army chief Gen. Anupong Paochinda said he backed the creation of a unity government that would include all the country’s parties, and he also asked for the lifting of a state of emergency that Samak imposed on 2 September.[34]

On 12 September 2008, the quorum for selecting the new PM was not reached and the decision was delayed to 17 September 2008 in an event seen as signaling the end of Samak’s career.[35] After its four coalition partners stated they'd prefer someone else to become PM instead of Samak, the PPP agreed to drop his nomination.[36] Embattled Samak Sundaravej abandoned his bid to regain his Thailand Prime Minister post, and Teerapon Noprampa said Samak would also give up the ruling People’s Power Party (PPP) leadership.[37][38] Meanwhile, PPP’s chief party spokesman Kudeb Saikrachang and Kan Thiankaew announced on 13 September that caretaker prime minister Somchai Wongsawat, caretaker justice minister Sompong Amornwiwat, and PPP Secretary-General Surapong Suebwonglee were PPP’s candidates for the premiership.[39] However, Suriyasai Katasila of People's Alliance for Democracy (a group of royalist businessmen, academics, and activists), vowed to continue its occupation of Government House if a PPP candidate would be nominated: "We would accept anyone as prime minister, as long as he is not from the PPP."[40]

The ruling People Power Party, on 15 September 2008, named Somchai Wongsawat, as its candidate for prime minister to succeed Samak Sundaravej.[41] Somchai Wongsawat was ratified by the National Assembly of Thailand as Prime Minister of Thailand on 17 September,[42] winning 263 votes against 163 votes[43] for Abhisit Vejjajiva.

October violence[edit]

Chamlong's arrest[edit]

On 4 and 5 October 2008, respectively, Chamlong Srimuang and rally organizer, Chaiwat Sinsuwongse, of People's Alliance for Democracy, were detained by the Thai police on charges of insurrection, conspiracy, illegal assembly, and refusing orders to disperse (treason) against each of them and eight other protest leaders. At the Government House, Sondhi Limthongkul, however, stated that demonstrations would continue.

Clashes and the siege of Parliament[edit]

Armed with batons, PAD forces surrounded Parliament and used razor wire barricades to prevent the legislature from meeting to hear Samak's replacement, Somchai Wongsawat, formally announce his policies. The government decided to crack down on the protesters. Police used tear gas but many bullets were fired at the protesters. Many protesters got seriously wounded; some even lost legs, causing over a hundred injuries.[44] One additional PAD leader was killed, claimed by the police, when the bomb in his car went off in front of the headquarters of the Chart Thai Party, a member of the government coalition.[45][46][47][48] Several protesters lost their hands and legs, although it was not clear whether these injuries were caused by tear gas rounds or the ping-pong grenades. Pornthip Rojanasunand, Director of the Central Institute of Forensic Science, claimed that the loss of one particular PAD member's leg could not have been the result of tear gas usage, but came from a more powerful explosion.[49] After viewing photographs of Angkhana Radappanyawut's injuries, Pornthip Rojanasunand suggested unequivocally that the death was caused by the explosion of a tear gas canister. She also stated that there was no need to conduct further investigations into the death and injuries of protesters because it became clear that they were caused by weapons of police.[50] Investigations took place while charges against the police and government were filed by many protesters.

Afterwards, Doctor Suthep Kolcharnwit of Chulalongkorn Hospital led a campaign calling for doctors to refuse medical care to police injured during the clashes as a protest against the violence. Doctors from several major Bangkok hospitals joined him in his campaign.[51] Doctor Suthep Kolcharnwit of the Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Medicine along with several doctors from also refused to provide medical care to police injured in the clash, and urged doctors of other hospitals to boycott police as well.[52]

After the violent crash, the demonstrators returned; the siege of the parliament was given up in the evening. Yet demonstrators started the siege of police headquarters near the Government House. The demonstrators called for the counter-attack on police force, then new clash erupted, causing the death of a female protester and injury of several protesters. The PAD leaders called the demonstrators to return to the Government House and limit the protest only at their 'stronghold', at the House, avoid using violence. Then calm returned to Bangkok.

Queen's appearance[edit]

On 13 October 2008, Queen Sirikit presided over the funeral ceremony of Angkhana Radappanyawut, the PAD supporter who had been killed by police during the protests. The Queen was accompanied by her youngest daughter, Princess Chulabhorn, Army Chief Anupong Paochinda, Opposition Leader Abhisit Vejjajiva, and many high-ranked officials, but there were no signs of any police personnel. The Queen received a jubilant welcome from thousands of PAD supporters.[53][54]

She spoke with the deceased's father, Jinda Radappanyawut, who later said she was concerned for the welfare of the protesters and "would soon send us flowers". Her Majesy told Angsana's parents that their daughter had sacrificed her life for the sake of the monarchy, and that she was a good person.[54]

Previously, the revered Queen had donated ฿1 million to cover the medical expenses of those injured on both sides in the clashes. The protesters tried to claim the financial donation as a gesture of support for them, though in reality it went to aid injured policemen as well.[55] The King also made a financial contribution to the dead woman's family.[56]

Since the Queen's appearance was without precedent in modern times, many academicians and media deemed them to be "unusual" and perhaps an "explicit royal backing to a five-month street campaign to oust the elected government".[54] Historian David Streckfuss of the University of Wisconsin–Madison noted that no Thai social activists slain in the previous decade had had royal attendance at their funerals, "so it is interesting to note that in this case—a conflict that is controversial and ongoing—that a member of the royalty should apparently show support."[57]

Yet one could claim in support of the PAD that really was there was a small 'anti-monarchy' movement which supported Thaksin. This disturbed many monarchists. Sondhi Limthongkul, forefront leader of PAD, had claimed this since 2005, when he started criticizing Thaksin Shinawatra for his 'inappropriate' act defaming the monarchy when Thaksin held a religious ceremony at the royal temple of Wat Phra Kaeo. Eer since, PAD has accused Thaksin's followers as being 'anti-monarchy'. The UDD's and Thaksin's harsh attack on Prem Tinsulanonda, head of royal Privy Council and close advisor of the king, has been seen as a contradiction of Thai tradition and a hidden attempt to make a regime change. Moreover a leader of UDD, such Jakrapob Penkair has engaged in public criticism of the role of the monarchy, mostly, seen 'negatively'. Several UDD leaders were also charged and arrested and accused of insulting the monarchy, a crime under Thai criminal law. The PAD, therefore, has always claimed that it was defending the most revered institution according to the Constitutions, blasting UDD and Thaksin Shinawatra as anti-monarchist. The controversial issue of the monarchy has been then one of the fierce causes among these factions' supporters.

Airport seizures[edit]

Protest at Suvarnabhumi International Airport and closures of airports[edit]

On the evening of Tuesday 25 November 2008, the PAD executed what they called "Operation Hiroshima."[58] A convoy of hundreds of armed PAD members dressed in yellow blocked the two ends of the road in front of the terminal building of Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok's main airport and an important regional hub and blockaded the main road to the airport, aiming at resisting the landing of the prime minister's flight. . PAD forces quickly overpowered hundreds of policemen armed with riot gear. PAD leaders mounted a mobile stage and proceeded to criticize the government. PAD members armed with clubs, iron bars and knives, with some wearing black balaclavas,[59] then entered the terminal, much to the surprise of the thousands of travellers inside.

Official closure of the airport[edit]

PAD forces also forced their way into the control tower, demanding the flight plan for Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat's return from the APEC summit in Peru. Somchai flew into Bangkok Don Muang airport on the evening of 25 November 2008 before flying on to Chiang Mai. After hours of turmoil, the Airports of Thailand, AOT, eventually decided that all Suvarnabhumi flights were suspended, leaving thousands of travelers stranded in the airport.,[60][61] this action led to the official closure of the airport later.

The government called on the Royal Thai Army to restore order at the airport.[62] The Army did not follow the orders. In a press conference on 26 November, Army Commander General Anupong Paochinda proposed that the PAD withdraw from the airport and that the government resign. He also proposed that if the PAD did not comply, that they be subject to "social sanctions", whereas if the government did not comply, that the bureaucracy stop implementing government orders. A written copy of the proposal was sent to the government. Neither the PAD or the government complied with the proposal.[63]

At 4:30 am on the morning of 26 November, three explosions were heard on the fourth floor of Suvarnbumi on the outside of the passenger terminal. Another explosion was reported at 6 am. Several people were injured. It was not clear who set off the explosions.[64] The PAD did not allow the police or forensics experts to investigate the explosions.[65]

Attempts to evict the PAD[edit]

Also on 26 November, the Civil Court issued an injunction ordering the PAD to leave the Suvarnabhumi International Airport immediately.[66] Notices of the injunction were placed on the front doors of the houses of the 13 PAD leaders.[67] The PAD did not comply with the injunction.

On the evening of 27 November, the government declared a state of emergency around the two occupied airports and ordered police to clear out PAD forces. The state of emergency allowed the military to ban public gatherings of more than five people. The Navy was assigned to aid police at Suvarnabhumi, while the Air Force was assigned to aid police at Don Muang. The Army's spokesman noted, "The army disagrees with using troops to resolve the problem. The army does not want to do that, and it is not appropriate to do that."[68]

The PAD was defiant. PAD leader Suriyasai Katasila announced that the PAD would fight off police. "If the government wants to clear the protesters, let it try. The PAD will protect all locations because we are using our rights to demonstrate peacefully without causing damages to state properties or rioting," Suriyasai said.[69] Suriyasai also threatened to use human shields if police attempted to disperse the PAD.[70]

On the morning of 28 November, PAD leader Chamlong Srimuang announced to PAD forces that he had received a call from an unspecified "senior person" (ผู้ใหญ่ท่านหนึ่ง) telling him to end the rallies. But he refused to do what the senior person told him. "For the past 108 days, the Alliance has protested together under hardship, while another group of people has remained in comfort. They can't just suddenly ask us to stop protesting," he told the assembled forces.[71] Addressing supporters on ASTV, Sondhi said, "If we have to die today, I am willing to die. This is a fight for dignity."[72]

Police manned checkpoints on roads leading to the airport. At one checkpoint, police found 15 home-made guns, an axe, and other weapons in a Dharma Army six-wheel truck taking 20 protesters to Suvarnabhumi airport.[73] One checkpoint, about 2 kilometers from the airport, was attacked by armed PAD forces in vehicles, causing the police to withdraw. Police Senior Sgt Maj Sompop Nathee, an officer from the Border Patrol Police Region 1, later returned to the scene of the clash and was detained by PAD forces. He was interrogated by Samran Rodphet, a PAD leader, and then detained inside the airport. Reporters and photographers tried to follow Sompop to his interrogation, but PAD forces did not allow them.[74] PAD supporters were moved from Government House to the airport.[75]

With the exception of one airplane leaving for the Hajj, no flights with passengers were allowed for eight days.[76] The PAD was apologetic to inconvenienced travelers in the airports and offered them food.[77]

End of the siege[edit]

Shortly after the Constitutional Court dissolved the three parties of the government coalition on 2 December 2008, the PAD held a press conference where they announced that they were ending all of their protests as of 10 am local time (GMT 7+) on 3 December 2008.[78] "We have won a victory and achieved our aims," said Sondhi Limthongkul.

Flights from Suvarnabhumi resumed on 4 December, when a Thai Airways flight departed for Sydney, Australia.[79] Thai Airways expected to have five other international flights departing on 4 and 5 December to New Delhi, Tokyo, Frankfurt, Seoul, and Copenhagen.[79] Passengers for these flights had to check in at a convention centre outside the airport.[79]

Views on the seizure[edit]

Democrat Party[edit]

Democrat Party MP for Sukhothai, Samphan Benchaphon, said of the airport seizure that the PAD "have the right to do it." Democrat Party MP for Bangkok, Thawil Praison, said that the PAD "could seize the airport and doing so is not excessive. The entire world understands that this is a normal matter in the struggle of democratic countries."[80]

International reactions[edit]

The governments of China, France, New Zealand, Singapore, Britain, the United States, Australia, and Japan warned their citizens to avoid Thailand and steer clear of protesters at the airport.[81]

The European Union urged the protesters to peacefully leave the airports. EU ambassadors to Thailand wrote in a joint statement that the demonstrators are hurting Thailand's image and economy, continuing "While respecting the right of protesting and without interfering in any way with the internal political debate in Thailand, the EU considers that these actions are totally inappropriate".[82][83]

US State Department spokesman Gordon Duguid said that occupying the airports was "not an appropriate means of protest" and that the PAD should "walk away from the airports peacefully."[84][85]

Closure of Bangkok Don Muang Airport[edit]

On the night of 26 November 2008, the services at the Don Mueang Airport were stopped after the People's Alliance for Democracy seized control of the domestic passenger terminal.[86]

A bomb exploded near a bunker made of tires near the main entrance to the passenger terminal at Don Muang Airport at 3.55 am on 30 November. Before the explosion occurred, about seven gunshots were heard from the direction of a warehouse deeper inside the airport compound. No one was injured in the explosion. It was not clear who or what set the bomb off.[87]

A plainclothes policewoman at the airport was identified and captured by PAD security forces and forced onto the main PAD stage inside the airport. Angry PAD protesters threw water at her and many tried to hit her. She was eventually allowed to leave the airport.[88]

Constitutional Court ruling on parties' dissolution[edit]

Prior to the decision[edit]

In December 2008, the Constitutional Court was scheduled to rule on whether or not to dissolve the PPP, Chart Thai, and Matchima Thippatai parties on electoral fraud charges. If the parties were dissolved, executives of the parties could have their political rights stripped for five years. However, non-executive MPs of the parties have the right to change parties for a period of time after the court decision. 37 PPP executives were also MPs, although 8 had resigned, leaving only 14. If the PPP was to be dissolved, the number of MPs they have would fall from 233 to 219. Out of Chart Thai's 43 executives, 19 of them are MPs. No Matchima executives are MPs. Thus, if the Constitutional Court dissolved all three parties, the government coalition would reduce in size to 283 out of a total of 447 MPs in Parliament – a majority is 224. The opposition Democrat Party has only 164 MPs. If all the non-PPP parties allied with the Democrats, they would have a total of 228 MPs – only 4 MPs above a majority.[89]

The site for the court decision was changed from the Constitutional Court to the Supreme Administrative Court after UDD supporters surrounded the Constitution Court. The Supreme Administrative court was protected by Royal Thai Army troops armed with M16 rifles.[90] The Constitutional Court handed down its decision immediately after hearing closing comments from the Chart Thai party.[91]

Summary of decision[edit]

Prior to the delivery of decision, judge Chat Chonlaworn, President of the nine-judge panel, remarked that:[92]

The Court’s trials at this time are independent, and not interfered or compelled by any political influences. The provisions under the Constitution are taken as the Court’s guidance in trying these cases. And in this kind of political circumstances in our Country, certain sectors would favour with the outcome of the trials while the others would not; however, the Court ask for the faith and trust in it...

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, Buddhist Era 2550 (2007) contains the spirits to justify the elections, especially, through providing the provisions to prevent electoral fraud, such as vote buying. The vote buying is one of countless means chronically practiced by the politicians to be able to win the election; but, it is a severe offence and detrimental to the democratic development as well as the Country, for the politicians, after having come into the power, are brazen-faced in wrongfully seeking for self-interests in order to benefit their future elections. The Constitution, hence, attempts to pitch out this unceasing unpropitious circle, and promotes the politicians, whose heart and hands are so devoted, to participate in bringing about the advantages to the Country.

Following the decision[edit]

Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat was, therefore, disqualified by the Court's decision, and replaced in a caretaker capacity by Chaovarat Chanweerakul, the Deputy Prime Minister.[93]

The PPP issued a statement calling the ruling a "judicial coup", and called into question the court's procedures, for instance, allowing all the PPP's witnesses only 2 hours to speak. It also noted that the wife of one of the judges was an active PAD member, and said that these and other irregularities would likely lead the Thai people to call the integrity of the court into question and see the ruling as an alternative means of accomplishing a coup.[94] Former PPP MPs and members founded the For Thais Party to prepare for the event that the PPP should be banned, and PPP members immediately started joining the For Thais Party.

Reelections for the 26 constituencies of the banned executive members from the three parties were held on 11 December 2008.[95]

On 6 December 2008, the opposition Democrat Party announced it had garnered sufficient support from former coalition partners of PPP and their splinters to be able to form a government,[96][97] while For Thais claimed the same, adding that it had already been joined by more than a third of MPs.[98] The coalition partners of the Democrat Party appeared to be most of the dissolved parties, the Thai Nation Party and the Neutral Democratic Party, as well as the Thais United National Development Party, the For the Motherland party, and the "Friends of Newin" faction, a splinter of the banned PPP.[99]

On 15 December 2008, Abhisit Vejjajiva was elected the new Prime Minister.[100] Army commander and co-leader of the 2006 coup, General Anupong Paochinda, was widely reported to have coerced PPP MPs to defect to the Democrat Party.[101] PAD leader Khamnoon Sitthisamarn and junta-appointed Senator called Abhisit's premiership a "genuine PAD victory" and a "Anupong-style coup d'etat."[102] The circumstances of his ascent to power closely linked Abhisit to the Bangkok elite, the Army, and the Royal Palace.[103]

April 2009 protest[edit]

Accusations against Prem Tinsulanonda and the beginning of protests[edit]

In March 2009, Thaksin Shinawatra claimed via video broadcast that Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda masterminded the 2006 military coup, and that Prem and fellow Privy Councilor members Surayud Chulanont and Chanchai Likhitjittha conspired with the military to ensure that Abhisit became Premier. Although Abhisit denied the accusations, hundreds of thousands protested in Bangkok early April demanding that Abhisit resign from the Premiership and that Prem, Surayud, and Chanchai resign from the Privy Council.[104] Thaksin openly called for a "peoples revolution" to overthrow the amatayathipatai with slogan "Khon Ammat' Down the Nobles' bureaucratic policy; government run by traditional or noble elites or royal advisors) influences of the Abhisit government.

However the police found and arrested a suspect charged with assassination plot of Chanchai Likhitjittha in early April.[105]

UDD and Thaksin Shinawatra's supporters eventually began their mass protest on Wednesday 8 April with 100,000 demonstrators were at Government House and the nearby Royal Plaza by the evening.[106] Thaksin Shinawatra vowed to phone in, supporting the protesters. The aim of the protesters as they said, was to 'topple' the 'Elites or Nobles Regime', or 'Amatyathipatai', accused of meddling politics, a controversial issue for the monarchists or royalists, particularly the PAD supporters, believing 'anti-monarchists' movement, ex-communist party members, working within UDD and Thaksin's supporters. Therefore the movement of UDD has also been seen as an 'anti-royalist' movement by several critics.

The protesters also urged a revoking of the 2007 Constitution. They also called for the resignation of Abhisit, dissolution of the parliament, and an immediate election.

Violence against the Abhisit government in April[edit]

The early signs of a violent move against the new government was seen from early April. On 7 April, while Abhisit was in his automobile, returning from the site of planned the ASEAN Summit, a group of Thaksin supporters' in red shirts followed and tried to stop his escort. The dramatic scene took place when the premier's car was stopped by the police due to the 'red light' at the intersection. Suddenly a policeman asked the premier to change his car from an armored car to another auto. Suddenly the red-shirts who reached and could even hit his car, broke the glass on the back of his car. However the premier's escort and the premier himself were able to escape safely.[107]

Pattaya protests[edit]

The protests, led by the red-shirted National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) expanded to Pattaya, the site of the 14th ASEAN summit a barricade blocking the transport of foreign leaders. The Peoples Republic of China's leader was blocked from leaving his hotel by the protesting taxi drivers, Thaksin's supporters.

In the afternoon, while the red-shirted protesters were heading to the hotel, the site of the summit, violent clashes occurred between the UDD and blue-shirted government supporters on the way to the hotel. The Straits Times reported that both sides used sticks, stones, clubs, molotov cocktails, and "small bombs" in the clashes.[108] The protests and clashes escalated. The red-shirted protesters finally stormed the hotel building, causing the summit to be cancelled.[109] Abhisit declared a state of emergency in the areas of Pattaya and Chonburi on 11 April. Visiting leaders were evacuated from the venue by helicopter to a nearby military airbase that had been Suvarnabhumi's replacement during the PAD's airport sieges of 2008.[110] Legislation authorizing emergency decrees was originally drafted and pushed through Parliament in 2005 by the Thaksin government, provoking charges of authoritarianism at the time by the Democrats. The decree was used previously by Samak's government, coping with PAD protest.[111] After military personnel took control, the red-shirt demonstrators returned and dispersed.

Bangkok unrest[edit]

The liquid gas truck that the red shirt protesters threatened to blow up in the midst of the Din Daeng flats, Bangkok. (13 April 2009)
Thai soldiers against the red-shirt protesters at Pracha Songkhroh Road, Din Daeng, Bangkok. (13 April 2009)

As the week-long Songkran (Thai New Year) holiday began, protests escalated in Bangkok. Protesters in red shirts used cars, buses, and in one location LPG tankers to take control of several locations in central Bangkok.[112] Small clashes began apparently between anti-government and government supporters, and the general population. At a demonstration in front of Prem's residence, an angry woman wearing a yellow shirt, the royal color, plunged her car into a crowd of UDD protesters before driving away.[113] Abhisit declared a state of emergency for Bangkok and surrounding areas due to the heightened escalation of tension and denounced the anti-government protesters as "national enemies".[114] These clashes emerged in locations where control had been taken over by the demonstrators.

Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva declared another state of emergency in Bangkok and surrounding areas on 12 April 2009.[115][116] Abhisit also issued a decree that empowered the government to censor television broadcasts.[117] A television journalist reported that he was ordered not to show images damaging to the military or government.[118] Thaksin, who daily showed his live broadcast on a D-Station television, showing support for his loyalists, calling for the overthrow of the government, now began to urge the King Bhumibol to intervene and end the showdown.[119][120]

Ministry of Interior riot[edit]

On 12 April, the tension ran high after the authority arrested leaders of the red-shirts who stormed the summit site in Pattaya. The protesters began to block of the Criminal Court, aiming at releasing their leader. In the afternoon, after the declaration of state emergency at the Ministry of Interior, hundreds of protesters who had blocked the gates of the Ministry, eventually broke out the ministry's gates. Abhisit and members of his cabinet were followed by the protesters. The premier's car and his secretary's car were under siege and hit. Abhisit escaped safely while his secretary and his driver became victimized, and their car's windows were all broken. Among those with serious injuries were some of the premier's security guards who were military, one of them was 'held' and was 'presented' to the red protesters on their stage.[121]

Despite the state of emergency, large crowds of protesters continued to meet on the streets. After the attack of Abhisit's car at the Interior Ministry after declaring the state of emergency.[122] A large crowd gathered outside the prime minister's office and barricades were constructed in an attempt to block access by the military.[122] At one point protesters gained access to the Interior Ministry, in a confrontation with army units where several warning shots were fired, and they barricaded key road junctions and at least one railway.[116] The anti-government protesters commandeered buses and two armored cars and blocked access to key government offices, some of them made ready by arming themselves with klewang and petrol bombs. According to BBC news, at least two people were killed in the protests and violent scuffles which had already broken out between the army and protestors with several people arrested while the government denied this report.

Thai New Year events[edit]

In a pre-dawn raid on Monday 13 April, Thai soldiers in full combat kit used tear gas and fired live rounds and training rounds from automatic weapons to clear protesters from the Din Daeng intersection near the Victory Monument in central Bangkok, injuring at least 70 people.[123] [124] The Army later claimed that live rounds were only fired into the air while training rounds were fired at the crowd. Human Rights Watch confirmed that there are some cases where the Army fired live ammunition directly at protesters, but that this only occurred when military forces approached protesters throwing Molotov bombs and improvised grenades, firing slingshots, and shooting guns at the troops.[125] The UDD claimed one protester died from gunshot wounds sustained during the military's attack.[126][127] However, the Army later claimed that the wound was not caused by an M-16, the standard Army rifle. Also on Monday the government ordered the blocking of satellite news station D Station, an affiliate of the UDD which, at the time, was broadcasting the clashes. Several community radio stations were shut down and searched upon suspicion of being supporters of the UDD.[128] Violent clashes at numerous locations in Bangkok continued while arrest warrants were issued for Thaksin and 13 protest leaders. Many protest leaders voluntarily gave themselves in to police on 14 April 2009, ending the violence. The demonstrators at the main site, near the Government House, agreed to suspend their activity peacefully. Demonstrators were sent back to the provinces by government's buses.[129] Government House protesters were identified and had their photographs taken prior to being released. Soon afterwards, Abhisit revoked Thaksin's ordinary passport (Abhisit had revoked Thaksin's diplomatic passport shortly after taking office) and issued warrants for dozens of other protest leaders.[130]

On 21 April, Abhisit declared a "media war" against the UDD's claims. He also announced the public distribution of millions of VCDs documenting the government's views on the unrest. At the time, the government's emergency and censorship decrees were still in place.[131][132]

The state of emergency, but not the censorship decree, was lifted on 24 April.[133]

Abhisit's treatment of the UDD prompted criticisms that he applied one standard for his critics and another standard for his PAD supporters. The Asian Human Rights Commission noted "The obvious differences in how the yellow shirts and red shirts have been treated will only encourage government opponents to resort to increasingly extralegal means to get their way." At the time, warrants had not yet been issued for the PAD's airport seizures that occurred months before, while warrants had been issued for the UDD hours after the military commenced its crackdown.[134]

Deaths, injuries, and damage[edit]

According to government figures, over 120 people were injured in the unrest, most of them UDD demonstrators.[135] At least 1 UDD protester was injured from gunshot wounds sustained during the military's attack in Din Daeng, although the Army claimed the wound was not caused by their standard firearm. The UDD claimed that at least 6 demonstrators were killed in the unrest and their bodies hauled away by the military, although the Army rejected the claim.[136] The dead bodies of 2 UDD protesters were found floating in the Chao Phraya River, their hands tied behind their backs and their bodies badly beaten, although police had yet to conclude whether their murders were politically motivated.[137] Despite the claims, Army chief Anupong Paochinda swore on his life that no lives were lost as a result of his security operations.[138]

Abhisit aide Satit Wongnontaey claimed that two Bangkok residents were shot dead by red shirted protesters in clashes in Din Daeng.[139] The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration estimated that it had incurred 10 million Baht (approximately 300,000 USD) in property damages, including 31 damaged and burned buses.[140] Standard & Poor's lowered Thailand's local currency rating to "A-" from "A", although Finance Minister Korn Chatikavanij claimed this would increase the government's borrowing cost minimally.[141]

Assassination attempt on Sondhi Limthongkul[edit]

Sondhi Limthongkul, leader of the People's Alliance for Democracy, was shot early in the morning of 17 April 2009. Gunmen firing M-16 and AK-47 rifles shot out his tires at a petrol station and sprayed over 100 bullets into Sondhi’s car, wounding Sondhi and seriously wounding his driver.[142] The attackers escaped the scene when Sondhi's followers in another car opened fire on them. Sondhi suffered one wound to the head but was conscious, standing, and lucid before being sent to the hospital for surgery.[143] Sondhi survived the surgery and was visited by relatives afterwards.

Sondhi's son, Jittanart Limthongkul, blamed factions within the military and the Abhisit government of being behind the assassination attempt:

"A new form of war is emerging – it's being launched by the collusion of certain police and military officers. They are plotting a new coup. It is said that a minister, who is said to be involved in the attempted assassination of a privy councillor, is actively behind this new exercise."

[144]

Privy Councillor Charnchai Likitjitta had recently allegedly been the target of an assassination plot. The Criminal Court has issued an arrest warrant for a close aide to Deputy Prime Minister and senior Chart Thai Pattana Party figure (close coalition partner of the Democrats) Sanan Kachornprasart, on the grounds that the aide masterminded the alleged assassination attempt on privy councillor Charnchai Likitjitta.[145]

However, foreign minister and former PAD leader Kasit Piromya speculated that Thaksin was behind the assassination attempt:

"Thaksin failed on the populist movement and now I think he has resorted to some sort of assassination attempt."[146]

Kasit revealed that he had planned to have lunch with the Sondhi on the day of the attack. Kasit also claimed that himself, Abhisit, Finance Minister Korn Chatikavanij, and Deputy Prime Minister Suthep Thaugsuban were planned targets for assassination, and that he was guarded by several fully armed marines.[147][148]

International reactions[edit]

ASEAN Ministerial Meeting at the Dusit Thani Hotel in Bangkok

According to CNN, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that he was disappointed by the delay of the 14th ASEAN Summit, stating that "I understand the circumstances that led the Thai government to take this difficult decision. While I had hoped to have exchanges with the leaders of ASEAN and its dialogue partners, I continue to look forward to engaging again with them in the near future. I strongly value the long-standing relationship between ASEAN and the United Nations, and their cooperation in various fields. I hope for an early restoration of normalcy in Thailand and for the settlement of differences through dialogue and peaceful means."

Human Rights Watch condemned the violence. "Soldiers and police who used force beyond what was needed should not escape investigation and prosecution. The government cannot only prosecute protest leaders or they will make a mockery of Thai law," said the group's Asia director.[125]

Travel advisories[edit]

Following the protests at the summit, a number of countries, including Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Hong Kong, New Zealand,[149] Philippines, and Singapore issued new travel advisories for their citizens.[150] As of 27 April 2009, Hong Kong lifted its travel advisory to Thailand.

Money laundering allegations against Thaksin Shinawatra[edit]

Shortly before the April unrest, Privy Councilor General Pichitr Kullavanijaya claimed to the Thai media that former US ambassador to Thailand Ralph Boyce told him that Thaksin had laundered 100 billion baht (US$2.8 billion) through Cayman Island bank accounts and was using the funds to organize the anti-government protests. Thaksin strongly denied the charges and filed a defamation suit against the royal advisor in a Thai court. Ambassador Boyce was reported to have told numerous people that he has no idea why he was cited by Privy Councilor Pichitr, and that he has no such information about the alleged money laundering.[151]

Bhumibol and the 2006 coup[edit]

On 20 April 2009, Thaksin claimed in an interview with the Financial Times that King Bhumibol had been briefed by Privy Councillors Prem Tinsulanonda and Surayud Chulanont about their plans to stage the 2006 coup. He claimed that General Panlop Pinmanee, a leader of the People's Alliance for Democracy, had told him of the briefing.[152][153]

The Thai embassy in London immediately denied Thaksin's claims. Coup leaders had earlier revealed that they started planning for the coup in approximately February 2006.[5][6][7] Former National Security Council head Prasong Soonsiri claimed that he and Sonthi Boonyaratklin had been planning a coup as early as July 2006, but that Surayud and Prem were not yet involved at the time.[154] The King had an audience with Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda at the same time as the First Special Forces were ordered mobilised. The purpose of the audience was reported to concern a meritmaking ceremony for the Queen's late mother.[155] In a 23 April interview with the Financial Times, Abhisit also denied the claims, noting "We checked up on the answer and the meeting referred to did not in any way discuss the coup."[156] Editor Thanong Khanthong of The Nation newspaper also denied Thaksin's claim, noting “As a matter of fact, His Majesty did not personally approve the 2006 coup.”[157]

According to Thai political tradition[citation needed], the king of Thailand always complied with the change of the regime caused by the coup, since the 1932 Revolution.

2010 "red shirt" opposition supporter protests[edit]

4.45 pm local time 15 May, Bangkok: A severely wounded man is carried out from Rama 4 road in to Soi Ngam Duphli to waiting ambulances after having been shot by army snipers

In early 2010 a series of events occurred in which the situation escalated. On 26 February, assets worth 46 billion Thai baht were seized from former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.[158] On the evening of 27 February, M67 grenades were thrown from a motorcycle outside three branches of Bangkok Bank.[159][160][161][162] In early March 2010, "red shirt" protesters converged on Bangkok to press demands for Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva to call new elections.[163] The movement, led by the United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship (UDD), consists of democracy supporters. Many also supported former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, who was ousted in a military coup in 2006. Although relatively peaceful in nature, human blood donated by some of the protesters was poured outside Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva's home.[164]

The situation escalated further on the weekend of 10 April 2010. First, protesters took control of a TV broadcasting station causing Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva to vow to restore Thailand to normalcy.[165][166] By 11 April, clashes between protesters and the military had resulted in 18 or 19 people (one military) being killed and over 800 injured.[167][168][169] By 15 April, the death toll had risen to 24.[170]

Tensions continued to grow, as pro-government rallies started to appear alongside the anti-government ones. On 22 April, a series of explosions in Bangkok killed at least one person and injured more than 85 others, including four foreigners. At least some of the explosions were caused by grenades. The government made allegations these were fired from the Red Shirt encampment,[171][172] a claim vigorously denied by protest leaders, who suspect it was planned to justify violence against peaceful demonstrators.

On 3 May, the Thai Prime Minister announced he was willing to hold elections on 14 November should the opposition red shirts accept the offer. The following day red shirt leaders accepted the proposal to leave the occupied parts of Bangkok in return for the new election on the scheduled date, subject to further details of the offer. When it became clear that Abhisit government leaders responsible for unlawful killings of unarmed protesters would be exempt from legal proceedings, the rallies continued.

On 14 May, police and troops attempted to surround and cut off the main protest camp, which resulted in clashes with the red shirts and the deaths of ten people, with a further 125 wounded, including some journalists as well as renegade general Khattiya Sawasdipol who took a sniper's bullet during an interview with foreign press.[173]

By 15 May, the deathtoll had reached 24 with 175 injured. Protest leaders warned that a civil war was increasingly likely. Troops set up live fire zones near the protestors and shot anyone entering these areas on sight.[174]

As of 16 May, the number of people killed in the street battles as a result of the political unrest had risen to 35. Only one of these 35 was from the military.[175] A State of Emergency was declared in five more provinces to prevent more protesters entering Bangkok.[176]

On 19 May, the Army, backed by armoured personnel carriers attacked the protest camp resulting in the deaths of 11 protesters and an Italian journalist. The Red Shirt leaders all either surrendered or tried and escape. Riots raged across Bangkok as Red Shirts were forced from their camp. Arson attacks resulted in the near destruction of the Central World shopping centre and other buildings.[177]

The casualty count as of 22 May stood at 85 dead and 1,378 injured.[178]

Economic effects[edit]

As the crisis is ongoing and fluid, the final economic consequences of the crisis are as yet unclear. After a state of emergency was declared on 2 September 2008, the SET Index reached its lowest point since January 2007 at 655.62; it had fallen 24.7% since the beginning of the PAD’s demonstrations in May 2008. The baht hit a one-year low of 34.52 per US dollar, prompting the Bank of Thailand to intervene.[179]

The PAD seizure of Don Muang and Suvarnabhumi Airports is estimated to have cost the Thai economy at least three billion Baht (approximately US$100 million) a day in lost shipment value and opportunities.[180] As of 1 December 2008, the number of stranded passengers was estimated at anywhere from over 100,000 to 350,000.[181][182] The April 2009 unrest was reported to have caused nearly 10 million Baht (approximately 300,000 USD) in property damages to the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, including 31 damaged and burned buses.[140]

Bangkok skyline on fire the afternoon of 19 May 2010.

Political effects[edit]

The long term political consequences of the crisis are as yet unclear. The crisis, and particularly the siege of Suvarnabhumi Airport, saw a rise in international press coverage on Thailand, with numerous high-profile articles breaking Thai taboos about public discussion of the role of the monarchy in the crisis as well as the succession.[183][184][185][186][187][188][189] There was a decline in the popularity of the PAD among the Bangkok elite as the crisis escalated and increasingly affected the economy.[190][191][192] The crisis saw increasing polarization in Thai political thinking, with David Streckfuss of the Council on International Educational Exchange noting that it "shattered the myth of unity that has been papered over the many social and political cleavages in Thailand."[193] The judiciary was increasingly seen as a tool of the elite, having flagged the government for even the tiniest infractions while refusing to rein in the growing violence of the PAD.[194]

In 2009, there was growing concern about a perceived double standard in how the UDD's protests were treated compared to how the PAD's 2008 protests were treated. Contrasts were drawn between the light touch used by security forces in 2008 against royalist protesters and the thousands of troops who forcibly dislodged the UDD from Bangkok’s streets in 2009. The Abhisit government censored several Internet sites linked to the UDD as well as a satellite television station that carried live broadcasts of the protests. By contrast ASTV, a satellite station run by the PAD, was never shut down.[195] The 2009 protests also saw two distinct camps emerge within the UDD: one camp which openly supports Thaksin and one camp whose primary focus is upon protesting against the Abhisit government and the bureaucratic polity that is perceived to be supporting it.[195]

Protests recommenced in late 2013, as the PAD, led by former minister Suthep Thaugsuban, demanded an end to the so-called Thaksin regime. The PAD protesters called for the establishment of an unelected “people’s council”—in place of Yingluck's government—that will cleanse Thai politics and eradicate the Thaksin regime.[196] In response to the intensive protests, Yinluck dissolved parliament on 9 December 2013 and proposed a new election for 2 February 2014, a date that was later approved by the election commission.[197] The PAD insisted that the prime minister stand down within 24 hours, regardless of her actions, with 160,000 protesters in attendance at Government House on 9 December. Yingluck insisted that she would continue her duties until the scheduled election in February 2014, urging the protesters to accept her proposal: "Now that the government has dissolved parliament, I ask that you stop protesting and that all sides work towards elections. I have backed down to the point where I don't know how to back down any further."[198]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]


  1. ^ Pongsudhirak Thitinan, "Victory places Thaksin at crossroads", Bangkok Post, 9 February 2005
  2. ^ "Unprecedented 72% turnout for latest poll". The Nation. 10 February 2005. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  3. ^ Aurel Croissant and Daniel J. Pojar, Jr., Quo Vadis Thailand? Thai Politics after the 2005 Parliamentary Election, Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 6 (June 2005)
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ a b The Nation, The persistent myth of the 'good' coup, 2 October 2006
  6. ^ a b กรุงเทพธุรกิจ, พล.ท.สพรั่ง กัลยาณมิตร"วางแผนปฏิรูปการปกครองมาแล้ว 7–8 เดือน", 24 September 2006
  7. ^ a b Thanapol Eawsakul, "The Coup for Democracy with the King as Head of State", Fa Dieo Kan special issue, 2007
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References[edit]

External links[edit]