2008 World Monuments Watch

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The World Monuments Watch is a flagship advocacy program of the New York-based private non-profit organization World Monuments Fund (WMF) that calls international attention to cultural heritage around the world that is threatened by neglect, vandalism, conflict, or disaster.[1]

Selection process[edit]

Every two years, it publishes a select list known as the Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites that are in urgent need of preservation funding and protection. The sites are nominated by governments, conservation professionals, site caretakers, non-government organizations (NGOs), concerned individuals, and others working in the field.[1] An independent panel of international experts then select 100 candidates from these entries to be part of the Watch List, based on the significance of the sites, the urgency of the threat, and the viability of both advocacy and conservation solutions.[1] For the succeeding two-year period until a new Watch List is published, these 100 sites can avail grants and funds from the WMF, as well as from other foundations, private donors, and corporations by capitalizing on the publicity and attention gained from the inclusion on the Watch List.[2] Since the Watch List was launched in 1996, more than 75 percent of the enlisted threatened sites have been saved.[1]

2008 Watch List[edit]

The 2008 World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites was announced on June 6, 2007 by WMF President Bonnie Burnham.[1][3] The 2008 Watch List highlights three critical man-made threats affecting the world's cultural heritage: political conflict, unchecked urban and industrial development, and global climate change.[1]

On this list, man is indeed the real enemy. But, just as we caused the damage in the first place, we have the power to repair it, by taking our responsibility as caretakers of the world’s cultural heritage seriously. So today we are sounding the alarm, using the World Monuments Watch List to demonstrate, through the vivid examples of beloved places around the world, the importance of working together to meet these challenges and join forces to protect our world’s shared architectural heritage.

—Bonnie Burnham, WMF president, launch of 2008 Watch List[1]

List by country/territory[edit]

The colossal Buddha statues of Afghanistan's Bamiyan Valley were destroyed by the Taliban in 2001 after branding them as "un-Islamic". Since then, conservators have carried out emergency work to document and conserve the statues' surviving fragments in situ.[4]
Explorer Robert Falcon Scott's hut serves as a mute testimony to the heroic age of Antarctic exploration during the early 20th century. Unprecedented buildup of snow and ice, thought to be due to climate change, imperils this monument.[4]
The Theban Necropolis on the Nile's West Bank is famed for its pharaonic remains, but also features sites dating back to Paleolithic times.[4]
Jaipur's Jantar Mantar is one of the five sites from India to be included on the 2008 Watch List.
A planned motorway threatens the Iron Age site of Tara Hill in Ireland,[5] leading to its inclusion on the 2008 Watch List.
Mexico's Monte Albán archaeological site has been threatened by a lack of protection due to the civil unrest in the locality.[4]
Uncontrolled development and environmental mismanagement brought about by increased tourism activity has led to the inclusion of Peru's Machu Picchu on the Watch List.[4]
Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, was once known as the "Athens of West Africa."[6]
Built in 1975, the Joan Miró Foundation is a product of late-Modern architecture and is the "youngest" site on the 2008 Watch List.[4]
The Island of Saint-Louis in Senegal has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.[7]
Ukraine's Pidhirtsi Castle was severely damaged during Polish-Soviet War (1919-21). The structure was also damaged by a fire caused by a lightning strike in 1956.[4]
St. Peter’s College, Cardross was named as Scotland's greatest post-WWII building by the architecture magazine Prospect.[8]
The New York State Pavilion is a remnant of the 1964 New York World's Fair. Forty years later, it is in imminent danger of collapse as its foundation starts to decay.[4]
Number[A] Country/Territory Site[B] Location[C] Period[C]
1 Afghanistan Buddhist Remains of Bamiyan Bamiyan Valley ca. AD 600
2 Afghanistan Murad Khane Kabul 18th century–1920
3 Afghanistan Tepe Narenj Kabul 5th–9th Centuries AD
4 Algeria Medracen and el-Khroub Numidian Royal Mausolea Constantina and Batna Region 4th–3rd Centuries BC
5 Antarctica Scott’s Hut and the Explorers’ Heritage of Antarctica Scott's Hut, Cape Evans, Ross Island 1899–1917
6 Argentina Brener Synagogue Moises Ville 1909
7 Armenia Kumayri District Alexandrapol, Gyumri 19th–20th Centuries
8 Australia Dampier Rock Art Complex Dampier Archipelago c. 10,000 BC–Present
9 Azerbaijan Khinalyg Village Guba Region 17th–19th Centuries
10 Bangladesh Sonargaon-Panam City Sonargaon 15th–19th Centuries
11 Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo City Hall Sarajevo 1892–1894
12 Brazil Porangatu Historic District Porangatu 18th–early 20th Centuries
13 Bulgaria Novae Archaeological Site Svishtov AD 49–700
14 Burkina Faso Loropeni Ruins Poni Province 18th Century
15 Canada Herschel Island Yukon Territory 1890–1907
16 Chile Montemar Institute of Marine Biology Viña del Mar 1941–1945; 1956–1969
17 China Modern Shanghai Shanghai 1920–1949
18 China Xumishan Grottoes Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 4th–10th Centuries AD
19 Cyprus Famagusta Walled City Famagusta 3rd Century BC–19th Century AD
20 Egypt Blue Mosque (Aqsunqur Mosque) Cairo 14th–17th Centuries
21 Egypt Shunet el-Zebib Abydos c. 2750 BC
22 Egypt West Bank of the Nile Luxor Paleolithic to Modern; Main Period: New Kingdom, 1540–1075 BC
23 Eritrea Derbush Tomb Massawa 16th Century
24 Ethiopia Mohammadali House Addis Ababa c. 1900
25 France Epailly Chapel of the Order of the Temple Courban 1200–1330
25 Georgia Gelati Monastery and Academy Kutaisi 12th–14th Centuries
26 Ghana The Wa Naa’s Palace Wa 19th Century
27 Greece Lesvos Historic Churches Lesvos 5th–19th Centuries
28 Greece Pella Macedonian Tombs Pella 4th–2nd Centuries BC
29 Guatemala Ceibal Archaeological Site Sayaxche 300 BC–AD 250; AD 830–950
30 Guatemala Capitanes Generales Palace Antigua Guatemala 1549–1773
31 India Amber Town Rajasthan 11th–18th Centuries
32 India Chettinad Karraikudi, Tamil Nadu 19th Century
33 India Jantar Mantar (The Observatory) Jaipur, Rajasthan 1729; 1901 Reconstructions
34 India Leh Old Town Ladakh Region, Jammu & Kashmir 15th–17th Centuries
35 India Srinigar Heritage Zone Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir 14th–19th Centuries
36 Indonesia Kotagede Heritage District Yogyakarta Special Territory 16th Century
37 Iraq Cultural Heritage Sites of Iraq Various Locations Prehistoric–Present
38 Ireland Tara Hill County Meath 3rd Millennium BC–12th Century AD
39 Ireland Vernon Mount County Cork 1780s–1950
40 Israel, Jordan, Palestinian Territories & Syria Jordan River Cultural Landscape Prehistoric–AD 1516
41 Italy Farnese Nymphaeum Rome 1565–1635
42 Italy Fenestrelle Fortress Fenestrelle, Turin 1728–1850
43 Italy Transhumance Cultural Landscape Molise Region 3rd Century BC–1945
44 Italy Viscontian Bridge-Dam Valeggio sul Mincio 1393–1397
45 Jamaica Falmouth Historic Town Falmouth 1770s
46 Jordan Khirbet et-Tannur Tafilah, Ma'an Governorate 1st Century BC–2nd Century AD
47 Jordan Qusayr ‘Amra Al-'Azraq Municipality 8th Century AD
48 Libya Wadi Mathendous Rock Art Fezzan 8000–3000 BC
49 Macedonia Holy Mother of God Peribleptos Church Ohrid 1295–1767
50 Madagascar Fianarantsoa Old City Fianarantsoa 19th Century
51 Malta Fort St. Elmo Valletta 1552–1565; 1689–1877; 1900–1945
52 Mauritania Chinguetti Mosque Chinguetti 13th Century
53 Mexico Chihuahua Missions Chihuahua 16th–19th Centuries
54 Mexico Huaca Historic Neighborhood Veracruz 1870–1912; 1940–1950
55 Mexico Monte Albán Archaeological Site Oaxaca 500 BC–AD 850
56 Mexico Teuchitlán-Guachimontones Archaeological Zone Teuchtitlán, Jalisco 400 BC–AD 600
57 Morocco Al-Azhar Mosque (Ain Khail Mosque) Fez 12th Century
58 Nigeria Ikom Monoliths of Cross River State Ikom Before 2000 BC
59 Pakistan Shikarpoor Historic City Center Sindh 17th–18th Centuries
60 Palestinian Territories Church of the Holy Nativity Bethlehem AD 330–Present
61 Peru Laraos Terraces Laraos 1440–Present
62 Peru Lima Historic City Center Lima 17th–19th Centuries
63 Peru Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary Urubamba Valley 15th Century
64 Peru Macusani-Corani Rock Art Macusani and Corani 5000–2000 BC
65 Peru San Pedro Apostol de Andahuaylillas Church Andahuaylillas 1570–1629
66 Peru Santa Catalina Monastery Arequipa 16th–18th Centuries
67 Russia Church of the Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign Teplovo c. 1797
68 Russia Mendeleev Tower St. Petersburg 1902–1950s
69 Russia St. Petersburg Historic Skyline St. Petersburg 1703–1950s
70 Senegal Ile de Saint-Louis (St. Louis Island) Saint-Louis 18th–19th Centuries
71 Sierra Leone Freetown Historic Monuments Freetown 17th Century
72 Slovakia Banská Stiavnica Calvary Complex Banská Stiavnica 1744–1751
73 Somaliland Las Geel Rock Art Las Geel District 4000–3000 BC
74 Spain Joan Miró Foundation Barcelona 1975
75 Sri Lanka Kandy Sacred City Kandy c. 1470–1815
76 Sweden Ljungberg Hall Borlänge (Kvarnsveden) 1897–1898
77 Syria Cyrrhus (Nebi Houri) Azaz 230 BC–13th Century AD
78 Syria Old Damascus Damascus 3000 BC–Present
79 Tanzania Kilwa Historic Sites Kilwa 200 BC–AD 600; AD 700–1600; 18th–20th Centuries
80 Turkey Çukur Han Ankara 16th–17th Centuries
81 Turkey Hasankeyf Hasankeyf Prehistoric–14th Century
82 Turkey Istanbul Historic Walls Istanbul 5th–15th Centuries
83 Turkey Meryem Ana (Mother of God) Church Göreme, Cappadocia Early 11th Century
84 Turkey Red Church Güzelyurt, Sivrihisar, Cappadocia 6th Century
85 Ukraine Pidhirtsi Castle Pidhirtsi 17th–18th Centuries
86 United Kingdom Mavisbank House Midlothian, Scotland 1720–1750
87 United Kingdom Richhill House County Armagh, Northern Ireland 1655–1698
88 United Kingdom Wilton’s Music Hall London 1858, with earlier fabric dating from the 1720s
89 United Kingdom St. Peter’s College, Cardross Cardross, Scotland 1960s
90 United States of America Florida Southern Historic Campus Lakeland, Florida 1938–1950s
92 United States of America Historic Neighborhoods of New Orleans New Orleans, Louisiana 18th–20th Centuries
93 United States of America Historic Route 66 Various Cities, Towns and Villages between Chicago, Illinois and Los Angeles, California 1926–1970
94 United States of America Main Street Modern Various Locations 1945–1975
95 United States of America New York State Pavilion Flushing, New York 1964
96 United States of America Salk Institute La Jolla, California 1959–1965
97 United States of America Tutuveni Petroglyph Site Coconino County, Arizona 1200–Present
98 Uzbekistan Ayaz Kala Karakalpakstan 4th Century BC–7th Century AD
99 Uzbekistan Madrasa Rashid Bukhara 15th–18th Centuries
100 Zimbabwe Bumbusi National Monument Matabeland Prehistoric; 18th–19th Centuries AD

Statistics by country/territory[edit]

The following countries/territories have multiple sites entered on the 2008 Watch List, listed by the number of sites:

Number of sites Country/Territory
7 United States of America
6 Peru
5 India and Turkey
4 Italy, Mexico and United Kingdom
3 Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan[D], Russia and Syria[D]
2 China, Greece, Guatemala, Ireland, Palestinian Territories[D] and Uzbekistan

Notes[edit]

^ A. Numbers list only meant as a guide on this article. No official reference numbers have been designated for the sites on the Watch List.
^ B. Names and spellings used for the sites were based on the official 2008 Watch List as published.
^ C. The references to the sites' locations and periods of construction were based on the official 2008 Watch List as published.
^ D. Tally includes the transfrontier site of Jordan River Cultural Landscape.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Holly Evarts (6 June 2007). "WORLD MONUMENTS FUND ANNOUNCES 2008 WORLD MONUMENTS WATCH LIST OF 100 MOST ENDANGERED SITES". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2009. [dead link]
  2. ^ Holly Evarts (21 June 2005). "WORLD MONUMENTS FUND ANNOUNCES 2006 WORLD MONUMENTS WATCH LIST OF 100 MOST ENDANGERED SITES". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2009. [dead link]
  3. ^ "2008 Panelists Bios". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2009. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "2008 Watch List Site Descriptions". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2009. [dead link]
  5. ^ Paula Geraghty (24 September 2007). "In Ireland, Human Aerial Art at Tara: People power combines art protest and politics". Indymedia Ireland. Retrieved 14 April 2008. 
  6. ^ "Freetown - Visit Sierra Leone". Retrieved 4 September 2009. 
  7. ^ "Island of Saint-Louis". World Heritage Center. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  8. ^ Scotland on Sunday

External links[edit]