2008 in paleontology

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Important finds in 2008

Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2008.

Plants[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Dillhoffia[2]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Manchester & Pigg

Ypresian

Unnamed Formation, Kamloops Group

 Canada

Pluricarpellatia[3]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Mohr, Bernardes-de-Oliveira & Taylor

Early Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Monocots[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Montrichardia aquatica[4]

sp nov

Valid

Herrera et al

Middle to late Paleocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

only fossil record of the genus Montrichardia

Petrocardium[4]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Herrera et al

Middle to late Paleocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

Two named species Petrocardium cerrejonense and Petrocardium wayuuorum

Protozoa[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

sp nov

Valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

second record, and youngest, of the extinct genus Paleoleishmania

Arthropoda[edit]

Insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Formosibittacus[6]

gen et sp nov

Vaild

Li, Ren & Shih

Middle Jurassic

Jiulongshan Formation

 China

A bittacid

Haidomyrmodes[7]

gen et sp nov

Vaild

Perrichot et al

Middle Cretaceous

French Amber

 France

A Sphecomyrminae ant

Jurahylobittacus[6]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Li, Ren & Shih

Middle Jurassic

Jiulongshan Formation

 China

A bittacid

Lutzomyia adiketis[5]

sp nov

Valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber, Hispaniola

 Dominican Republic

Vector for the extinct Trypanosomatidae
species Paleoleishmania neotropicum

Proraphidia gomezi[8]

sp nov

Valid

Jarzembowski

Lower Cretaceous

Lower Weald Clay

 England

Proraphidia hopkinsi[8]

sp nov

Valid

Jarzembowski

Barremian

 Spain

Sinomeganeura[9]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Ren, Nel, & Prokop

Namurian

Tupo Formation

 China

Third Namurian age Meganeuridae griffenfly described.

Syndesus ambericus[10]

Sp nov

Vaild

Woodruff

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A stag beetle

Termitaradus avitinquilinus[11]

Sp nov

Vaild

Grimaldi & Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A termite bug

Xiphosurans[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Lunataspis

gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

Nowlan, Rudkin, & Young

Late Ordovician

Churchill River Group?

 Canada

Fishes[edit]

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

  • Cicimurri D. J., Parris D. C., Everhart M. J. (2008). "Partial dentition of a chimaeroid fish (Chondrichthyes, Holocephali) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of Kansas, USA". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28 (1): 34–40. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[34:PDOACF]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634. 

Placoderms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Materpiscis[12]

gen et sp nov

Valid

J. A. Long, K. Trinajstic, G. C. Young, & T. Senden

Late Devonian

Gogo Formation

 Australia

discovered with fossilized embryo.

Materpiscis embryo features

Amphibians[edit]

Jenkins, F. A., jr, Shubin, N. H., Gatesy, S. M., and Warren, A., 2008, Gerrothorax pulcherrimus from the Upper Triassic Fleming Fjord Formation of East Greenland and a reassessment of head lifting in temnospondyl feeding: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 28, n. 4, p. 935-950.

Newly named amphibians[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Beelzebufo[13] Valid taxon Late Cretaceous (70 mya) Maevarano Formation Madagascar
An artist's depiction of Beelzebufo
Gerobatrachus[14] Valid taxon
  • Anderson
  • Reisz
  • Scott
  • Fröbisch
  • Sumida
Early Permian (290 mya) Baylor County, Texas

Ornithodirans[edit]

Newly named pterosaurs[edit]

Name Status Authors Notes

Elanodactylus

Valid

Andres Ji, Q.

Hongshanopterus

Valid

Xiaolin Wang de Almeida et al.

Mythunga

Valid

Molnar Thulborn, R.A.

Nemicolopterus

Valid

Wang Kellner et al.

Raeticodactylus

Junior synonym

Stecher

Jr. synonym of Caviramus

Shenzhoupterus

Valid

Lü J. Unwin et al.

Volgadraco

Valid

Averianov Arkhangelsky Pervushov

Dinosaurs[edit]

  • Oviraptorosaurian eggs with embryonic skeletons are discovered for the first time in China.[15]
  • Mongolian Late Jurassic theropod fossils are found for the first time.[16]
  • A new study on morphological variation in shed theropod teeth from the Mil River Formation is published.[17]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

28 new dinosaur genera were erected in 2008. Data courtesy of George Olshevky's dinosaur genera list.[18]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Austroraptor[19]

Valid

Campanian–Maastrichtian

Allen Formation

The largest dromaeosaurid yet discovered in the Southern Hemisphere.

Dakotadon[20]

Valid

Barremian

Lakota Formation

A new genus for "Iguanodon" lakotaensis (Weishampel and Bjork, 1989).

Daxiatitan[21]

Valid

Lower Cretaceous

Lanzhou Basin

A basal titanosaur.

Diceratus[22]

Junior synonym

Late Cretaceous

Lance Formation

Objective junior synonym of Nedoceratops; possible junior synonym of Triceratops.

Dollodon[20]

Valid

  • Paul

Barremian

Bernissart

An iguanodontian.

Dongyangosaurus[23]

Valid

early Late Cretaceous

Fangyang Formation

A titanosauriform.

Duriavenator[24]

Valid

  • Benson

Bajocian

Dorset

A megalosaurid.

Eocarcharia[25]

Valid

Aptian/Albian

Elrhaz Formation

A carcharodontosaurid.

Eomamenchisaurus[26]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Zhanghe Formation

A mamenchisaurid.

Epidexipteryx[27]

Valid

Late Jurassic

Daohugou Beds

An avialian.

Gobiceratops[28]

Valid

  • Alifanov

Late Cretaceous

Baruungoyot Formation

Possible junior synonym of Bagaceratops.

Kryptops[25]

Valid

  • Sereno
  • Brusatte

Aptian/Albian

Elrhaz Formation

An abelisaurid.

Loricatosaurus[29]

Valid

Callovian

A stegosaurid.

Microceratus[22]

Nomen dubium

  • Mateus

Campanian

Orkoraptor[30]

Valid

  • Novas
  • Ezcurra
  • Lecuona

Maastrichtian

Pari Aike Formation

A neovenatorid.

Peloroplites[31]

Valid

Lower Cretaceous

Cedar Mountain Formation

A nodosaurid ankylosaur.

Pitekunsaurus[32]

Valid

  • Filippi
  • Garrido

Campanian

Anacleto Formation

A titanosaur.

Qingxiusaurus[33]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

A titanosaur.

Sahaliyania[34]

Valid

Maastrichtian

Yuliangze Formation

A lambeosaurine hadrosaurid.

Similicaudipteryx[35]

Valid

  • He
  • Wang
  • Zhou

Aptian

Jiufotang Formation

A caudipterid oviraptorosaur.

Tastavinsaurus[36]

Valid

  • Canudo
  • Royo-Torres
  • Cuenca-Bescós

Aptian

Xert Formation

A titanosauriform.

Uberabatitan[37]

Valid

  • Salgado
  • Carvalho

Upper Cretaceous

Marília Formation

A titanosaur.

Wulagasaurus[34]

Valid

Maastrichtian

Yuliangze Formation

A saurolophine hadrosaurid.

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aegolius martae [38]

Valid

  • Marco Pavia

Early/Middle Pleistocene

 Italy

A new species of Aegolius, Strigidae.

Bermuteo avivorus [39]

Valid

  • Storrs L. Olson

Late Pleistocene

 Bermuda

A new genus and species of Accipitridae.

Bountyphaps obsoleta [40]

Valid

  • Trevor H. Worthy
  • Graham M. Wragg

Subrecent

 Pitcairn

A new genus and species of Columbidae from Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Group.

Calonectris wingatei [41]

Valid

  • Storrs L. Olson

Middle Pleistocene

 Bermuda

A new genus and species of Procellariidae.

Caracara tellustris [42]

Valid

  • Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

 Jamaica

A species of Caracara.

Cathayornis chabuensis [43]

Valid

  • Li Jianjun
  • Li Zhiheng
  • Zhang Yuguang
  • Zhou Zhonghe
  • Bai Zhiqiang
  • Zhang Lifu
  • Ba Tuya

Early Cretaceous

Jinchuan Formation

 China

A new species of Cathayornithidae, Enantiornithes.

Certhiops rummeli [44]

Valid

  • Albrecht Manegold

Early Miocene

MN 3

 Germany

A new Genus and species of Certhioidea.

Didactylornis jii [45]

Valid

  • Yuan Chongxi

Lower Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

Basal pygostylia, Sapeornithidae.

Enantiophoenix electrophyla [46]

Valid

  • Cau
  • Arduini

Upper Cretaceous

 Lebanon

An enantiornithine.

Eoconfuciusornis zhengi [47]

Valid

  • Fucheng Zhang
  • Zhonghe Zhou
  • Michael Benton

Lower Cretaceous

Dabeigou Formation

 China

A Primitive Cnfuciusornithidae.

Ephippiorhynchus tchoufour [48]

Valid

  • Antoine Louchart
  • Yohannes Haile-Selassie
  • Patrick Vignaud
  • Androssa Likius
  • Michel Brunet

Late Miocene

ca 7 Ma

 Chad

A new species of Ephippiorhynchus, Ciconiidae.

Eurotrochilus noniewiczi [49]

Valid

  • Zygmunt Bochenski
  • Zbigniew Bochenski

Early Oligocene

Late Rupelian

 Poland

A new European species of the Trochilidae.

Foudia delloni [50]

Valid

  • Anthony S. Cheke
  • Julian P. Hume

Subrecent

Not seen since 1672

 Réunion

The original Foudia from Réunion.

Hokkaidornis abashiriensis [51]

Valid

  • Kazuhiko Sakurai
  • Masaichi Kimura
  • Takayuki Katoh

Late Oligocene

Tokoro Formation

 Japan

A Plotopteridae.

Jabiru codorensis [52]

Valid

  • Stig A. Walsh
  • Rodolfo Sánchez

Early Pliocene

Middle El Jebe Member, Codore Formation

 Venezuela

A Ciconiidae.

Leptoptilos patagonicus [53]

Valid

  • Jorge I. Noriega
  • Gerardo Cladera

Late Miocene

Puerto Madryn Formation

 Argentina

A Ciconiidae.

Manuherikia douglasi [54]

Valid

  • Trevor H. Worthy
  • Alan J. D. Tennyson
  • Suzanne J. Hand
  • R. Paul Scofield

Early-Middle Miocene

Bannockburn Formation

 New Zealand

A Anatida, Anserinae.

Megadyptes waitaha [55]

Valid

  • Sanne Boessenkool
  • Jeremy J. Austin
  • Trevor H. Worthy
  • R. Paul Scofield
  • Alan Cooper
  • Philip J. Seddon
  • Jonathan M. Waters

Late Holocene

 New Zealand

A Spheniscidae, when it became extinct it made room for Megadyptes antipodes.

Mopsitta tanta [56]

Valid

  • David W. Waterhouse
  • Bent E. K, Lindow
  • Nikita V. Zelenkov
  • Gareth J. Dyke

Early Eocene, Ypresian

Fur Formation

 Denmark

A Psittaciformes, Gerald Mayr, 2009 sees no reasons to place the species in Psittaciformes.

Palaeortyx volans [57]

Valid

  • Ursula B. Göhlich
  • Marco Pavia

Neogene

 Italy

A Phasianidae.

Pelagornis mauretanicus [58]

Valid

  • Cécille Mourer-Chauviré
  • Denis Geraads

Late Pliocene

Ahl al Oughlam

 Morocco

A Pelagornithidae.

Pengornis houi [59]

Valid

  • Zhou
  • Clarke
  • Zhang

Lower Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

An enantiornithine.

Phaethusavis pelagicus [60]

Valid

  • Estelle Bourdon
  • Mbarek Amaghzaz
  • Baâdi Bouya

Early Eocene

Early Ypresian

 Morocco

A Phaethontidae.

Pleistovultur nevesi [61]

Valid

  • Herculano Marcos Ferraz de Alvarenga
  • Guilherme R. R. Brito
  • Rafael Migotto
  • Alex Hubbe
  • Elizabeth Höfling

Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene

 Brazil

A Vulturidae.

Thomasococcyx philohippus [62]

Valid

  • David W. Steadman

Early Miocene

Hemingfordian LMA

 USA:  Florida

A Cuculidae.

Tirarinetta kanunka [63]

Valid

  • Trevor H. Worthy

Pliocene

Tirari Formation

 Australia

A Anatidae.

Zhongornis haoae [64]

Valid

  • Gao
  • Chiappe
  • Meng
  • O'Connor
  • Wang
  • Cheng
  • Liu

Lower Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

Basal bird.

Zygodactylus luberonensis [65]

Valid

  • Gerald Mayr

Early Oligocene

MP 23-24

 France

A Zygodactylidae, ?Piciformes.

Other publications[edit]

  • Hutchinson, J.R., Miller, C., Fritsch, G., and Hildebrandt, T. 2008. The anatomical foundation for multidisciplinary studies of animal limb function: examples from dinosaur and elephant limb imaging studies; pp. 23–38 in Endo, H. and Frey, R. (eds.), Anatomical Imaging: Towards a New Morphology. Springer Verlag, Tokyo.
  • Witmer, L.M., Ridgely, R.C., Dufeau, D.L., and Semones, M.C. 2008. Using CR to peer into the past: 3D visualization of the brain and ear regions of birds, crocodiles, and nonavian dinosaurs; pp. 67–88 in Endo, H. and Frey, R. (eds.), Anatomical Imaging: Towards a New Morphology. Springer Verlag, Tokyo.

Anapsids[edit]

Newly named anapsids[edit]

Currently valid anapsid genera named in 2008
Name Status Authors Images
Odontochelys[66] Valid taxon
  • Li et al.
Condorchelys[67] Valid taxon
  • Sterli

Squamates[edit]

new taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ovoo[68]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Norell, Gao, & Conrad

Late Cretaceous

near Ukhaa Tolgod

 Mongolia

one of the oldest monitor lizards

Taniwhasaurus mikasaensis[69]

sp nov

Valid

Caldwell, Konishi, Obata, & Muramoto

upper Santonian-lower Campanian

 Japan

Third identified species for the genus Taniwhasaurus

New papers[edit]

  • Everhart, M.J. (2008). "A bitten skull of Tylosaurus kansasensis (Squamata: Mosasauridae) and a review of mosasaur-on-mosasaur pathology in the fossil record". Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 111 (3/4): 251–262. doi:10.1660/0022-8443-111.3.251. 
  • Everhart, M.J. 2008. The mosasaurs of George F. Sternberg, paleontologist and fossil photographer. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 37–46.
  • Polcyn, M.J. and Everhart, M.J. 2008. Description and phylogenetic analysis of a new species of Selmasaurus (Mosasauridae: Plioplatecarpinae) from the Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 13–28.
  • Polcyn, M.J., Bell, G.L., Jr., Shimada, K. and Everhart, M.J. 2008. The oldest North American mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from the Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas and Texas with comments on the radiation of major mosasaur clades. Proceedings of the Second Mosasaur Meeting, Fort Hays Studies Special Issue 3, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, pp. 137–155.
  • Everhart, M.J. 2008. Rare occurrence of a Globidens sp. (Reptilia; Mosasauridae) dentary in the Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale (Middle Campanian) of Western Kansas. p. 23-29 in Farley G. H. and Choate, J.R. (eds.), Unlocking the Unknown; Papers Honoring Dr. Richard Zakrzewski, Fort Hays Studies, Special Issue No. 2, 153 p., Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS.

Plesiosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Notes

Nichollsia

renamed

Druckenmiller Russell

Nichollsia preoccupied by a genus of isopod, renamed in 2009 to Nichollssaura

Occitanosaurus

valid

Bardet Fernandez Garcia-Ramos Superbiola Pinuela Ruiz-Omenaca Vincent

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alrausuchus[70]

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Middle Permian

 Russia

A new genus for "Biarmosuchus" tagax

Megawhaitsia[71]

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Upper Permian

 Russia

Mammal[edit]

Newly named mammals
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Siamoadapis[72]

Valid

  • Chaimanee
  • Yamee
  • Tian
  • Chavasseau
  • Jaeger

Middle Miocene

 Thailand

Merycopotamus thachangensis[73]

Valid

  • Hanta
  • Ratanasthien
  • Kunimatsu
  • Saegusa
  • Nakaya
  • Nagaoka
  • Jintasakul

Late Miocene

 Thailand

Related happenings in geology[edit]

[74]

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Novas, Pol, Canale, Porfiri, Calvo.
  2. ^ You, Li, Zhou, Ji.
  3. ^ Lü, Azuma, Chen, Zheng, Jin.
  4. ^ Lü, Li, Zhong, Ji, Li.
  5. ^ Zhang, Zhou, Xu, Wang, Sullivan.
  6. ^ Maidment, Norman, Barrett, Upchurch.
  7. ^ Carpenter, Bartlett, Bird, Barrick.
  8. ^ Mo, Huang, Zhao, Wang, Xu.
  9. ^ a b Godefroit, Hai, Yu, Lauters.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Manchester, S.; Pigg, K. (2008). "The Eocene mystery flower of McAbee, British Columbia". Botany 86 (9): 1034–1038. doi:10.1139/B08-044. 
  3. ^ Mohr, B.A.R.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Taylor, D.W. (2008). "Pluricarpellatia, a nymphaealean angiosperm from the Lower Cretaceous of northern Gondwana (Crato Formation, Brazil)". Taxon 57 (4): 1147–1158. 
  4. ^ a b Herrera, F.A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Dilcher, D.L.; Wing, S.L.; Gómez-N, C. (2007). "Fossil Araceae from a Paleocene neotropical rainforest in Colombia". American Journal of Botany 95 (12): 1569–1583. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800172. PMID 21628164. 
  5. ^ a b Poinar, G. (2008). "Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Dominican amber". Parasites & Vectors 1 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-22. PMC 2491605. PMID 18627624. 
  6. ^ a b Li, Y-L.; Ren, D.; Shih, C-K (2008). "Two Middle Jurassic hanging-flies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Northeast China". Zootaxa 1929: 38–46. ISSN 1175-5334. 
  7. ^ Perrichot, V.; Nel, A.; Néraudeau, D.; Lacau, S.; Guyot, T. (2008). "New fossil ants in French Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Naturwissenschaften 95 (2): 91–97. doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0302-7. PMID 17828384. 
  8. ^ a b Jepson, J.E.; Jarzembowski, E.A. (2008). "Two new species of snakefly (Insecta:Raphidioptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of England and Spain with a review of other fossil raphidiopterans from the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition". Alavesia 2: 193–201. 
  9. ^ Ren, D.; Nel, A.; Prokop, J. (2008). "New early griffenfly, Sinomeganeura huangheensis from the Late Carboniferous of northern China (Meganisoptera: Meganeuridae)". Insect Systematic Evolution 38: 223–229. doi:10.1163/187631208788784075. ISSN 1399-560X. 
  10. ^ Woodruff, R.E. (2009). "A new fossil species of stag beetle from Dominican Republic amber, with Australasian connections (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)". Insecta Mundi 0098: 1–10. 
  11. ^ Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M. S. (2008). "A termite bug in Early Miocene amber of the Dominican Republic (Hemiptera: Termitaphididae)". American Museum Novitates 3619: 1–10. doi:10.1206/610.1. 
  12. ^ Long, J. A.; Trinajstic, K.; Young, G. C.; Senden, T. (2008). "Live birth in the Devonian period". Nature 453 (7195): 650–652. Bibcode:2008Natur.453..650L. doi:10.1038/nature06966. PMID 18509443. 
  13. ^ Evans, Susan E.; Jones, Marc E. H.; Krause, David W. (2008). "A giant frog with South American affinities from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (8): 2951–2956. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105.2951E. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707599105. PMC 2268566. PMID 18287076. 
  14. ^ Anderson J.S.; Reisz, RR; Scott, D; Fröbisch, NB; Sumida, SS (2008). "A stem batrachian from the Early Permian of Texas and the origin of frogs and salamanders". Nature 453 (7194): 515–518. Bibcode:2008Natur.453..515A. doi:10.1038/nature06865. PMID 18497824. 
  15. ^ Cheng, Y.-N.; Ji, Q.; Wu, X.-C.; Shan, H.-Y. (2008). "Oviraptorosaurian eggs (Dinosauria) with embryonic skeletons discovered for the first time in China". Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 82 (6): 1089–1094. 
  16. ^ Watabe, M.; Tsogtbaatar, K.; Barsbold, R. (2008). "First discovery of a theropod (Dinosauria) from the Upper Jurassic in Mongolia and its stratigraphy". Paleontological Research 12 (1): 27–36. doi:10.2517/1342-8144(2008)12[27:FDOATD]2.0.CO;2. 
  17. ^ Larson, D.W. (2008). "Diversity and variation of theropod dinosaur teeth from the uppermost Santonian Milk River Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Alberta: a quantitative method supporting identification of the oldest dinosaur tooth assemblage in Canada". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 45 (12): 1455–1468. Bibcode:2008CaJES..45.1455L. doi:10.1139/E08-070. 
  18. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  19. ^ Novas, Fernando E.; Diego Pol; Juan I. Canale; Juan D. Porfiri; Jorge O. Calvo (2008-12-16). "A bizarre Cretaceous theropod dinosaur from Patagonia and the evolution of Gondwanan dromaeosaurids". Proceedings of the Royal Society B (The Royal Society) 276 (1659): 1101–7. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1554. PMC 2679073. PMID 19129109. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  20. ^ a b Paul, Gregory S. (2008). "A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species". Cretaceous Research 29 (2): 192–216. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2007.04.009. 
  21. ^ You, H.-L.; Li, D.-Q.; Zhou, L.-Q.; Ji, Q (2008). "Daxiatitan binglingi: a giant sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China". Gansu Geology 17 (4): 1–10. 
  22. ^ a b Mateus, O (2008). "Two ornithischian dinosaurs renamed: Microceratops Bohlin 1953 and Diceratops Lull 1905". Journal of Paleontology 82 (2): 423. doi:10.1666/07-069.1. 
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