2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak

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2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak
Modasa-Gujrat.png
Location of Modasa in Gujarat
Date early 2009
Location Modasa, Gujarat, India
Casualties
49 dead[1]
125+ infected[2]

The early 2009 Gujarat hepatitis B outbreak is a hepatitis B epidemic that spread in Modasa, northern Gujarat, India. Over 125 people were infected and up to 49 people were killed in the epidemic.[1][2] Several doctors were investigated and arrested after the outbreaks.

Hepatitis B[edit]

Main article: Hepatitis B virus

The hepatitis B virus infects the liver and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. It is a DNA virus and one of many unrelated viruses that cause viral hepatitis. The disease, originally known as "serum hepatitis",[3] has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China.[4] About a third of the world's population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with the hepatitis B virus.[5] This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus.[6] The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting and jaundice. The infection is preventable by vaccination.[7]

Transmission of hepatitis B results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. Possible forms of transmission include (but are not limited to) unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions, re-use of contaminated needles & syringes, and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth. HBV can be transmitted between family members within households, possibly by contact of nonintact skin or mucous membrane with secretions or saliva containing HBV.[8][9] However, at least 30% of reported cases of hepatitis B among adults cannot be associated with an identifiable risk factor.[10]

Arrests[edit]

The doctors were accused of re-using syringes, which had been contaminated with hepatitis B virus, to treat other patients. Eight medical practitioners, including doctors Govind and Chintal Patel, were arrested under the Indian Penal Code for culpable homicide not amounting to murder after allegedly re-using infected syringes.[11] One of them was also charged with attempted murder.[2] Most of the people affected had received medical treatment from Dr. Patel in the last six months. Medical officials conducted a raid on Patel's clinic and found several used syringes and other medical waste.[2][12]

Reaction[edit]

The Government of Gujarat started a mass immunization drive under strict medical supervision in Modasa, which set up 60 booths in Modasa and nearby cities.[13] 224 medical teams, including some from All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences and National Institute of Virology have set up camps in Modasa, and will remain there for at least a month.[1][14] According to the officials 25,000 vaccines were sent to the most affected area and 600,000 more vaccines are being arranged from Hyderabad.[15] In addition, the government distributed 30,000 pamphlets and mounted a campaign to inform residents about the disease.[14]

The Health Department of the Gujarat government have sent 600,000 doses of vaccine to the area.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Doctor arrested in Gujarat Hepatitis-B outbreak case". NDTV. 2009-02-22. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  2. ^ a b c d "India hepatitis death toll reaches 38". CNN. 2009-02-22. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2009. 
  3. ^ Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, et al. (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". JAMA 276 (10): 841–4. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597. 
  4. ^ Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology 44 (3): 521–6. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687. 
  5. ^ WHO | Hepatitis B
  6. ^ FAQ about Hepatitis B, Stanford University School of Medicine
  7. ^ Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural history of hepatitis B virus infection: an update for clinicians". Mayo Clin. Proc. 82 (8): 967–75. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066. 
  8. ^ Petersen NJ, Barrett DH, Bond WW, Berquist KR, Favero MS, Bender TR, Maynard JE (1976). "Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva, impetiginous lesions, and the environment in two remote Alaskan villages". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32 (4): 572–574. PMC 170308. PMID 791124. 
  9. ^ "Hepatitis B - the facts: IDEAS - Victorian Government Health Information, Australia". Health.vic.gov.au. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  10. ^ Shapiro CN (1993). "Epidemiology of hepatitis B". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12 (5): 433–7. doi:10.1097/00006454-199305000-00036. PMID 8392167. 
  11. ^ "Doctors held over hepatitis deaths". Press Association. 2009-02-22. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  12. ^ "Hepatitis outbreak: 2 doctors booked for culpable homicide". Press Trust of India. 2009-02-22. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  13. ^ "Hepatitis-B toll up to 35". Times of India. 2009-02-22. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  14. ^ a b "Modassa residents blame Gujarat govt for spread of Hepatitis B". Sify News. 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  15. ^ "State govt opts for mass immunisation drive to counter Hepatitis B outbreak". Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  16. ^ NDTV Report