2009 in spaceflight

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2009 in spaceflight
STS-125 FD9 Release.jpg
The Hubble Space Telescope was serviced for the last time during the STS-125 mission
Orbital launches
First 18 January
Last 29 December
Total 78
Successes 73
Failures 4
Partial failures 1
Catalogued 75
National firsts
Spaceflight  New Zealand
Satellite   Switzerland[1]
Orbital launch  Iran[2]
Rockets
Maiden flights Delta IV-M+ (5,4)
H-IIB
Naro-1
Taurus-XL 3110
Retirements Ariane 5GS
Falcon 1
Tsyklon-3
Manned flights
Orbital 9
Total travellers 46

Several significant events in spaceflight occurred in 2009, including Iran conducting its first indigenous orbital launch, the first Swiss satellite being launched and New Zealand launching its first sounding rocket. The H-IIB and Naro-1 rockets conducted maiden flights, whilst the Tsyklon-3, Falcon 1 and Ariane 5GS were retired from service.[3][4] The permanent crew of the International Space Station increased from three to six in May, and in the last few months of the year, Japan's first resupply mission to the outpost, HTV-1, was conducted successfully.

Overview[edit]

An Iridium satellite

The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level. The first spaceflight launch of the year was that of a Delta IV Heavy, carrying the USA-202 ELINT satellite, which launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 02:47 GMT on 18 January. This was also the first orbital launch of the year.

On 2 February Iran conducted its first successful orbital launch,[2] when a Safir was used to place the Omid satellite into low Earth orbit.

At 16:56 GMT on 10 February, the first major collision between two satellites in orbit occurred, resulting in the destruction of Kosmos 2251 and Iridium 33, launched in 1993 and 1997 respectively. Up until the collision, Iridium 33 was operational, and an active part of the Iridium network of satellites, whilst Kosmos 2251 was an inactive piece of space junk.

On 25 August, the Russo- South Korean Naro-1 rocket made its maiden flight on 25 August, marking South Korea's first involvement in conducting a satellite launch attempt, however the rocket failed to reach orbit after its payload fairing malfunctioned.

HTV-1 arriving at the ISS

The first flight of the SpaceX Falcon 9 carrier rocket was scheduled to occur in November, but was delayed to February 2010 to allow more time for preparations. The SpaceX Dragon, a commercial unmanned logistics spacecraft which was developed as part of NASA's COTS programme, was also scheduled to make its first flight in 2009, however its launch has also slipped to 2010 as a result of knock-on delays. The first H-II Transfer Vehicle, HTV-1, was successfully launched on the maiden flight of the H-IIB carrier rocket on 10 September. The first Swiss satellite, SwissCube-1, was launched on 23 September aboard a PSLV.

On 18 December, the Ariane 5GS made its final flight, delivering the Helios-IIB satellite into a sun-synchronous orbit. The last orbital launch of the year was conducted eleven days later, on 29 December, when a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched the DirecTV-12 satellite.

Space exploration[edit]

Although no planetary probes were launched in 2009, four astronomical observatories were placed into orbit. The Kepler spacecraft, which was launched by a Delta II on 7 March, entered an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit from where it will search for exoplanets. On 14 May, and Ariane 5ECA launched the Herschel and Planck spacecraft. Both were placed at the L2 Lagrangian point between the Earth and Sun, from where they will be used for astronomy. Herschel carries an infrared telescope whilst Planck carries an optical one. The fourth observatory to be launched was the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, which is a replacement for the Wide Field Infrared Explorer which failed shortly after launch. WISE was launched into a sun-synchronous orbit by a Delta II on 14 December, and will be used for infrared astronomy. Repairs made to the Hubble Space Telescope during STS-125 restored it to full operations after a series of malfunctions in 2008.

Two lunar probes were launched in 2009; the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite were launched on a single Atlas V rocket on 18 June. LRO entered selenocentric orbit and began a series of experiments, whilst LCROSS remained attached to the Centaur upper stage of the carrier rocket, and flew past the Moon. After orbiting the Earth twice, LCROSS separated from the upper stage and both it and the Centaur impacted the Cabeus crater at the South Pole of the Moon, on 9 October. By observing the Centaur's impact, LCROSS was able to confirm the presence of water on the Moon.[5] Several other Lunar probes ceased operations in 2009; Okina impacted the far side of the Moon on 12 February, Chang'e 1 was deorbited on 1 March, having completed its operations. Kaguya was also deorbited following a successful mission, impacting near Gill crater on 12 June. The Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft failed on 29 August, having operated for less than half of its design life.

The Mars Science Laboratory and Fobos-Grunt missions to Mars had been scheduled for launch at the end of 2009, however both were delayed to 2011 to allow more time for the spacecraft to be developed. Fobos-Grunt, a sample return mission to Mars' natural satellite Phobos, would have carried the first Chinese planetary probe, Yinghuo-1.

Several flybys occurred in 2009, with Cassini continuing to orbit Saturn, passing close to a number of its natural satellites. In February, Dawn passed within 549 kilometres (341 mi) of Mars, during a gravity assist manoeuvre for its journey to the asteroid belt. In September, MESSENGER made its third and final flyby of Mercury before entering orbit in 2011. Whilst the primary objective of the flyby, achieving a gravitational assist, was successful, the spacecraft entered safe mode shortly before its closest approach, which prevented it recording data as it flew away from the planet.[6] In November, the Rosetta spacecraft performed its third and final gravity assist flyby of Earth.

Manned spaceflight[edit]

Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-125, the last Hubble servicing flight

Nine manned launches occurred in 2009, the most since 1997. STS-119, using Space Shuttle Discovery, was launched on 15 March. It installed the last set of solar arrays on the International Space Station. Soyuz TMA-14, the 100th manned Soyuz launch, delivered the Expedition 19 crew in March. In May, Space Shuttle Atlantis conducted the final mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, STS-125. Several days later, Soyuz TMA-15 launched with the ISS Expedition 20 crew, brought the total ISS crew size up to six for the first time. This was also the 100th manned spaceflight of the Soyuz programme, excluding the original Soyuz T-10 mission which failed to reach space. In July, Space Shuttle Endeavour delivered the final component of the Japanese Experiment Module on mission STS-127. STS-128, using Discovery in August, delivered supplies using the Leonardo MPLM. September saw the launch of Soyuz TMA-16, with the ISS Expedition 21 crew. This was the 100th manned Soyuz mission reach orbit. In November, Space Shuttle Atlantis flew mission STS-129, delivering two EXPRESS Logistics Carriers to the ISS. The final manned flight of the year, Soyuz TMA-17, was launched on 20 December with the ISS Expedition 22 crew.

The launch of Ares I-X

Although not a spaceflight in its own right, the Ares I-X test flight was conducted on 28 October, with the rocket lifting off from Launch Complex 39B of the Kennedy Space Center at 15:30 GMT. The flight was successful and reached an altitude of around 46 kilometres (29 mi), within the upper atmosphere. A parachute failure during descent resulted in some damage to the first stage, which was recovered.

Launch failures[edit]

OCO launches on a Taurus

Four orbital launch failures occurred in 2009. On 24 February, a Taurus-XL launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, United States, with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. The payload fairing did not separate from the rocket, leaving the upper stage with too much mass to reach orbit. The stage, with spacecraft and fairing still attached, reentered the atmosphere, coming down off the coast of Antarctica. The second failure was a controversial North Korean launch attempt using an Unha rocket to launch the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 communications satellite. The launch was conducted on 5 April, and North Korea maintains that it successfully reached orbit, however no objects from the launch were tracked as having orbital velocity, and US radar systems tracking the rocket detected that it failed at around the time of third stage ignition, with debris falling in the Pacific Ocean.

A Soyuz-2.1a suffered a failure during the launch of Meridian 2 on 21 May, due to the premature cutoff of the second core stage of the carrier rocket. The satellite was placed in a lower than planned orbit, which it was initially expected to be able to correct by means of its onboard propulsion system, and the launch was reported to be a partial failure. By the time of the next Meridian launch in 2010 it had been confirmed that the satellite could not correct its own orbit, and that the mission was a failure.[7] On 25 August, the Naro-1 rocket was launched on its maiden flight, however one half of the payload fairing failed to separate, and it did not reach orbit.

On 31 August a Long March 3B placed the Palapa-D satellite into a lower than expected orbit after its third stage gas generator burned through, resulting in an engine failure at the start of the second burn.[8] The satellite was able to raise itself to its correct orbit at the expense of fuel which would have been used for five or six years of operations.[8]


Summary of launches[edit]

In total, seventy eight orbital launches were attempted in 2009, with seventy five catalogued as having reached orbit, and the three outright launch failures, including the North Korean launch, not being catalogued. This is an increase of nine attempts compared to 2008, and eight more launches reached orbit. This continues a four year trend of increasing annual launch rates. The United States National Space Science Data Center catalogued 123 spacecraft placed into orbit by launches which occurred in 2009.[9]

Launch of a Delta IV-M+(4,2) EELV with GOES 14

Suborbital spaceflight in 2009 saw a number of sounding rocket and missile launches. New Zealand's Ātea-1 sounding rocket was launched on 30 November, marking that country's first suborbital flight. Russia twice attempted launches of its Bulava missile, however both launches failed. The second failure, which occurred on 9 December, resulted in a spiral pattern which was observed in the sky over Norway. The SpaceLoft-XL rocket experienced another launch failure during its third flight, on 2 May. The payload section separated from the rocket whilst it was still burning, and as a result the vehicle did not reach space.[10] It had been carrying samples of cremated human remains for Celestis, and student experiments.

By country[edit]

China conducted six launches in 2009; satellite problems early in the year followed by the fallout of the August partial launch failure resulted in many planned launches slipping into 2010. Europe launched seven Ariane 5 rockets, six in the ECA configuration and one in the GS configuration. It had also intended to launch the first Vega rocket, however this was delayed due to ongoing development issues, which had already left the project several years behind schedule. India conducted two launches of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles, however the first flight of a new variant of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle with an Indian-built upper stage slipped into 2010. Japan conducted three launches; two using the H-IIA, plus the first H-IIB. Russia and the former Soviet Union conducted twenty nine launches, not including the international Sea and Land launch programmes, which conducted four, and the single Naro-1 launch conducted in cooperation with South Korea.

The United States made twenty four launch attempts, with the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles accounting for eight; the most EELV launches in a single year to date. Eight Delta II launches were also made, including its last mission with a GPS satellite, and its last flight with a payload for the United States armed forces. As the Delta II programme wound down, Space Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, one of the oldest operational launch pads in the world, was deactivated. SpaceX launched a single Falcon 1, which successfully placed an operational satellite into orbit for the first time. This was the final flight of the Falcon 1, which was subsequently retired from service in favour of the Falcon 1e.[4] At the start of the year, a mockup Falcon 9 was erected on its launch pad at Canaveral, however the type's maiden flight slipped into 2010.

Sea Launch only conducted a single launch in 2009; a Zenit-3SL launched Sicral 1B in April. In June, the company was declared bankrupt,[11] and subsequently it lost a number of launch contracts.[12] By the end of the year it was expecting to resume launches in 2010.[12] Its subsidiary, Land Launch, conducted three launches. Iran made its first successful indigenous orbital launch, however planned follow-up launches had not been conducted by the end of the year. North Korea made one launch which it claimed had successfully placed a satellite into orbit, however no such satellite was detected by any country capable of doing so. Israel was not reported to have scheduled or conducted an orbital launch attempt.

Deep space rendezvous[edit]

Date Spacecraft Event Remarks
7 February Cassini 50th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
12 February[13] Okina Lunar impact Farside of the Moon
17 February Dawn Flyby of Mars Gravity assist, closest approach 549 kilometres (341 mi) at 00:28 GMT
1 March[14] Chang'e 1 Lunar impact Deorbited at 07:36 and impacted at 08:13[14]
27 March Cassini 51st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
4 April Cassini 52nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 4,150 kilometres (2,580 mi)
20 April Cassini 53rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,600 kilometres (2,200 mi)
5 May Cassini 54th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,244 kilometres (2,016 mi)
21 May Cassini 55th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
6 June Cassini 56th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
10 June[15] Kaguya Lunar Impact at 18:25 UTC, around Gill crater.
22 June Cassini 57th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
23 June LRO Selenocentric orbit insertion Orbital insersion burn lasted from 09:47 to 10:26 UTC
23 June LCROSS/Centaur Lunar flyby Gravity assist to align for impact in October, closest approach: 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi) at 10:30:33 UTC
8 July Cassini 58th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
24 July Cassini 59th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
9 August Cassini 60th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
25 August Cassini 61st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
17 September Artemis P1 Lunar flyby Closest approach: 43,875 kilometres (27,263 mi) at 00:49 UTC[16]
30 September MESSENGER 3rd flyby of Mercury Gravity assist, closest approach: 229 kilometres (142 mi)[17]
9 October AV-020 Centaur Lunar impact 2,000-kilogram (4,400 lb) upper stage of the Atlas V rocket used to launch LRO and LCROSS. Impacted Cabeus crater[5] at Lunar South Pole.[18] Impact occurred at 11:31 UTC, and was observed by LCROSS.
LCROSS (S-S/C) Lunar impact 700-kilogram (1,500 lb) shepherding spacecraft. Detached from Centaur at 01:50 UTC, and impacted same crater at 11:37.
12 October Cassini 62nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
2 November Cassini 7th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
13 November Rosetta 3rd flyby of Earth Gravity assist
21 November Cassini 8th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 1,607 kilometres (999 mi)
8 December Artemis P1 Lunar flyby Closest approach: 16,101 kilometres (10,005 mi) at 01:25 UTC[16]
12 December Cassini 63rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 4,850 kilometres (3,010 mi)
28 December Cassini 64th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
Distant, non-targeted flybys of Dione, Mimas, Rhea, Tethys and Titan by Cassini occurred throughout the year.

EVAs[edit]

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
10 March
16:22
4 hours
49 minutes
21:11 Expedition 18
ISS Pirs
RussiaYuri Lonchakov
United StatesMichael Fincke
Installed the EXPOSE-R experiment, removed tape straps from a docking target on the Pirs docking compartment, inspected and photographed the exterior of the Russian portion of the station.[19][20]
19 March
17:16
6 hours
7 minutes
23:23 STS-119
ISS Quest
United StatesSteven Swanson
United StatesRichard R. Arnold
Installed the S6 truss to the S5 truss, connected S5/S6 umbilicals, released launch restraints, removed keel pins, stored and removed thermal covers, and deployed the S6 photovoltaic radiator.[21]
21 March
16:51
6 hours
30 minutes
23:21 STS-119
ISS Quest
United StatesSteven Swanson
United StatesJoseph M. Acaba
Advanced preparation of worksite for STS-127, installation of an unpressurised cargo carrier attachment system on the P3 truss, installation of a Global Positioning System antenna to the Kibo laboratory, and infrared imagery of panels of the radiators on the P1 and S1 trusses.[22][23] Cargo carrier installation unsuccessful
23 March
15:37
6 hours
27 minutes
22:04 STS-119
ISS Quest
United StatesJoseph M. Acaba
United StatesRichard R. Arnold
Relocation of a crew equipment cart, complete the deployment of a cargo carrier, lubricated the station robotic arm's latching end effector B snare bearings, and finish swapping electrical relays to the station's gyroscopes.[24] Cargo carrier deployment unsuccessful
14 May
12:52
7 hours
20 minutes
20:12 STS-125
Atlantis
United StatesJohn M. Grunsfeld
United StatesAndrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Replaced the WFPC-2 with WFC-3, replaced the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling Unit, lubricated three shroud doors, installed SCM.[25][26][27]
15 May
12:49
7 hours
56 minutes
20:46 STS-125
Atlantis
United StatesMichael J. Massimino
United StatesMichael T. Good
HST servicing: Replaced rate sensing gyroscopes, removed one of two batteries.[28][29]
16 May
13:35
6 hours
36 minutes
20:11 STS-125
Atlantis
United StatesJohn M. Grunsfeld
United StatesAndrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Replaced COSTAR with COS. Repaired ACS, performed get-ahead tasks from EVA-5.[30]
17 May
13:45
8 hours
2 minutes
21:47 STS-125
Atlantis
United StatesMichael J. Massimino
United StatesMichael T. Good
HST servicing: Repaired Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph.[31]
18 May
13:20
7 hours
2 minutes
20:22 STS-125
Atlantis
United StatesJohn M. Grunsfeld
United StatesAndrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Final HST servicing EVA, final EVA from Space Shuttle. Replaced second battery, installed FGS-3, replaced some insulation and a low-gain antenna cover.[32][33][34]
5 June
07:52
4 hours
54 minutes
12:46 Expedition 20
ISS Pirs
RussiaGennady Padalka
United StatesMichael R. Barratt
Prepared the Zvezda service module transfer compartment for the arrival of the Poisk module, installed docking antenna for the module, photographed antenna for evaluation on the ground, and photographed the Strela-2 crane. First use of the Orlan-MK spacesuit.[35][36][37]
10 June
06:55
12 minutes 07:07 Expedition 20
ISS Zvezda
RussiaGennady Padalka
United StatesMichael R. Barratt
Internal spacewalk in the depressurised Zvezda transfer compartment, replaced one of the Zvezda hatches with a docking cone, in preparation for the docking of Poisk, later this year.[38]
18 July
16:19
5 hours
32 minutes
21:51 STS-127
ISS Quest
United StatesDavid Wolf
United StatesTimothy L. Kopra
JEF installed and P3 nadir UCCAS deployed. S3 zenith outboard PAS deploy postponed due to time constraints.
20 July
15:27
6 hours
53 minutes
22:20 STS-127
ISS Quest
United StatesDavid Wolf
United StatesThomas Marshburn
Transferred Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) from the Shuttle Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to the External Stowage Platform-3 (ESP-3). Transferred materials included a spare high-gain antenna, cooling-system pump module and spare parts for the Mobile Servicing System. JEF Visual Equipment (JEF-VE) installation on the forward section was postponed due to time constraints.
22 July
14:32
5 hours
59 minutes
20:31 STS-127
ISS Quest
United StatesDavid Wolf
United StatesChristopher Cassidy
JPM preparation work, ICS-EF MLI, and P6 battery replacement (2 of 6 units). EVA was cut short due to high levels of CO2 in Cassidy's suit.
24 July
13:54
7 hours
12 minutes
21:06 STS-127
ISS Quest
United StatesChristopher Cassidy
United StatesThomas Marshburn
P6 battery replacement (final 4 of 6).
27 July
11:33
4 hours
54 minutes
16:27 STS-127
ISS Quest
United StatesChristopher Cassidy
United StatesThomas Marshburn
SPDM thermal cover adjustment, Z1 patch panel reconfiguration, JEM visual equipment (JEM-VE) installation (forward and aft), and JEM-LTA reconfigurations. S3 Nadir PAS (outboard) deployment postponed to later mission.
1 September
21:49
6 hours
35 minutes
2 September
04:24
STS-128
ISS Quest
United StatesJohn D. Olivas
United StatesNicole P. Stott
Prepared for the replacement of an empty ammonia tank on the station's port truss by releasing its bolts. Retrieved the MISSE-6 and EuTEF experiments mounted outside Columbus, and stowed them in the Shuttle's payload bay for their return to Earth. Nicole Stott becomes the tenth woman to conduct a spacewalk.
3 September
22:13
6 hours
39 minutes
4 September
04:51
STS-128
ISS Quest
United StatesJohn D. Olivas
SwedenChrister Fuglesang
Removed the new ammonia tank from the shuttle's payload bay and replaced it with the used tank from the station. The new tank, weighing about 1,800 pounds (820 kg), was the most mass ever moved by spacewalking astronauts. With this spacewalk, Christer Fuglesang became the first person, who is not from either an American or Russian space program, to have participated in four or more spacewalks.
5 September
20:39
7 hours
1 minute
6 September
03:40
STS-128
ISS Quest
United StatesJohn D. Olivas
SwedenChrister Fuglesang
Prepared for the arrival of Tranquility by attaching cables between the starboard truss and Unity, the area where Tranquility will be installed. The spacewalkers also replaced a communications sensor device, installed two new GPS antennas, deployed the PAS on the S3 truss, and replaced a circuit breaker.
19 November
14:24
6 hours
37 minutes
21:01 STS-129
ISS Quest
United StatesMichael Foreman
United StatesRobert Satcher
Installed a spare antenna on the station's truss and a bracket for ammonia lines on Unity. Lubricated the grapple mechanism on the Payload Orbital Replacement Unit Attachment Device on the Mobile Base System and lubricated the snares of the hand of the station's Japanese robotic arm. Deployed the S3 outboard Payload Attach System.
21 November
14:31
6 hours
8 minutes
20:39 STS-129
ISS Quest
United StatesMichael Foreman
United StatesRandolph Bresnik
Installed the GATOR (Grappling Adaptor to On-Orbit Railing) bracket to Columbus and an additional ham radio antenna. Installed on the truss an antenna for wireless helmet camera video. Relocated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit that records electrical potential around the station as it orbits the Earth. Deployed two brackets to attach cargo on the truss.
23 November
13:24
5 hours
42 minutes
19:06 STS-129
ISS Quest
United StatesRobert Satcher
United StatesRandolph Bresnik
Installed a new High Pressure Gas Tank (HPGT) on the Quest airlock. Installed MISSE-7A and 7B on ELC-2. Strapped two micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields to External Stowage Platform #2. Relocated foot restraint, released a bolt on Ammonia Tank Assembly, installed insulated covers on cameras on mobile servicing system and Canadarm 2's end effector. Worked heater cables on docking adapter.

Orbital launch summary[edit]

By country[edit]

2009 Launches.svg
  China (PRC)
  Europe
  India
  International
  Iran
  Japan
  North Korea
  Russia/CIS
  South Korea
  United States
Orbital launch attempts by country in 2009
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
European Union Europe 7 7 0 0
 India 2 2 0 0
United Nations International 4 4 0 0 Sea/Land Launch
 Iran 1 1 0 0 First successful orbital launch[2]
 Japan 3 3 0 0
 North Korea 1 0 1 0
 People's Republic of China 6 5 0 1
 Russia/Commonwealth of Independent States CIS 29 28 1 0
 South Korea 1 0 1 0 With Russian assistance
 United States 24 23 1 0


By rocket[edit]

By family[edit]

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Angara  Russia 1 0 1 0 Maiden flight
Ariane  Europe 7 7 0 0
Atlas  United States 5 5 0 0
Delta  United States 11 11 0 0
Falcon  United States 1 1 0 0
H-II  Japan 3 3 0 0
Long March  People's Republic of China 6 5 0 1
Minotaur  United States 1 1 0 0
Pegasus  United States 1 0 1 0
R07R-7  Russia 13 12 1 0
R14R-14  Russia 1 1 0 0
R36R-36  Ukraine 2 2 0 0
Safir  Iran 1 1 0 0 First successful launch[2]
PSLV  India 2 2 0 0
Space Shuttle  United States 5 5 0 0
Unha  North Korea 1 0 1 0
Universal Rocket  Russia 13 13 0 0
Energia  Ukraine 4 4 0 0

By type[edit]

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane 5  Europe Ariane 7 7 0 0
Atlas V  United States Atlas 5 5 0 0
Delta II  United States Delta 8 8 0 0
Delta IV  United States Delta 3 3 0 0
Dnepr  Ukraine R-36 1 1 0 0
Falcon 1  United States Falcon 1 1 0 0 Retired[4]
H-IIA  Japan H-II 2 2 0 0
H-IIB  Japan H-II 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Kosmos  Russia R-12/R-14 1 1 0 0
Long March 2  People's Republic of China Long March 3 3 0 0
Long March 3  People's Republic of China Long March 2 1 0 1
Long March 4  People's Republic of China Long March 1 1 0 0
Minotaur I  United States Minotaur 1 1 0 0
Naro  Russia
 South Korea
Angara 1 0 1 0 Maiden flight
Proton  Russia Universal Rocket 10 10 0 0
PSLV  India PSLV 2 2 0 0
Safir  Iran Safir 1 1 0 0
Soyuz  Russia R-7 13 12 1 0
Space Shuttle  United States Space Shuttle 5 5 0 0
Taurus  United States Pegasus 1 0 1 0
Tsyklon  Ukraine R-36 1 1 0 0 Retired[3]
Unha  North Korea Unha 1 0 1 0
UR-100  Russia Universal Rocket 3 3 0 0
Zenit  Ukraine Energia 4 4 0 0

By configuration[edit]

Rocket Country Type Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane 5ECA  Europe Ariane 5 6 6 0 0
Ariane 5GS  Europe Ariane 5 1 1 0 0 Retired
Atlas V 401  United States Atlas V 3 3 0 0
Atlas V 421  United States Atlas V 1 1 0 0
Atlas V 431  United States Atlas V 1 1 0 0
Delta II 7320  United States Delta II 2 2 0 0
Delta II 7920  United States Delta II 3 3 0 0
Delta II 7925  United States Delta II 3 3 0 0 Retired
Delta IV-H  United States Delta IV 1 1 0 0
Delta IV-M+(4,2)  United States Delta IV 1 1 0 0
Delta IV-M+(5,4)  United States Delta IV 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Dnepr-1  Ukraine Dnepr 1 1 0 0
Falcon 1  United States Falcon 1 1 0 0
H-IIA 202  Japan H-IIA 2 2 0 0
H-IIB 304  Japan H-IIB 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Kosmos-3M  Russia Kosmos 1 1 0 0
Long March 2C  People's Republic of China Long March 2 2 2 0 0
Long March 2D  People's Republic of China Long March 2 1 1 0 0
Long March 3B  People's Republic of China Long March 3 1 0 0 1
Long March 3C  People's Republic of China Long March 3 1 1 0 0
Long March 4C  People's Republic of China Long March 3 1 1 0 0
Minotaur I  United States Minotaur I 1 1 0 0
Naro-1  Russia
 South Korea
Naro 1 0 1 0 Maiden flight
Proton-K/DM-2  Russia Proton 1 1 0 0
Proton-M/DM-2  Russia Proton 1 1 0 0
Proton-M/Briz-M  Russia Proton 8 8 0 0
PSLV-CA  India PSLV 2 2 0 0
Rokot/Briz-KM  Russia UR-100 3 3 0 0
Safir  Iran Safir 1 1 0 0
Soyuz-2.1a/Fregat  Russia Soyuz 1 0 1 0
Soyuz-2.1b/Fregat  Russia Soyuz 1 1 0 0
Soyuz-FG  Russia Soyuz 4 4 0 0
Soyuz-U  Russia Soyuz 7 7 0 0
Space Shuttle  United States Space Shuttle 5 5 0 0
Taurus-XL 3110  United States Taurus 1 0 1 0
Tsyklon-3  Ukraine Tsyklon 1 1 0 0 Retired[3]
Unha  North Korea Unha 1 0 1 0
Zenit-3SL  Ukraine Zenit 1 1 0 0
Zenit-3SLB  Ukraine Zenit 3 3 0 0

By launch site[edit]

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur  Kazakhstan 24 24 0 0
Cape Canaveral  United States 11 11 0 0
Jiuquan  People's Republic of China 2 2 0 0
Kennedy  United States 5 5 0 0
Kwajalein Atoll  Marshall Islands 1 1 0 0
Kourou  France 7 7 0 0
MARS  United States 1 1 0 0
Ocean Odyssey United Nations International 1 1 0 0
Naro  South Korea 1 0 1 0 First launch
Plesetsk  Russia 8 7 1 0
Satish Dhawan  India 2 2 0 0
Semnan  Iran 1 1 0 0
Taiyuan  People's Republic of China 2 2 0 0
Tanegashima  Japan 3 3 0 0
Tonghae  North Korea 1 0 1 0
Vandenberg  United States 6 5 1 0
Xichang  People's Republic of China 2 1 0 1

By orbit[edit]

Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not Achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Failed to orbit 0 N/A 0 N/A 0 N/A 3
Low Earth 43 40 3 0 14 to ISS, 1 to HST
Medium Earth 3 3 0 2
Geosynchronous/transfer 24 23 1 0
High Earth 3 2 1 0 Including highly elliptical and Molniya orbits and trans-lunar trajectories.
Heliocentric 1 1 0 0

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]

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