200 euro note

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Two hundred euro
(Eurozone and Institutions)
Value 200 euro
Width 153[1] mm
Height 82[1] mm
Security features A hologram stripe, a EURion constellation, watermarks, microprinting, ultraviolet ink, raised printing, a security thread, matted surface, perforations, see through number, colour changing ink, barcodes and a serial number.[2]
Paper type Cotton fibre[2]
Years of printing 2002 – present[3]
Obverse
EUR 200 obverse (2002 issue).jpg
Design Window in an Art Nouveau style[4]
Designer Robert Kalina[5]
Design date 3 December 1996[5]
Reverse
EUR 200 reverse (2002 issue).jpg
Design Bridge in an Art Nouveau style and map of Europe[4]
Designer Robert Kalina[5]
Design date 3 December 1996[5]

The two hundred euro note (€200) is the second-highest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.[6] The note is used in the 23 countries which have it as their sole currency (with 22 legally adopting it); with a population of about 332 million.[7]

It is the second-largest note measuring 153x82mm and has a yellow colour scheme.[4] The two hundred euro banknotes depict bridges and arches/doorways in Art Nouveau style (between the 19th and 20th century).

The two hundred euro note contains several complex security features such as watermarks, invisible ink, holograms and microprinting that document its authenticity. In September 2011, there were approximately 178,838,200 two hundred euro banknotes in circulation around the eurozone.

History[edit]

Main article: History of the euro

The euro was founded on 1 January 1999, when it became the currency of over 300 million people in Europe.[3] For the first three years of its existence it was an invisible currency, only used in accountance. Euro cash was not introduced until 1 January 2002, when it replaced the national banknotes and coins of the countries in eurozone 12, such as the Finnish markka.[3]

Slovenia joined the Eurozone in 2007,[8] Cyprus and Malta in 2008,[9] Slovakia in 2009,[10] Estonia in 2011[11] and Latvia joined on 1 January 2014.[12]

The changeover period[edit]

The changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, going from 1 January 2002 until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state.[3] The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more. Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from ten years to forever.[3][13]

Changes[edit]

Notes printed before November 2003 bear the signature of the first president of the European Central Bank, Wim Duisenberg, who was replaced on 1 November 2003 by Jean-Claude Trichet, whose signature appears on issues from November 2003 to March 2012. Notes issued after March 2012 bear the signature of the third president of the European Central Bank, incumbent Mario Draghi.[4]

Until now there has been only one series of euro notes, however a new series, similar to the current one, is planned to be released.[14] The European Central Bank will, in due time, announce when banknotes from the first series lose legal tender status.[14]

As of June 2012, current issues do not reflect the expansion of the European Union to 27 member states as Cyprus is not depicted on current notes as the map does not extend far enough east and Malta is also missing as it does not meet the current series' minimum size for depiction.[15] Since the European Central Bank plans to redesign the notes every seven or eight years after each issue, a second series of banknotes is already in preparation. New production and anti-counterfeiting techniques will be employed on the new notes, but the design will be of the same theme and colours identical of the current series; bridges and arches. However, they would still be recognisable as a new series.[16]

Design[edit]

Holograms of the 200 euro note, but each under different positions.

200 euro banknote under fluorescent light (UV-A)

200 euro note under UV light (Obverse)
Obverse
200 euro note under UV light (Reverse)
Reverse

The two hundred euro note measures at 153 millimetres (6.0 in) × 82 millimetres (3.2 in) with a yellow colour scheme.[4] All bank notes depict bridges and arches/doorways in a different historical European style; the two hundred euro note shows the Art Nouveau era (between the nineteenth and twentieth century).[1] Although Robert Kalina's original designs were intended to show real monuments, for political reasons the bridge and art are merely hypothetical examples of the architectural era.[17]

Like all euro notes, it contains the denomination, the EU flag, the signature of the president of the ECB and the initials of said bank in different EU languages, a depiction of EU territories overseas, the stars from the EU flag and twelve security features as listed below.[4]

Security features[edit]

The two hundred euro note is protected by:

  • Colour changing ink[1] used on the numeral located on the back of the note, that appears to change colour from purple to brown, when the note is tilted.[18]
  • A see through number[1] printed in the top corner of the note, on both sides, appear combine perfectly to form the value numeral when held against the light.[19]
  • A glossy stripe,[1] situated at the back of the note, showing the value numeral and the euro symbol.[1]
  • A hologram,[1] used on the note which appears to see the hologram image change between the value and a window or doorway, but in the background, it appears to be rainbow-coloured concentric circles of micro-letters moving from the centre to the edges of the patch.[18]
  • A EURion constellation;[1] the EURion constellation is a pattern of symbols found on a number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added to help software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image.[1]
  • Watermarks,[1] which appear when held up to the light.[1]
  • Raised printing[1] in the main image, the lettering and the value numerals on the front of the banknotes will be raised.[20]
  • Ultraviolet ink;[1] the paper itself does not glow, fibres embedded in the paper do appear, and be coloured red, blue and green, the EU flag is green and has orange stars, the ECB President's, currently Mario Draghi's, signature turns green, the large stars and small circles on the front glow and the European map, a bridge and the value numeral on the back appear in yellow.[21]
  • Microprinting,[1] on various areas of the banknotes there is microprinting, for example, inside the "EYPΩ" (EURO in Greek characters) on the front. The micro-text is sharp, but not blurred.[21]
  • A security thread,[1] embedded in the banknote paper. The thread will appear as a dark stripe when held up to the light. The word "EURO" and the value is embedded in tiny letters on the thread.[19]
  • Perforations[1] in the hologram which will form the euro symbol. There are also small numbers showing the value.[19]
  • A matted surface;[1] the note paper is made out of pure cotton, which feels crisp and firm, but not limp or waxy.[20]
  • Barcodes,[1]
  • A serial number.[1]

Circulation[edit]

The €200 banknote is the least used banknote in the Eurozone.[22] As of May 2013, there are approximately 186,560,700 €200 banknotes in circulation around the Eurozone.[22] That is approximately €37,312,134,200 worth of €200 banknotes (as of May 2013).[22] The European Central Bank is closely monitoring the circulation and stock of the euro coins and banknotes. It is a task of the Eurosystem to ensure an efficient and smooth supply of euro notes and to maintain their integrity throughout the euro area.[22]

Legal information[edit]

Legally, both the European Central Bank and the central banks of the eurozone countries have the right to issue the 7 different euro banknotes. In practice, only the national central banks of the zone physically issue and withdraw euro banknotes. The European Central Bank does not have a cash office and is not involved in any cash operations.[3]

Tracking[edit]

There are several communities of people at European level, most of which is EuroBillTracker,[23] that, as a hobby, it keeps track of the euro banknotes that pass through their hands, to keep track and know where they travel or have travelled.[23] The aim is to record as many notes as possible to know details about its spread, like from where and to where they travel in general, follow it up, like where a ticket has been seen in particular, and generate statistics and rankings, for example, in which countries there are more tickets.[23] EuroBillTracker has registered over 96 million notes as of October 2011,[24] worth more than €1.876 billion.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "ECB: Security Features". ECB. ECB. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "ECB: Security Features". European Central Bank. ecb.int. 2002. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "ECB: Introduction". ECB. ECB. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "ECB: Banknotes". European Central Bank. European Central Bank. 2002. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d "ECB: Banknotes design". ECB. ECB. February 1996. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  6. ^ "Witnessing a milestone in European history". The Herald (Back Issue). 1 January 2002. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Slovenia joins the euro area - European Commission". European Commission. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "Cyprus and Malta adopt the euro - BBC NEWS". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  10. ^ Kubosova, Lucia (31 December 2008). "Slovakia Joins Decade-Old Euro Zone - Businessweek". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "Estonia to join euro zone in 2011". RTÉ News. Radió Teilifís Éireann. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Kaza, Juris (9 July 2013). "Latvia Gets Green Light to Join Euro Zone -WSJ.com". Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  13. ^ "Press kit - tenth anniversary of the euro banknotes and coins". ECB. Central Bank of Ireland. 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "ECB Monthly bulletin- August 2005 - THE EURO BANKNOTES: DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES". ECB. ecb.int. August 2005. p. 43. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  15. ^ European Central Bank. "The Euro: Banknotes: Design elements". Retrieved 2009-07-05. "The banknotes show a geographical representation of Europe. It excludes islands of less than 400 square kilometres because high-volume offset printing does not permit the accurate reproduction of small design elements." 
  16. ^ The life cycle of a banknote, De Nederlandsche Bank. Accessed 2007-08-17.
  17. ^ "Money talks – the new Euro cash". BBC News (BBC News). December 1996. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "ECB:Tilt". ECB. ecb.int. 1 January 2002. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c "ECB: Look". ECB. ecb.int. 1 January 2002. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  20. ^ a b "ECB: Feel". ECB. ecb.int. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  21. ^ a b "ECB: Additional features". ECB. ecb.int. 1 January 2002. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c d "ECB: Circulation". European Central Bank. European Central Bank. August 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c "EuroBillTracker - About this site". Philippe Girolami, Anssi Johansson, Marko Schilde. EuroBillTracker. 1 January 2002. Archived from the original on 2013-06-27. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  24. ^ a b "EuroBillTracker - Statistics". Philippe Girolami, Anssi Johansson, Marko Schilde. EuroBillTracker. 1 January 2002. Retrieved 21 October 2011.