200th Coast Artillery (United States)

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200th Coast Artillery
111 Cav Reg COA.PNG
Coat of arms
Active 1880
Country USA
Branch Army
Type Air defense artillery
Motto "Pro Civitate et Patria" (For state and country)
Branch color Scarlet
Mascot Oozlefinch

The 200th Coast Artillery (AA) (200 CA) was a United States Army unit during the first half of World War II. Today descendant elements serve with the New Mexico Army National Guard as the 200th Infantry.[1]

History[edit]

The 200th was originally organized 1 September 1880 in the New Mexico volunteer Militia in west-central New Mexico from independent companies as the 1st Regiment. It was expanded 18 February 1882 to form the 1st Regiment with Headquarters at Socorro and the 2nd Regiment with Headquarters at Albuquerque.

The 1st Regiment was expanded 25 April 1883 to form the 1st Regiment and the 2nd Cavalry Battalion (1st Regiment; hereafter, separate lineage). 2nd Cavalry was reorganized and redesignated 14 September 1883 as the 1st Regiment of Cavalry (less 3rd Battalion; see below). It was reorganized 10 November 1885 as the 1st Regiment of Cavalry. It was disbanded 29 December 1893 and two remaining troops attached to the 1st Regiment of Infantry. The unit was reorganized 12 September 1896 in the New Mexico Volunteer Militia as the 1st Battalion of Cavalry with Headquarters at Santa Fe. (New Mexico Volunteer Militia redesignated 17 March 1897 as the New Mexico National Guard.) The unit was redesignated in 1897 as the 1st Squadron of Cavalry. While remaining in state service the 1st Squadron of Cavalry additionally formed the 2nd Squadron, 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, also known as the "Rough Riders" (mustered into federal service 6–7 May 1898 at Santa Fe; mustered out of federal service 15 September 1898 at Montauk Point, New York). Troop A attached 5 February 1908 to the 1st Regiment of Infantry (see below); remainder of squadron concurrently disbanded.

The 2nd Regiment was expanded 25 April 1883 to form the 2nd Regiment and the 1st Cavalry Battalion. The 2nd Regiment was redesignated 10 November 1885 as the 1st Regiment of Infantry with Headquarters at Santa Fe. Location of Headquarters was changed 16 August 1886 to Albuquerque.

The 1st Cavalry Battalion was reorganized and redesignated 14 September 1883 as the 3rd Battalion, 1st Regiment of Cavalry. The unit was expanded, reorganized and redesignated 10 November 1885 as the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry.

The 1st Regiment of Infantry and elements of the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry were consolidated 24 December 1890 and consolidated unit designated at the 1st Regiment of Infantry. 1st Regiment of Infantry was consolidated in 1909 with Troop A (see above) and consolidated unit designated as the 1st Regiment of Infantry. The unit was mustered into federal service 21 April 1917 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as elements of the 115th Train Headquarters and Military Police and the 143rd and 144th Machine Gun Battalions, elements of the 40th Division.

The Military Police section of the 115th Train Headquarters and Military Police was reorganized and redesignated 27 October 1918 as the 40th Military Police Company, an element of the 40th Division; 115th Train Headquarters and Military Police concurrently reorganized and redesignated as the 115th Train Headquarters, 40th Military Police Company demobilized 2 May 1919 at Camp Kearny, California; 115th Train Headquarters demobilized 25 April 1919 at Camp Kearny, California.

The 143rd and 144th Machine Gun Battalions demobilized 30 April 1919 at Camp Grant, Illinois.

The former 1st Regiment of Infantry was reconstituted 16 July 1919 in the New Mexico National Guard as a separate squadron of cavalry and organized with Troops A and B at Albuquerque and Carlsbad, respectively. It was expanded, reorganized and redesignated 3 December 1920 as the 1st Cavalry. It was redesignated 2 May 1922 as the 111th Cavalry. Headquarters federally recognized 4 May 1924 at Santa Fe. Assigned 5 November 1923 to the 23rd Cavalry Division. Relieved 15 March 1929 from assignment to the 23rd Cavalry Division. The unit was converted and redesignated 26 April 1940 as the 207th Coast Artillery Regiment. Redesignated 200th Coast Artillery 1 July 1940.[2]

In August 1941, the 200th was given notice that it had been selected for an overseas assignment of great importance.[3] At about 0300 hours on December 8, 1941, the 200th went on full alert when the night radio crew picked up commercial broadcasts telling of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

It was inducted into federal service 6 January 1941 at home stations in New Mexico.

200th Coast Artillery gunners in the Philippines, 1942.

The 200th doubled in size to 1800 while at Fort Bliss preparing for overseas deployment. The Arkansas 206th and the 200th competed for position deployment to either the Philippines or Alaska. The 200th, whose personnel virtually all spoke fluent Spanish were chosen to go to the Philippines in the summer of 1941, and arrived there in September 1941. Upon arrival, this anti-aircraft unit was assigned to USAFFE and ordered to provide air defenses for Clark Field, while based at Fort Stotsenburg, although they were not attached to the Philippine Coast Artillery Command. It surrendered 9 April 1942 to the Japanese 14th Army.

The 200th CA was equipped with 12 3-inch guns (an older model with a vertical range of 8,200 m), .50-caliber machine guns, and 60-inch (1.5 m) Sperry searchlights. Elements of this unit were forced by the Japanese to march into captivity in the Bataan Death March.

The Headquarters, 200th Coast Artillery, was redesignated 31 May 1946 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 200th Antiaircraft Artillery Group. Headquarters, 200th antiaircraft Artillery Group, organized and federally recognized 25 September 1947 at Roswell.[4] It was reorganized and was redesignated 1 September 1959 as Headquarters, 200th Artillery Group. It was consolidated 15 December 1967 with the 200th Artillery and consolidated unit designated at the 200th Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental system.

The 2nd Battalion, 200th Coast Artillery, was redesignated 31 May 1946 as the 697th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion. It was reorganized and federally recognized 2 November 1947 in southeastern New Mexico with Headquarters at Roswell. Redesignated 1 October 1953 as the 697th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion.

The 716th, 717th, 726th and 697th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions; Headquarters, 515th Antiaircraft Artillery Group; 502nd Field Artillery Battalion (organized and federally recognized 21 September 1956 in eastern New Mexico with Headquarters at Clovis); 120th antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (see Annex 2); and 804th Antiaircraft Artillery battalion (see Annex 3) consolidated 1 September 1959 and consolidated unit reorganized and redesignated as the 200th Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System, to consist of the 1st Automatic Weapons Battalion; the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th gun Battalions; and the 7th and 8th Detachments.[5] Reorganized 1 April 1962 to consist of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Automatic Weapons battalions and the 7th and 8th Detachments. Consolidated 15 December 1967 with Headquarters, 200th Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental system, to consist of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Battalions.

The unit was redesignated 1 November 1972 as the 200th Air Defense Artillery. Reorganized 1 September 1975 to consist of the 1st battalion, an element of the 49th Armored Division; the 2nd Battalion, an element of the 47th Infantry Division; the 3rd Battalion, an element of the 50th Armored division; and the 4th battalion, an element of the 40th Infantry Division. Reorganized 3 March 1987 to consist of the 1st Battalion, an element of the 19th Armored division; the 2nd battalion, an element of the 4th Infantry Division; the 3rd battalion, an element of the 50th Armored Division; 4th Battalion, an element of the 40th Infantry division; and the 5th and 7th Battalions. Reorganized 30 September 1988 to consist of the 1st Battalion, an element of the 49th Armored Division; the 2nd Battalion, an element of the 47th Infantry Division; the 3rd Battalion, an element of the 50th armored division; the 4th Battalion, an element of the 40th Infantry division; and the 7th Battalion. Withdrawn 1 June 1989 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System with Headquarters at Roswell.

During annual training in 1989, 7th BAttalion, 200th ADA, became the first Army reserve component unit to live-fire the Hawk air defence missile.[6]

Today the regiment has elements serving with the New Mexico Army National Guard. Colonel Bump transitioned the 3rd Battalion, 200th ADA, to infantry in 2005, and the battalion was redesignated the 1st Battalion, 200th Infantry.[7]

Distinctive unit insignia[edit]

  • Description[8]

A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 14 inches (3.2 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Or an Avanyu Sable. Attached above the shield from a wreath Or and Sable, a coiled rattlesnake Brün. Attached below and to the sides of the shield a Gold scroll inscribed “PRO CIVITATE ET PATRIA” in Black letters.

  • Symbolism

The Avanyu device used by the Pueblo Indians is another form of the triskelion, a lucky talisman and symbolic of energy, motion, and victory. It is also emblematic of “the whirling sun” and “lightning in air” which allude to the firepower and air defense mission of the former unit. The motto translates to “For State and Country.”

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 111th Cavalry Regiment on 19 June 1926. It was redesignated for the 200th Coast Artillery Regiment (AA) on 7 March 1941. It was redesignated for the 717th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion on 6 October 1952. The insignia was redesignated for the 200th Artillery Regiment on 7 June 1960. It was redesignated for the 200th Air Defense Artillery Regiment on 9 February 1973. It was redesignated for the 200th Infantry Regiment with the description and symbolism updated on 22 August 2006.

Coat of arms[edit]

Blazon[edit]

  • Shield

Or an Avanyu Sable. (The Avanyu is a Pueblo Indian device not unlike the device of the Isle of Man conventionalized, which is blazoned three legs embowed conjoined at the thighs, the three arms of the Avanyu each ending in a triangular head bearing five points).

  • Crest

That for the regiments of the New Mexico Army National Guard: On a wreath of the colors Or and Sable, a coiled rattlesnake Proper. Motto: PRO CIVITATE ET PATRIA (For State and Country).

Symbolism[edit]

  • Shield

The Avanyu device used by the Pueblo Indians is another form of the triskelion, a lucky talisman and symbolic of energy, motion, and victory. It is also emblematic of “the whirling sun” and “lightning in air” which allude to the firepower and air defense mission of the former unit.

  • Crest

The crest is that of the New Mexico Army National Guard.

Background[edit]

The coat of arms was originally approved for the 111th Cavalry Regiment on 2 January 1924. It was amended to correct the motto on 18 June 1928. It was redesignated for the 200th Coast Artillery Regiment (AA) on 7 March 1941. It was redesignated for the 717th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion on 6 October 1952. The insignia was redesignated for the 200th Artillery Regiment on 7 June 1960. It was redesignated for the 200th Air Defense Artillery Regiment on 9 February 1973. It was redesignated for the 200th Infantry Regiment with the symbolism revised on 22 August 2006.

References[edit]