2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season

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2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season
Season summary map
First system formed November 24, 2010
Last system dissipated May 11, 2011
Strongest storm Wilma – 935 hPa (mbar), 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-minute sustained)
Total disturbances 17
Total depressions 14
Tropical cyclones 8
Severe tropical cyclones 5
Total fatalities 3 direct, 1 indirect
Total damage $25 million (2010 USD)
South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons
2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13
Related articles

The 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season, with eight tropical cyclones and five severe tropical cyclones developing during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2010 until April 30, 2011, though if any tropical cyclones had developed between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011, they would have been counted towards the seasons total. Within the South Pacific basin tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service's Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji and the Meteorological Service of New Zealand's Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Wellington, New Zealand while the United States Military's Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially monitored parts of the basin during the season. During the season, RSMC Nadi assigned a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances while the JTWC assigned a P suffix and a number to tropical cyclones forming in the South Pacific Basin. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute which can be compared to the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

Seasonal outlooks[edit]

Source
Record
Tropical
Cyclone
Severe
Tropical Cyclone
Ref
Record high: 1997–98: 16 1982–83:10 [1]
Record low: 2003–04: 3 2008–09: 0 [1]
Averages: 8.9 4.3
NIWA 9 –12 3 [nb 1]
RSMC Nadi 7 – 9 4 [1]

RSMC Nadi[edit]

In October 2010, RSMC Nadi, issued their seasonal outlook, for the 2010–11 South Pacific cyclone season. In which they predicted that the season would see activity close to its average, with seven to nine tropical cyclones forming, or moving in to the South Pacific, during the season. Four tropical cyclones were expected to intensify into severe tropical cyclones during the season. RSMC Nadi also predicted that the main development region for tropical cyclones would shift from the Fiji-Samoa region, towards the Coral Sea region. As a result of this it was predicted that New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji and the Solomon Islands would face a higher risk of being affected by a tropical cyclone than countries to the east of the International Dateline.[1]

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research[edit]

In October 2010, TCWC Wellington and New Zealand’s National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) issued a tropical cyclone outlook on behalf of collaborating organizations from the southern Pacific, which included the Bureau of Meteorology, NOAA, Fiji Meteorological Service, Météo-France and other Pacific Island Meteorological Services. The collaborating agencies, predicted that 9–12 tropical cyclones would form during the season, which meant that the Southern Pacific, would see activity either close to its average or above its average of nine tropical cyclones. At least three of the systems are forecasted to become a category 3 severe tropical cyclone, whilst one is expected to become a category 4 severe tropical cyclone.[2] An update of the southwest Pacific tropical cyclone forecast was issued in the Island Climate Update (ICU) Issue 125. The forecast persisted the October 2010 projection of average or above average TC activity through the remainder of the 2010–11 season. It was also noted that at least six TCs were expected for the back half of the 2010–11 season, which would bring the total for the region covered by the ICU forecast (135E to 120W) to 12 (and therefore at the high end of the forecasted range). Risk assessment remained consistent with the previous forecast.[3]

Each year, tropical cyclones have a significant impact on the southern Pacific, with places like Vanuatu and New Caledonia experiencing the greatest activity in the region. During the season there was an elevated risk of a tropical cyclone occurring within the Coral Sea and/or North Tasman region affecting either Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, New Zealand and Vanuatu. There was also a near normal risk of a tropical cyclone affecting Fiji and Tonga, there was also a reduced or low risk of a tropical cyclone affecting the islands to the east of the International Date Line.[2]

Seasonal summary[edit]

Cyclone Yasi Cyclone Wilma (2011) Cyclone Vania (2011) Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

17 tropical disturbances developed during the 2010-11 South Pacific tropical cyclone year, with 14 developing into tropical depressions and 8 becoming tropical and severe tropical cyclones.

Storms[edit]

Tropical Depression 01F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration November 24 – November 30
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  999 mbar (hPa)

The first tropical cyclone of the season, Tropical Depression 01F, was first identified on November 24 well to the west of Fiji.[4] Little strengthening was anticipated to occur as the system slowly tracked towards the south-southeast.[5] The following day, after an abrupt relocation to the southwest, the disturbance was assigned with the identifier 01F while situated near Vanuatu.[6] Gradually strengthening, the disturbance was upgraded to a tropical depression on November 25 after a slight increase in convection.[7] Situated along the eastern edge of an upper-level trough, the depression tracked towards the east-southeast and would keep this general motion for several days.[8] Though situated over warm waters, estimated to be 30 °C (86 °F), persistent wind shear prevented the system from becoming organized.[9]

The system later relocated into a region less favorable for tropical cyclogenesis on November 27 but continued to strengthen and become better organized.[10] Despite attaining gale-force winds, the depression was not classified as a tropical cyclone as these winds were located roughly 110 km (70 mi) from its center.[11] During the afternoon of November 28, the depression attained a minimum barometric pressure of 999 hPa (mbar; 29.5 inHg).[12] Gradual weakening took place over the following few days as the system tracked southward. By November 30, the depression was declassified as a tropical cyclone and was last noted on December 1 near the International Dateline.[13][14]

On November 26, a tropical cyclone alert was issued for Fiji as the depression was expected to bring heavy rains and strong winds to the region. Flooding was anticipated in low-lying areas and if further intensification took place, more significant damage would be expected.[15] The alert was later raised to a cyclone warning as the system neared the country.[16] All warnings associated with the depression were discontinued on November 29 as it moved away from Fiji. The system brought gusty winds and heavy rains to the islands of Vatulele and Kadavu, though no damage occurred.[17]

Tropical Cyclone Vania[edit]

Main article: Cyclone Vania (2011)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration January 5 – January 15
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  973 mbar (hPa)

During January 5, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 03F had developed, about 130 km (80 mi) to the northeast of Nadi, Fiji.[18] Over the next few days the disturbance gradually developed further before RSMC Nadi classified it as a tropical depression early on January 9.[19] On January 11, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center initiated warnings on the system and monitored it as Tropical Cyclone 05P.[20] On the Next day, RSMC Nadi upgraded the depression into a Category 1 tropical cyclone and named it "Vania".[21] Later that day, RSMC Nadi reported that Vania had intensified into a Category 2 tropical cyclone.[22] Early the next day, RSMC Nadi upgraded Vania into a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone.[23] Later that day, RSMC Nadi reported that Vania started weakening and downgraded it into a Category 2 tropical cyclone.[24] Subsequently, it was downgraded to a category 1 tropical cyclone on January 14.[25] On January 15, JTWC issued their final warning on the system.[26] Soon, issuing their final advisory, RSMC Nadi downgraded Vania into a Tropical Depression.[27]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Zelia[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 16 (Entered basin) – January 17
Peak intensity 165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  957 mbar (hPa)

On January 16, Both the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Fiji Meteorological Service (RSMC Nadi) reported that Severe Tropical Cyclone Zelia crossed 160°E and entered the South Pacific Ocean as a category three severe tropical cyclone.[28][29] On the next day, RSMC Nadi downgraded Zelia into a Category two tropical cyclone.[30] As Zelia started weakening and was no longer predicted to affect Fiji, RSMC Nadi issued their final Tropical Disturbance Advisory.[31] Late on January 17, the JTWC reported that Zelia was weakening rapidly and was accelerating towards New Zealand.[32] Zelia was initially predicted to directly impact the Norfolk Island but instead moved away and weakened. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology reported that the island could experience gale force winds and waves of 7 metres (23 ft).[33] It was also reported that Zelia could bring wind gusts of up to 120 km/h (75 mph) to New Zealand.[34]

According to the media, heavy rain and strong winds were being felt across the country. A mudslide was reported between Hawkes Crag and Fern Arch on State Highway 6 between Westport and Inangahua Junction.[35]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Wilma[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 19 – January 29
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  935 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Wilma (2011)

Early on January 19, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 06F had developed within a trough of low pressure about 665 km (413 mi) to the northeast of Nadi, Fiji.[36] During that day convection surrounding the disturbance gradually became more organized before early the next day, RSMC Nadi reported that it had intensified into a tropical depression.[37] On January 22, The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) started monitoring the system as Tropical Cyclone '08P'.[38] Later the same day, RSMC Nadi upgraded Tropical Depression 06F to a tropical cyclone and named it 'Wilma'.[39] Early on January 24, RSMC Nadi further upgraded Wilma to a Category 2 Tropical Cyclone.[40] Late on the same day, RSMC Nadi reported that Wilma had intensified into a Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone.[41] Wilma Continued to strengthen and January 26, the RSMC Nadi upgraded it into a Category 4 Severe Tropical Cyclone.[42] Early on January 27, Wilma entered TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility.[43] A few hours later, TCWC Wellington took full responsibility of Wilma, and downgraded it into a Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone.[44] Wilma Continued to weaken and TCWC Wellington further downgraded it into a tropical cyclone.[45] On January 28, the JTWC, issuing their final warning, reported that the system took a southeast curve along the coast of North Island, New Zealand and started becoming extratropical.[46] A few hours later, the TCWC Wellington, downgraded it into a low, no longer considering it tropical.[47]

In American Samoa, high winds damaged roofs, downed trees and knocked out power. Heavy rains also triggered a few landslides but overall damage was light.[48] With that, the Pago Pago International Airport was closed and the American Samoa Governor, Togiola Tulafono ordered local government agencies to help those in need.[49] After Wilma moved over American Samoa, a tropical cyclone alert was issued in Tonga and Lau islands.[50] On the morning of January 25, Wilma blew over Tonga as a severe tropical cyclone.[51] Major damage was reported in the Ha'apai Islands of Tonga.[52] Wilma also disrupted New Zealand Foreign Minister, Murray McCully's trip to Tonga.[53]

Tropical Depression 07F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration January 20 – January 22
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  996 mbar (hPa)

Late on January 21, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 07F had developed about 570 km (350 mi) to the northwest of Nouméa, in New Caledonia.[54] During the next day the disturbance gradually organized further, with RSMC Nadi reporting that it had developed into a tropical depression later that day.[55] Early on January 22, RSMC Nadi released their final advisory on the tropical depression as it passed into TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility. Within hours of falling under their responsibility, Wellington declared the system as a low, no longer considering it tropical.

Tropical Cyclone Anthony[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration January 24 – January 25
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  988 mbar (hPa)

On January 24, RSMC Nadi, TCWC Brisbane and the JTWC reported that Tropical Cyclone Anthony had crossed 160°E and moved into the South Pacific basin as a 75 km/h (45 mph) tropical cyclone.[56][57][58]

However on the next day, the system continued to weaken and the RMSC Nadi, issuing their last advisory, downgraded Anthony into a low.[59] Later on the same day, the JTWC too issued their final warning.[60]

However, the low moved back into the Australian region and reintensified into a Tropical Cyclone. The remnant system later dropped a large amount of rainfall in southern New South Wales.[61]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 26 – January 31 (Out of basin)
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  957 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Yasi

Early on January 26, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 09F, had developed within a surface trough, about 830 km (520 mi), to the northeast of Nadi, Fiji.[62] During that day, the disturbance gradually organized further, before RSMC Nadi reported early the next day, that it had developed into a tropical depression.[63] Over the next couple of days, the depression drifted towards the west, while gradually intensifying and organizing further.[64] Late on January 29, the JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert on the developing tropical depression, before designating it as 11P and initiating advisories on the system.[65][66] Early the next day, RSMC Nadi reported that the depression had intensified into a category one tropical cyclone and named it Yasi, while it was located about 510 km (320 mi) to the northeast of Port Vila in Vanuatu.[64][67] Yasi continued to intensify throughout that day, while affecting the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.[64] Early on January 31, RSMC Nadi reported that Yasi had intensified into a category two tropical cyclone, before reporting that it had become a severe tropical cyclone.[68][69] During that afternoon, both the JTWC and RSMC Nadi reported that the system had moved across 160°E and had moved out of the South Pacific Basin and into the Australian region,[70][71] where it became a much stronger storm before striking Queensland during the first days of February.

Tropical Cyclone Zaka[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration February 5 – February 7
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Early on February 5, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 10F, had developed about 200 km (125 mi), to the south east of Nukualofa in Tonga.[72] During that day, the disturbance gradually organized further whilst moving towards the east. RSMC Nadi, then classified the disturbance as a tropical depression, later that day.[73] Intensification continued and on the next day, RSMC Nadi upgraded Tropical Depression 10F into a Tropical Cyclone and named it 'Zaka'.[74] Soon, Zaka crossed 25°S and TCWC Wellington took full responsibility of the Cyclone.[75] Hours later, the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and designated it with '12P'.[76] At midnight, that day, TCWC Wellington further upgraded Zaka into a Category 2 Tropical Cyclone.[77] Early on the next day, the system started weakening and became a Category 1 Tropical Cyclone.[78] Hours later, TCWC Wellington downgraded Zaka, into a low, no longer considering it tropical.[79] Late on that day, the JTWC, reporting that the system weakened rapidly, issued their final warning on the system.[80]

Weather warnings were issued to the Raoul Island as the system intensified and could bring a significant amount of rain.[81] Zaka was initially expected to move in a southernly path and impact New Zealand.[82] However, the system rapidly weakened and passed several miles east of the islands.[83]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Atu[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration February 3 – February 24
Peak intensity 165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  940 mbar (hPa)

Early on February 3, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 11F had formed about 65 km to the southwest of Port Vila in Vanuatu.[84] During the next day, the system gradually moved north and started intensifying.[85] Late on February 16, the disturbance turned south-southeast and intensified into a Tropical depression.[86] On the next morning, organization in the system improved, but the convection decreased unexpectedly.[87] Early on January 18, deep convection started developing over the Low-level Circulation Center (LLCC) which was very favorable for Tropical cyclogenesis.[88] Late on that day, the JTWC started monitoring the system as Tropical Cyclone 17P.[89] Early on the next day, RSMC Nadi upgraded the depression into a Category 1 Tropical Cyclone and named it Atu.[90] At midnight, that day, RSMC Nadi upgraded Atu into a Category 2 tropical cyclone,[91] and six hours later it was upgraded again into a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone,[92] and then again into a Category 4 Severe Tropical cyclone.[93] Though Atu strengthened rapidly, it weakened unexpectedly on the next day because of an eyewall replacement cycle.[94] Early on February 23, Atu crossed 25°S and entered TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility as a Category 3 Severe Tropical Cyclone.[95] Late on that day, the JTWC, reporting that the system was becoming extratropical, issued their final warning on Atu.[96] At midnight, that day, TCWC Wellington reported that Atu was no longer a Severe Tropical Cyclone.[97] Within six hours, TCWC Wellington downgraded Atu into a low, no longer considering it tropical.[98]

Tropical Depression 12F (21U)[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration March 8 (entered basin) – March 19
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

On March 7, TCWC Brisbane and RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 21U, had developed within the Australian region, about 1,200 km (745 mi), to the west of Port Vila, Vanuatu.[99][100] During that day, the disturbance gradually intensified further, whilst moving towards the east towards the South Pacific basin. As the disturbance moved out of the Australian region and into the South Pacific, RSMC Nadi reported that the disturbance had intensified into Tropical Depression 12F.[101]

It dissipated on March 19 after no further intensification.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Bune[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration March 22 – March 29
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  967 mbar (hPa)

On March 22, RSMC Nadi analyzed that a Tropical Disturbance had formed about 70 miles NNW of Fonualei island, Tonga. Later the same day it was upgraded to a Tropical Depression, and cyclone warnings were issued for islands in the Eastern Division of Fiji. As it neared the International Date Line it continued to strengthen and was named Tropical Cyclone Bune, and as it moved generally southwards it reached category 3 by March 25.

Other systems[edit]

The following tropical disturbances were also monitored by RSMC Nadi, however these systems were either short lived or did not develop significantly. On December 31, Tropical Disturbance 02F had developed within a trough of low pressure about 930 km (580 mi) to the southeast of Pago Pago in American Samoa.[102] Over the next few days the disturbance's organisation slightly increased in an area of low vertical windshear, before RSMC Nadi issued its final advisory on the disturbance as it moved south of 25°S into TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility.[103] A few days later as Cyclone Vania was developing near Fiji, RSMC Nadi started to monitor Tropical Disturbance 04F which had developed within a monsoon trough, about 300 km (185 mi) to the northwest of the New Caledonian capital Nouméa. Over the next few days the disturbance remained weak and poorly organized, before RSMC Nadi issued their final advisory on the system during January 7, as the disturbance was not expected to develop into a tropical cyclone.

Tropical Disturbance 14F developed during April 9 near Vanuatu and over the next couple of days moved slowly south-eastwards, before it was last noted during April 11 after convection surrounding the system had failed to organize.[104][105] Tropical Depression 15F developed during April 16, within an area of moderate vertical windshear about 600 km (375 mi) to the east of New Caledonia.[106] During that day the depression moved towards the south-southeast before the final advisory on the system was issued, as it left the tropics and convection surrounding the system started to become unorganized.[107] On April 28, a low pressure area that had developed within the Australian region, was predicted to develop into a tropical disturbance as it moved into the South Pacific basin.[108] During the next day it was classified as Tropical Depression 16F while it was located near New Caledonia, before it was last noted later that day as it moved out of the tropics.[109][110] The final tropical depression of the season developed during May 10, within an area of moderate to high vertical windshear, about 155 km (95 mi) to the northeast of Avarua on the Southern Cook island of Rarotonga.[111] Over the next day the depression moved towards the southeast, before it was last noted later that day by RSMC Nadi as it moved into TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility.[112]

Season effects[edit]

This table lists all the storms that developed in the South Pacific to the east of longitude 160°E during the 2010–2011 season. It includes their intensity on the Australian Tropical cyclone intensity scale, duration, name, landfalls, deaths, and damages. All data is taken from RSMC Nadi and or TCWC Wellington, and all of the damage figures are in 2011 USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
windspeeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
01F November 24 – 30 Tropical depression 65 km/h (40 mph) 7002999000000000000999 hPa (29.50 inHg) Vanuatu, Fiji None None [17]
02F December 31 – January 2 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 70031004000000000001,004 hPa (29.65 inHg) None None None [103]
Vania January 5 – 15 Category 2 tropical cyclone 100 km/h (65 mph) 7002973000000000000973 hPa (28.73 inHg) Vanuatu, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand $11 million None [113]
04F January 5 – 7 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) None None None
Zelia January 16 – 17 Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 165 km/h (100 mph) 957 New Zealand None None [34]
Wilma January 19 – 28 Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Samoan Islands, Tonga, New Zealand $22 million 3 [48][114]
07F January 20 – 22 Tropical depression 65 km/h (40 mph) 996 None None None
Anthony January 24 – 25 Category 1 tropical cyclone 75 km/h (45 mph) 988 None None None
Yasi January 26 – 31 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 963 Vanuatu $3 billion 1
Zaka February 5 – 7 Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 None None None
Atu February 13 – 24 Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 165 km/h (105 mph) 937 hPa (27.67 inHg) New Caledonia, Vanuatu None
12F March 7 – 19 Tropical depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) None None None
Bune March 22 – 29 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 130 km/h (80 mph) 967 None None None
14F April 10 – 11 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 1005 hPa (29.68 inHg) None None None
15F April 15 – 17 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 999 hPa (29.50 inHg) None None None
16F April 28 – 30 Tropical depression Not Specified 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) None None None
17F May 10 – 11 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) None None None
Season Aggregates
17 systems November 24 – May 11   185 km/h (115 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg)   >$3.03 billion 4


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ NIWA's prediction includes the region between 135°E – 160°E

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Climate Services Division (October 26, 2010). Tropical Cyclone Guidance for Season 2010/11 for the Fiji and the Southwest Pacific (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/65kvh9FwY. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Tropical cyclone outlook: Average or above average numbers expected.". NIWA. 2010. Retrieved November 1, 2010. 
  3. ^ Lorrey A. and Renwick, 2011. http://www.niwa.co.nz/news-and-publications/publications/all/icu/island-climate-update-125---february-2011/update-of-sw-pacific-tc-guidance-for-the-2010-11-season
  4. ^ Climate Services Division (December 9, 2010). "Fiji Islands Climate Summary November 2010" (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary (Fiji Meteorological Service) 31 (11). Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Summary". Fiji Meteorological Service. November 23, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Tropical Weather Outlook" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. November 24, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
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  8. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Summary". Fiji Meteorological Service. November 25, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
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  11. ^ "Gale Warning Eleven". Fiji Meteorological Service. November 27, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Advisory A11 (01F)". Fiji Meteorological Service. November 28, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Marine Weather Bulletin for Subtropic". Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited. November 30, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
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  17. ^ a b "Fiji cyclone warning lifted". Radio New Zealand. November 29, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  18. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 5, 2011). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 5, 2011 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 6, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  19. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 9, 2011). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 9, 2011 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  20. ^ "JTWC Tropical Cyclone 05P Warning 01". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  21. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Tropical Cyclone Vania". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  22. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Tropical Cyclone Vania". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  23. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Severe Tropical Cyclone Vania". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  24. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Tropical Cyclone Vania". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  25. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Tropical Cyclone Vania". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  26. ^ "JTWC Tropical Cyclone 05P Warning 01". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  27. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Former Tropical Cyclone Vania". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 15, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Advisory A1 on Severe Tropical Cyclone Zelia". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 16, 2011. 
  29. ^ "JTWC Tropical Cyclone Zelia Warning 06". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  30. ^ "RSMC Nadi Tropical Disturbance Summary for Tropical Cyclone Zelia". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Advisory A3 on Severe Tropical Cyclone Zelia". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  32. ^ "JTWC Tropical Cyclone Zelia Warning 08". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Norfolk Island spared cyclone's wrath". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  34. ^ a b "Cyclone could bring 120 km/h gusts to NZ". APN Holdings NZ Limited. January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Heavy rain falling, winds building". TVNZ News. Retrieved January 18, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Summary 2010-01-19 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Tropical Disturbance Summary 2010-01-20 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  38. ^ "JTWC Tropical Cyclone 08P Warning 01". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Storm Warning for Cyclone Wilma 2010-01-22 12z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
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