2010–12 Algerian protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
2010–12 Algerian protests
Part of the Arab Spring
Manifestation Algiers RCD - 01222011.jpg
Demonstration organised by RCD in Algiers
Date 28 December 2010 (2010-12-28) – 10 January 2012
(1 year, 1 week and 6 days)
Location Algeria
Causes
Goals
Methods
Status finished
Casualties
Death(s) 8[1][2]
Injuries 420+[1]

The 2010–12 Algerian protests was a continuing series of protests taking place throughout Algeria, which started on 28 December 2010. They have been inspired by similar protests across the Middle East and North Africa. Causes cited by the protestors include unemployment, the lack of housing, food-price inflation, corruption, restrictions on freedom of speech and poor living conditions. While localised protests were already commonplace over previous years, extending into December 2010, an unprecedented wave of simultaneous protests and riots, sparked by sudden rises in staple food prices, erupted all over the country starting in January 2011. These were quelled by government measures to lower food prices, but were followed by a wave of self-immolations, most of them in front of government buildings. Opposition parties, unions, and human rights organisations then began to hold weekly demonstrations, despite these being illegal without government permission under the ongoing state of emergency; the government suppressed these demonstrations as far as possible, but in late February yielded to pressure and lifted the state of emergency. Meanwhile, protests by unemployed youth, typically citing unemployment, hogra (oppression), and infrastructure problems, resumed, occurring almost daily in towns scattered all over the country.

Background[edit]

After the riots of 1988, the Algerian government had moved towards democracy, holding free elections. However, when the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) won the first free parliamentary election in 1991, the military staged a coup d'état, voided the election results, declared a state of emergency which remained in force until 2011,[3] and arrested the FIS leadership. This led to the founding of the Armed Islamic Groups (GIA) and the ten-year Algerian Civil War, in which an estimated 150,000 people were killed.

With the unchallenged election of Abdelaziz Bouteflika as president in 1999, civilian government was nominally restored. Violence died down as both guerrillas and soldiers were given immunity for their previous acts under the controversial Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation. Towards the end of his second term, Bouteflika amended the constitution to allow himself to run for a third term in 2009; to no one's surprise, he won the ensuing election, with, according to the opposition and the US Embassy, a very low turnout.

Seventy percent of Algeria's population is less than 30 years old. Consequent high levels of youth unemployment, coupled with corruption and widespread poverty, are seen as reasons for dissatisfaction.[4]

The leader of the Rally for Culture and Democracy, Saïd Sadi, claimed that during 2010, there were "9,700 riots and unrests" in Algeria.[5] Some protests were about issues such as education and health care, as well as rampant corruption.[6]

Prior to the outbreak of protests, in February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford in leaked diplomatic cables called Algeria "an unhappy country", stating "There is much discussion among political circles about the constitution, the third term and the succession issue, but precious little discussion about how to address long-standing political alienation and social discontent throughout the country."[7] He claimed there were strikes over food "by different labor groups almost weekly" and that "almost daily there are isolated demonstrations with the occasional government office in some distant town attacked."[7] Ford stated that "voter turnout for the 2007 legislative and local elections was lower than ever before because Algeria's young people do not see the political system as having any relevance to addressing their problem."[7] United States diplomats also claimed that the Algerian regime is more corrupt than the international community realises and is also more fragile. The diplomatic cable also said that Bouteflika may have cancer.[8]

29 December 2010[edit]

On 29 December 2010, clashes with police were reported in Algiers during protests about the lack of housing. At least 53 people were reported to have been injured and another 29 were arrested.[9]

National, 3–10 January 2011[edit]

In 2011, prices of basic foodstuffs rose significantly in Algeria,[10] in line with global trends but also reflecting newly imposed regulations.[11] Unprecedented protests in neighbouring Tunisia over unemployment were already being reported, contributing to the mood.[12]

Broken shop curtain with people looking inside.
The Renault shop of Triolet near Bab El Oued, burnt in the riots.

Between 3 and 10 January, riots and protests broke out across most Algerian towns, triggered by large increases in the prices of basic foods including oil, sugar, and flour. While localised riots have been a frequent occurrence in Algeria since 2005, this set of riots was the first to spread across most regions of the country simultaneously rather than being confined to a particular area. By 10 January they were limited to a few towns, but continued in those towns.[13] More organised efforts to demonstrate on 11 January in Algiers were suppressed vigorously by the police.[14]

Protests against the price increases started on 3 January, with protest in the Ras El Ain quarter of Oran,[15] and in Fouka and Staoueli near Algiers.[15] On 4 January they were repeated in Staoueli and spread to other areas near the capital, with impromptu roadblocks at Douaouda in Tipasa.[15] and Kolea[16]

On 5 January, major riots broke out in several areas at once: in the Bab El Oued neighbourhood of the capital, Algiers,[17] and nearby suburbs, as well as Algeria's second city, Oran, and other towns including Djelfa, Boumerdes, Annaba, and Tipaza.[18] The young men rioting blocked roads, burned tires, and sacked government buildings, protesting the sudden increase in the cost of living,[19] the demolition of shantytowns, and broader issues such as unemployment.[20] They were met by anti-riot forces, who attempted to disperse the crowds. In Bab El Oued, shops and car showrooms were also targeted.[21] [22] Former Islamic Salvation Front number two Ali Belhadj went to Bab El Oued to see the events and encourage the youths; he was arrested later that day, as were many other protesters and rioters.[23]

Within days the riots spread to twenty-odd wilayahs, covering almost the whole of the north including the Kabylie region,[24] as well as some towns in the Sahara, such as Ouargla[25] and Bechar.[26] Government buildings, particularly town halls, were widely targeted, and shops in some areas were looted or burned;[27] some of the looters carried swords.[28] Football matches scheduled for 7 and 8 January were cancelled.[28]

On 8 January, the government agreed to a temporary cut in taxes and duties on sugar and cooking oil.[13] Facebook and Twitter access were also restricted in some areas.[29] The rioting continued, at least up to 10 January in some places, such as the Bachdjarrah neighbourood in Algiers.[30] By 11 January, the situation had calmed. An attempt to demonstrate on 11 January in Algiers, organised in advance by the intercommunal committee of Ain Benian and Staoueli, was repressed vigorously by the police.[31] In total, three demonstrators died, more than 800 people had been wounded, and at least 1,100 were arrested, many of them minors.[32]

Political implications[edit]

While riots on this scale are unprecedented since the 1991 election, their wider political implications are not yet clear. The rioters had no collective ties to any Algerian political party, organisation, or trade union,[33] and some sources commented that they seemed to have no political slogans.[34][35] Some opposition groups emphasised the riots' political dimension; ex-diplomat and opposition spokesperson Mohamed Larbi Zitout described them as "a revolt, and probably a revolution, of an oppressed people",[36] while the Socialist Forces Front responded to the government's lowering of food prices on 8 January with the slogan "The government cannot buy Algerians' silence".[37] Agence France-Presse (AFP) has linked the January protests with events in Tunisia, stating, "In Tunisia, similar unrest sparked the overthrow of the government of Zine Al Abidine Ben Ali, whose 23 years in power ended with his flight to Saudi Arabia last Friday. Algerian commentators have said that more Tunisia-style protests could break out in Algeria."[38] Despite their scale, the riots were dealt with by the government in much the same way as the localised riots that had already become a routine way of communicating grievances: it sought to avoid creating martyrs and made a specific concession (in this case, a return to the status quo ante of allowing un-declared food sales by Cevital) not seen as threatening the overall system.[39]

Self-immolations (starting 12 January)[edit]

Mohsen Bouterfif in the hospital showing the wounds from his self-immolation

As the widely reported protests sparked off by Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in Tunisia began to have a clear impact on the Tunisian government, a wave of self-immolations swept Algeria. These individual acts of protest mostly took place in front of a government building following an unsuccessful approach to the authorities. Four self-immolators have died of their burns so far.[40][41]

It began on 12 January, when 26 year-old Mohamed Aouichia set himself on fire in Bordj Menaiel in the compound of the daira building. He had been sharing a room of 30 square metres with seven other people, including his sister, since 2003; he had repeatedly approached local authorities to get on the social housing list and been rebuffed.[42] He has so far survived.

On 13 January, Mohsen Bouterfif, a 37-year-old father of two, set himself on fire. He had gone with about twenty other youths to protest in front of the town hall of Boukhadra in Tebessa demanding jobs and houses, after the mayor refused to receive them. According to one testimony, the mayor shouted to them: "If you have courage, do like Bouazizi did, set yourself on fire!"[43] His death was reported on 16 January, and about 100 youths protested his death causing the provincial governor to sack the mayor.[44] However, hospital staff the following day claimed he was still alive, though in critical condition.[45] Al Jazeera described the suicide as "echoing the self-immolation that triggered the protests that toppled the leader of neighbouring Tunisia."[44] He finally died on 24 January at a hospital in Annaba.[46]

These suicides were followed by dozens more attempted or successful self-immolations across the country, so far without triggering nation-wide demonstrations, most of them after the Tunisian dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled his country on 14 January.

Response of the parties and unions[edit]

Late January 2011[edit]

Protesters

A number of left-wing opposition parties, including the FFS, RCD, PLJ, and the Communist MDS, as well as the Algerian League for Human Rights (LADDH) and officially unrecognised unions, such as SATEF and SNAPAP, met on 20 January to discuss responses to the situation. On 21 January, several of them (excluding the FFS[47][48]) formed the Coordination Nationale pour le Changement et la Démocratie (National Coordination for Change and Democracy), seeking systemic change within the country[4] and calling (along with Rachad[49]) for nationwide marches, starting 9 February.[50] The Interior Minister, Ould Kablia, responded that "No march would be authorised by the authorities in Algiers... Marches are forbidden in Algiers."[51]

Meanwhile, the mainly Kabyle-based secularist RCD party had announced plans for a march for democracy to be held on Saturday 22 January, despite being refused permission by the government[38] under the state of emergency.[5] Prior to the March, RCD leader Saïd Sadi linked the planned march to the 2010–2011 Tunisian protests, stating, "If the opposition does not mobilise the crowds, we believe that we will have more devastating events than what happened in Tunisia. The anger here is bigger than (it was) in Tunisia."[5] He also called for the 1992 state of emergency to be lifted and for the army to withdraw from politics, stating, "The army should no longer be a decision maker, it has to become a state institution."[5] The march attracted about 300 people, and was broken up by the police; 42 people (according to the RCD[52]) or 19 (according to the Interior Ministry[53]) were injured, and 9, including the head of the party's parliamentary group Othman Amazouz, were arrested, to be released later the same day.[54][55][56] Some demonstrators waved the Tunisian flag, alluding to the protests which had brought down Ben Ali.[57] Would-be demonstrators coming from Tizi Ouzou were prevented from reaching the scene by the police.[58] On 22 January, 20,000 police officers stopped all protests. In the ensuing clash five people were killed and more than 800 others hurt.[2]

On 23 January, the FFS and LADDH jointly issued a demand for the release of the demonstrators arrested in early January, in Tizi-Ouzou and elsewhere;[59] students of Tizi-Ouzou announced plans for a march on 1 February demanding their release and economic development for Kabylie.[60]

On 29 January, the RCD organised a march of over ten thousand people (according to the organisers) in the city of Bejaia, to demand more freedom and democracy.[61]

Early February 2011[edit]

Protests continued on 3 February. On the same day President Abdelaziz Bouteflika signaled at a meeting with government ministers his intention to lift the 19-year-old state of emergency in the "very near future", in what was seen as an attempt to quell opposition demands. Reportedly, he also urged the cabinet to adopt measures to promote job creation and said Algeria's TV and radio should give airtime to all political parties.[62] On 4 February, Al Jazeera reported that demonstrations were planned for 12 February.[63]

While Bouteflika was said to be working to counter the planned demonstration, on 8 February university students commenced an "indefinite strike" in protest against the "poor quality of teaching."[64] On the same day, an indefinite strike was also launched by professional paramedics after a call by the trade union SAP. However, it was reported to have been observed in only 22 of the country's 48 provinces.[65]

12 February[edit]

The day after Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak resigned, the protest gained new currency.[66] The protests were organised by the nascent National Co-ordination for Change and Democracy, an umbrella group of opposition parties, civil society groups and unofficial unions.[67] The police blocked all entry points into Algiers[68] and put in a security cordon around May First Square in central Algiers.[2] All opposition rallies were banned by the government, though at least 2,000 protesters forced their way through the security cordon around the Square to join other demonstrators.[67] Though minor protests occurred earlier in the day, most protesters came out after noon;[69] several thousand protestors[68][70] clashed with about 30,000 police at May First Square in central Algiers.[2][68] Protesters chanted "Djazair Horra Dimocratia," ("A free and democratic Algeria") "système dégage" ("government out") and "Yesterday Egypt, today Algeria."[71]

Police fired tear gas[66] on the protesters and arrested hundreds[2] to possibly more than a 10,000 people,[72] including human rights activists and trade union members.[73] The Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights said that up to 28,000 police officers were deployed in Algiers.[67] Many people, including a member of the People's National Assembly, Boubkeur Derguini[74][75] of the RCD, were injured.[76]

Protesters had hoped to stay the night at the main square.[77] At almost 19:30, Thomson Reuters reported hundreds of people were leaving the demonstrations after about three hours and that the police opened their cordon to let them pass. It also said that about 200 young men from a poor neighbourhood stayed on and that some of them threw objects at the police.[69][78]

Protests were also reported in Constantine, Annaba, and Oran. There were reports of internet services like Twitter, Facebook and the wider internet to have been disrupted or shut down,[66][79] however, Renesys denied this had taken place.[80]

Saïd Sadi of the RCD interpreted the large number of police as government weakness, stating, "When you mobilize 30,000 police in the capital, that's a sign of weakness, not strength."[68] He also said that police charged at protesters and arrested 10 people outside the party offices as they celebrated Mubarak's resignation.[67] He added that 90-year-old human rights activist Ali Yahia Abdelnour was "manhandled by the police" and that the protesters were not "an organised demonstration. It was spontaneous. It was an explosion of joy."[69]

13–18 February[edit]

On 13 February, following a suggestion by Ali Yahia Abdennour of the LADDH,[81] the CNCD[82] called for protests to continue every Saturday in the same square in Algiers, a call confirmed by RCD spokesman Mohsen Belabbes; Ali Yahia Abdennour said that "we will gather momentum as we progress we want our dignity back, yesterday the police has brutally beaten many protesters amongst them a pregnant women, old ladies, a journalist, young men and women, we should carry on protesting until we get our rights." The next day the activist blogger Hchicha called for alternative marches on Friday as well, meant to attract people wanting a change of system but distrusting the political parties involved in the CNCD.[83] Elias Filali reported that police had used tear gas to disperse protesters and to evict families who had occupied newly constructed homes overnight in Algiers.[84]

On 14 February, Foreign Minister Mourad Medelci said the state of emergency would be lifted "within days."[85][86] Two days later, Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia announced the state of emergency would be lifted by the end of February.[87]

Former FLN leader Abdelhamid Mehri called for true democracy, saying the current regime was incapable of solving the country's problems.[88]

On 18 February, a date for which a Facebook group had called for protests, police with water cannons were deployed in the main crossroads of Algiers.[89]

Late February[edit]

Thousands turned out in Algiers for protests but were unable to take control of the main square.[90]

The government officially announces the end of the emergency rule. The country’s council of ministers adopted a law revoking the 1993 decree that prolonged a state of emergency originally instituted the previous year, stating that the “law will come into effect as soon as its imminent publication in the official journal”.[91]

The state of emergency in the country was officially lifted after being published in the country's official journal, responding to one of the main demands of the protesters.[92][93] The move legalizes protests outside the capital of Algiers, as long as the government is notified of planned demonstrations at least three days in advance.[92] According to the country's interior minister, Dahou Ould Kabila, protests are still banned within Algiers because of security concerns; he said that "Algiers is targeted by leaders of terrorist groups [because] it gives them media impact.[92] The Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights, a leader of the protests, said it was a "ruse aimed at fooling international opinion at a time when Arab regimes are under pressure."[92]

March[edit]

Protests continue throughout Algiers, although it is reported that the government has been keeping the country stable, although this momentary peace is expected to end soon.[94]

On 5 March, protests organised by the National Co-ordination for Democracy and Change in Algiers were violently suppressed while in al-Madania neighbourhood of Algiers, a group of youths, wearing banners supporting Abdelaziz Bouteflika, tried to lynch opposition leader Said Sadi, the president of the Rally for Culture and Democracy. Meanwhile, Algeria's oldest opposition party, Socialist Forces Front, has urged Algerians to engage in a "peaceful struggle" for change in the nation.[95]

On 7 March, thousands of community police rallied in the capital Algiers despite a protest ban in the city, accusing the government of ingratitude, and insisting thousands of their colleagues have been killed or injured fighting Islamist violence. Demanding better pay and pensions, they got all the way to the Parliament building.[96]

In Algiers, small group of around 150 or so threw Molotov cocktails at much larger crowd of police.[97]

On 23 March, police in the Algiers suburb of Oued Koriche used tear gas on Wednesday to disperse a crowd of young men who threw stones and Molotov Cocktails trying to stop bulldozers from demolishing dozens of illegally built homes. Five police officers were injured in the rioting, during which rioters threw bricks down on police from nearby rooftop and set fire to a car.[98]

April–May[edit]

On 15 April, in a long-awaited televised address, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika said he would seek constitutional amendments that would "reinforce representative democracy" and be submitted to parliament or to a referendum. He also proposed changes to laws on elections, the media or political parties.[99]

On 11 May, 1,500 Doctors attempted to march towards government buildings but were prevented by anti-riot police.[100]

February 2012[edit]

In late February 2012, Algeria's major Islamist parties announced a coalition ahead of parliamentary elections. A leader of the Movement of Society for Peace called for more opposition parties to join the alliance "to give the best possible chance for the Arab Spring to happen in Algeria as well".[101]

Local protests over jobs and infrastructure[edit]

Late January 2011[edit]

Students marching to el-Mouradia

The opposition group Rachad uploaded film of a non-violent demonstration of "more than 1000 people" demanding housing in the Said Hamdine neighbourhood of Algiers on 20 January, not widely reported.[102]

On 24 January, more than 500 people demonstrated in front of the daira building of Khemis El Khechna, demanding water and gas connection and better housing for their nearby hometowns, Chebacheb and El Kerma.[103] In Tizi Ouzou the same day, parents of youths detained in the protests of early January staged a sit-in in front of the wilaya seat building, demanding the release of their children,[104] who were provisionally released the next day.[105]

On 25 January, the inhabitants of El Djezzar in Batna occupied their town hall, demanding a better road to their village.[106] On the same day, about a hundred inhabitants of Boutaleb near Chekfa blocked the main road, demanding gas and sewage connection for their town and better side roads.[107]

On 27 January, hundreds of inhabitants of Choukrane near Bouira closed the nearby national road (RN 29), demanding gas, water, a sewage system, and public lighting, as well as speed bumps to reduce traffic fatalities.[108] On the same day, dozens of unemployed youths blocked RN 12 in Naciria near Boumerdes using burning tyres and other objects, demanding jobs.[109]

On 30 January, unemployed youths closed the APC seat of Belaas in Ain Defla, demanding jobs (according to the mayor), as well as better water and road management.[110] On the same day, 600 factory workers demonstrated in front of the wilaya seat in Bouira, demanding to be re-hired by ENAD.[111] Also on the same day, unemployed youths in the wilaya of Ouargla demonstrated in Touggourt against the head of the local employment bureau, accused of favouritism.[112]

February 2011[edit]

On 1 February, the people of Raffour in M'chedallah near Bouira blocked national route 26 with burning tyres, demanding public lighting, a sewage system, and town planning. [113] On the same day, the population of Tazgait in Mostaghanem closed their town hall, demanding that the mayor leave office for failing to do enough about the region's underdevelopment. [114]

On 7 February, youths at Toumiate in El Harrouch near Skikda blocked the national highway RN 3, and were attacked by riot police using tear gas.[115] On 8 February, youths in Sidi Amar near Annaba demonstrated to demand jobs, blocking the road and burning tyres.[115]

From 6 to 9 February, protesters closed the national highway RN 26 at El Kseur near Bejaia, demanding their jobs back or better compensation after the EPBTP milk factory where they were employed made them redundant. [116]

On 8 and 9 February, youths in Naciria and Bordj-Menaiel attacked ANEM offices, confronted police, and closed the national highway RN 12, protesting unemployment and unfulfilled government promises of jobs. [117]

On 13 February, a crowd of youths gathered in front of the Annaba wilaya office demanding the 7000 jobs they had previously been promised, and greeted the governor with stone-throwing when he came out. One attempted to commit suicide, but was dissuaded by his brother.[118]

On 14 February, hundreds of youths protested over unemployment in Akbou; about 30 were hurt in clashes with the police.[119]

On 16 February, youths in Tadmait (Tizi-Ouzou) went out on the streets demanding jobs, blocking the roads (including RN 12) with burning tires and damaging the APC office. Five of them were arrested after confrontations with anti-riot police.[120]

Also on 16 February, about 80 unemployed youths occupied the daira offices in Hassi-Messaoud in protest against poverty and "hogra" (oppression) in the region that provides most of the country's oil income,[121] and were dislodged by promises of jobs next week after hundreds of police and gendarmes gathered. On 17 February, about 500 youths demonstrated in front of the same daira office.[122] Another 100 unemployed youths demonstrated in nearby Touggourt, in front of the local office of the National Employment Agency.[123]

On 17 February, the Annaba wilaya offices were again targeted by demonstrators demanding jobs.[124]

On 21 February, hundreds of students protesting in front of the Ministry of Higher Education against the new LMD system were dispersed forcibly by police.[125] In Ammal (Boumerdes), demonstrators closed the local APC offices, demanding better housing.[126]

On 23 February, villagers from nearby Imaghzarene closed the daira offices of Draa El Mizan, demanding paving, public lighting, gas, more housing, and a clinic for their town.[127] At Ammi Moussa (Relizane) dozens of youths gathered to blockade the town hall, demanding that the president and secretary-general of the APC resign. [128] On the same day, doctors in the Sidi Bel Abbes maternity ward staged a sit-in in protest against the lack of pharmaceutical supplies, which they said was preventing them from carrying out operations.[129] Bouzareah university students announced a strike demanding greater security at the university after a woman student was attacked by unknown assailants, who slashed her face, on campus grounds.[130]

On 24 February, unemployed youths gathered in front of the mayoralty of Sidi Lakhdar near Mostaganem, after blocking the road (RN11) the previous day; they left when the mayor promised to review the housing lists.[131] In Djelida (Ain Defla), the same day, about 500 people closed the APC offices, demanding jobs and protesting at the allocation of 117 new jobs to people from outside the region.[132]

January 2012[edit]

On 10 January, Algerians protested in Laghouat over housing, infrastructure, and treatment of the elderly by police. The police used tear gas to disperse the protesters.[133][134]

Ramadan 2013[edit]

After security forces question three youths who were eating lunch in the Kabylie region during Ramadan, about 300 others joined a protest lunch against the mandatory nature of fasting during the month. The head of the Kabylie Autonomy Movement Bouaziz Ait Chebib said: "We called this gathering to denounce the inquisition and persecution of citizens who, because of their beliefs, refuse to observe the fast."[135]

Reactions[edit]

Domestic

In reaction to the protests of early January, starting 8 January the government decreased the prices of essential foods. Over following weeks it increased wheat supplies.[136]

On 3 February Bouteflika announced plans to lift the emergency law, which prohibits protests without a permit, and substitute for it new anti-terrorism laws,[137] but said that protests would remain illegal in Algiers in any case "for well-known reasons of public order".[138] He also announced new measures to create jobs and that state-run television and radio should be open to all political parties.[139] On 14 February, his foreign minister Mourad Medelci repeated the promise to end the state of emergency law, saying it would happen by the end of the month.[140] on 22 February the cabinet voted to lift the emergency law. It also voted on a measure to alleviate unemployment.[141]

In efforts to discourage the protests organised by the CNCD, the authorities played up the role of the RCD, a mainly Kabyle party unpopular elsewhere in the country, within them; while this tactic had some success, it did not stop demonstrators from turning out in some non-Kabyle cities.[142]

International
  •  European Union - President of the European Parliament Jerzy Buzek said that he "call[ed] upon the Algerian authorities to refrain from violence and respect their citizens' right to peaceful demonstration. Any and all demonstrators arrested should be released immediately. The continuing state of emergency is unjustifiable and clearly hampers Algeria's prospects for the fair, peaceful and sustainable development of the country. It is but a first step in responding to the legitimate democratic aspirations of the Algerian people, but even this step has yet to materialise. Opposition groups, civil society, and especially young people should have the right to freely express their criticism of the government. No government can ignore the call of its people."
  •  France Foreign Ministry spokesman Bernard Valero said regarding the demonstrations that "What is important in our eyes us is that freedom of expression is respected and that the demonstrations are able to take place freely and without violence", and welcomed the planned end to the State of Emergency.[143]
  •  Germany - Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said Germany was "on the side of democrats. The German government calls on the Algerian government to renounce all recourse to violence. These are demonstrators who want freedom, who are doing nothing more than exercising a human right, to know the right to defend with dignity their point of view. As democrats we are on the side of democrats. I have already said that about Tunisia and Egypt. I say it again now in allusion to other countries."[144]
  •  United States - Department of State spokesman PJ Crowley said that "We note the ongoing protests in Algeria, and call for restraint on the part of the security services. In addition, we reaffirm our support for the universal rights of the Algerian people, including assembly and expression. These rights apply on the internet. Moreover, these rights must be respected. We will continue to follow the situation closely in the days ahead."[84]
Other

Regional financial stock market indices fell on 20 February on concern of spreading instability.[145]

NGOs
  • Amnesty International issued a statement that read: "Algerians must be allowed to express themselves freely and hold peaceful protests in Algiers and elsewhere. We urge the Algerian authorities not to respond to these demands by using excessive force."[67]
  • On 21 January, the international group Anonymous declared a cyber-war on the Algerian state on the grounds of censorship, following previous efforts in Tunisia.[148] The next day they brought down the pro-government RND party website, having previously brought down the sites of the Ministry of the Interior and the national TV station.[149]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Egyptian Protests Inspired by Tunisia Leave Three Dead". Bloomberg. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Algeria protesters push for change". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  3. ^ Richards, Charles (9 February 1993). "Algeria uses emergency law to fight Islamic group". The Independent (London). Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Djamel Belayachi. "Algeria protests take place amid 30,000 police deployment - Afrik-news.com : Africa news, Maghreb news - The african daily newspaper". Afrik-news.com. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d Chikhi, Lamine (21 January 2011). "Algeria army should quit politics: opposition". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  6. ^ Belhimer, Mahmoud (17 March 2010). "Political Crises but Few Alternatives in Algeria". Arab Reform Bulletin (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace). Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c Ford, Robert (22 February 2008). Scene setter for A/S Welch visit to Algeria. WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable:08ALGIERS198. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  8. ^ "Cable Viewer". 213.251.145.96. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  9. ^ "Scores hurt in Algeria protests – Africa". Al Jazeera. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  10. ^ Hausse généralisée des prix des produits alimentaires Le Temps 1 January 2011
  11. ^ Algeria's National Protests Hugh Roberts, Foreign Policy 10 January 2011
  12. ^ Algeria police on alert after riots Al Jazeera English 8 January 2011
  13. ^ a b Khadige, Beatrice (10 January 2011). "Unrest eases in Algeria as prices drop". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  14. ^ quatre-heures-au-commissariat-de-staoueli (subscription required) El Watan, 11 January 2011
  15. ^ a b c La Voix de l'Oranie 5 January 2011, p 2 PDF
  16. ^ emeutes a kolea des manifestants bloquent lacces a la ville DNA 1 May 2011
  17. ^ algerie emeutes cherte Radio Canada, 5 February 2011
  18. ^ urgent des coups de feu a alger lembrasement a oran Le Matin, 5 February 2011
  19. ^ protestation et panique au centre ville d oran El Watan, 6 January 2011
  20. ^ Plusieurs quartiers en proie à la protestation L'Expression, 6 January 2011
  21. ^ Salim Mesbah, Émeutes : L'embrasement[dead link], El Watan, 7 January 2011 issn 1111-0333
  22. ^ Le Soir d'Algérie issn 1111-0074 Les deux folles nuits d’Alger 8 janvier 2011
  23. ^ Djamel Belayachi (7 Jan 2011). "Nouvelle vague d’émeutes sur l’Algérie". Afrik.com. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  24. ^ les esprits ne se sont pas apaises El Watan, 10 January 2011
  25. ^ ouargla apres un calme precaire la matinee l emeute a repris El Watan, 8 January 2011
  26. ^ emeutes des centaines de manifestants en instance de jugement DNA, 9 January 2011
  27. ^ Price protests erupt across Algeria Al Jazeera English 7 January 2011
  28. ^ a b Ryan, Yasmine (8 January 2011). "Algeria police on alert after riots". Al Jazeera. 
  29. ^ Belmadi, Tayeb (10 January 2011). "Censure, filtrage, connexion lente : Pourquoi Facebook n'est pas accessible en Algérie" (in French). Dernières nouvelles d'Algérie. 
  30. ^ alger affrontements violents lundi matin a bachdjerrah[dead link] El Watan, 10 January 2011
  31. ^ quatre heures au commissariat de staoueli El Watan, 11 January 2011
  32. ^ manifestants-arretes[dead link] El Watan, 10 January 2011
  33. ^ Roberts, Hugh (10 January 2011). "Algeria's National 'Protesta'". Foreign Policy. 
  34. ^ "Des protestations sans slogans politiques". L'Expression (in French). 10 January 2011. 
  35. ^ "les classes moyennes et la classe politique pour relayer les emeutes". El Watan (in French). 9 January 2011. 
  36. ^ "Algeria set for crisis talks". Al Jazeera. 8 January 2011. 
  37. ^ "Le pouvoir ne peut pas acheter le silence des algériens" (in French). FFS Déclaration du Secrétariat national. 8 January 2011. 
  38. ^ a b "Algerian opposition says will defy protest ban". Algiers: Google News. Agence France-Presse. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  39. ^ Brown, Jack (20 January 2011). "Algeria’s Midwinter Uproar". Middle East Report Online. 
  40. ^ "Algeria: Third death by self-immolation". Ennahar Online. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  41. ^ "Jeune Afrique, 12/01/2011, Quatrième décès par immolation en Algérie, à la veille de la marche du 12 février". Jeune Afrique. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  42. ^ "Courrier International, 21/01/2011, ''Je brûle donc je suis''". Courrier International. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  43. ^ "Le maire à Mohcin Bouterfif : " Si tu as du courage, fais comme Bouazizi, immole-toi par le feu "". 
  44. ^ a b "Algerian dies from self-immolation". 
  45. ^ "''Vague de tentatives de suicide par le feu en Algérie''". Jeune Afrique. 17 January 2001. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  46. ^ http://www.elwatan.com/une/deces-du-jeune-qui-s-est-immole-a-tebessa-24-01-2011-108628_108.php Décès du jeune qui s'est immolé à Tebessa][dead link] El Watan, 24 January 2011
  47. ^ "''Le FFS estime que la concertation doit s’approfondir et éventuellement s’élargir à l’avenir'', 22/01/2011". Ffs1963.unblog.fr. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  48. ^ "DNA Algérie, 23/01/2011, ''Le FFS de Hocine Ait Ahmed demande une autorisation pour un meeting à Bab El Oued (Alger)''". Dna-algerie.com. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  49. ^ "Rachad, ''Appel à des manifestations pour les droits et libertés en Algérie''". Rachad.org. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  50. ^ "Biladi, 21/01/2011, ''Algérie : Marches prévues le 9 février - Partis et syndicats s'agitent''". Biladi.fr. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  51. ^ El Watan "Ould Kablia : " aucune marche ne sera autorisée à Alger "". El Watan. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  52. ^ (French) "Manifestation interdite à Alger : 42 blessés selon l'opposition". Leparisien.fr. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  53. ^ "Premier cas de décès par immolation en Algérie : Karim Bendine, 35 ans, succombe à ses brûlures". DNA Algérie. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  54. ^ "Algerian democracy rally broken up" Al Jazeera, 22 January 2011
  55. ^ "Algérie: fin d'une manifestation d'opposition à Alger, 7 blessés" El Watan, 22 January 2011
  56. ^ "Les 9 personnes interpellées à Alger relâchées" El Watan, 22 January 2011
  57. ^ "Several injured in pro-democracy march in Algiers". BBC News. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  58. ^ "Des étudiants de Tizi Ouzou interceptés à Bab Ezzouar". TSA Algérie. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  59. ^ "Tizi Ouzou : Le FFS et la LADDH exigent la libération des manifestants". El Watan. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  60. ^ Khalfa, Slimane (23 January 2011). "Les étudiants appellent à une marche populaire à Tizi Ouzou le 1er février" [Students call for a popular march in Tizi Ouzou on 1 February]. DNA Algérie (in French). Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  61. ^ "Thousands in Algeria protest march: organisers". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  62. ^ "Algeria state of emergency: Bouteflika 'signals end'". BBC. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  63. ^ "Calls for weekend protests in Syria". Al Jazeera. 4 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  64. ^ "afrol News - Large student protests in Algeria". Afrol.com. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  65. ^ "Algeria paramedics strike shortly followed". Ennahar Online. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c Al Jazeera English. Headlines.
  67. ^ a b c d e "Algeria protesters push for change". Al Jazeera. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  68. ^ a b c d Nossiter, Adam; Timothy Williams (12 February 2011). "Security Forces Halt Protest in Algeria". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011. , Nossiter, Adam; Timothy Williams (12 February 2011). "Security Forces Halt Protest in Algeria". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  69. ^ a b c "Live blog Feb 12 - Eye on Algeria". Al Jazeera Blogs. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  70. ^ "Algerian police clamp down on pro-democracy protest". sify news. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  71. ^ Bennoune, Karima (12 February 2011). "Yesterday Egypt, today Algeria". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  72. ^ "Algeria's police crack down on protesters - Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  73. ^ Al Jazeera (ref aljaz_alg_12Feb) writes "syndicate" members, presumably based on the French word "syndicat" for trade unions
  74. ^ "Derguini Boubkeur". People's National Assembly. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  75. ^ Family name Derguini according to Parliament, given name latin spelling "Boubkeur" according to same source.
  76. ^ "Alger : La manifestation s'est dispersée" (in french). Algérie Soir. 12 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  77. ^ Lucas, Scott (13 June 2009). "Egypt (and Beyond) LiveBlog: Where Next?". EA WorldView. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  78. ^ Lowe, Christian; Lamine Chikhi (12 February 2011). "Algeria police stifle Egypt-inspired protest". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  79. ^ Ramdani, Nabila (1 February 2011). "Algeria shuts down internet and Facebook as protest mounts". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  80. ^ Cowie, James (22 February 1999). "Watching Algeria - Renesys Blog". Renesys.com. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  81. ^ Karima Bennoune (17 February 2011). "Hopes and fears: an Algiers diary". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  82. ^ "Algérie: l'opposition CNCD annonce une marche le 19 février à Alger". Le Point. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  83. ^ "VENDREDI 18 Février - JOUR DE LA REVOLUTION EN ALGERIE". YouTube. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  84. ^ a b "Live blog Feb 13 - Eye on Algeria". Blogs.aljazeera.net. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  85. ^ "Algeria 'to lift emergency laws' - Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  86. ^ Algeria lifts emergency rule as protests rage The Times of India, Februari 14 2011
  87. ^ Arnold, Chloe (17 February 2011). "Algerian founding father urges reform". BBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  88. ^ "Top former Algerian leader calls for political change". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  89. ^ "Algérie : Déploiement important de la police à alger". El Watan. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  90. ^ "Live blog - Eye on Algeria". Al Jazeera Blogs. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  91. ^ Algeria Government Approves Lifting of State of Emergency Bloomberg, 22 February 2011
  92. ^ a b c d "Algeria's state of emergency is officially lifted". The Washington Post. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  93. ^ "Algeria's state of emergency to be lifted 'imminently". BBC. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  94. ^ "Algeria keeps lid on social unrest _ for now". Algiers: Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012. 
  95. ^ "Youths 'attack Algerian protesters'". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  96. ^ Police protest in Algerian capital | euronews, world news
  97. ^ "UPDATE 1-Algeria police use tear gas on protest in capital". Reuters. 16 March 2011. 
  98. ^ "Algerian police clash with rioters in housing row". Reuters. 23 March 2011. 
  99. ^ Benoit Faucon (15 April 2011). "Algeria Leader Vows to 'Reinforce' Democracy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  100. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110511/wl_africa_afp/algeriapoliticsunrestdemo_20110511154558
  101. ^ Ouali, Aomar (26 February 2012). "Algerian Islamists agree on alliance ahead of vote". The Huffington Post/The Associated Press. Retrieved 26 February 2012. 
  102. ^ "Plus de 1000 personnes organisent une marche de protestation à Alger le 20 janvier 2011". Rachad. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  103. ^ "Rassemblement de protestation devant la wilaya de Boumerdes". Tsa-algerie.com. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  104. ^ Tizi Ouzou : Sit-in des parents des détenus des dernières émeutes devant le tribunal El Watan, 24 January 2011[dead link]
  105. ^ Tizi Ouzou : Les douze émeutiers libérés aujourd’hui[dead link] El Watan, 25 January 2011
  106. ^ "El Watan, 25/01/2011, ''Des habitants occupent le siège de l’APC d’ El Djezzar''". El Watan. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  107. ^ "La route de Boutaleb bloquée par les habitants" El Watan, 25 January 2011
  108. ^ Bouira : des citoyens protestent et ferment la RN 26[dead link], El Watan, 27 January 2011]
  109. ^ "Boumerdès : des jeunes chômeurs en colère bloquent la RN 12 à Naciria", El Watan, 27 January 2011[dead link]
  110. ^ L., Aziza (30 January 2011). "Ain Defla: Le siège de l’apc de Belaas fermé par de jeunes chômeursi". El Watan. Retrieved 30 January 2011. [dead link]
  111. ^ Fedjkhi, Amar (30 January 2011). "Des travailleurs de l’ENAD protestent devant la wilaya de Bouira". El Watan. 
  112. ^ Alioua, Houria (30 January 2011). "Touggourt : Nouvelle manifestation des chômeurs". El Watan. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  113. ^ Fedjkhi, Amar (1 February 2011). "Bouira: Les habitants de Raffour ferment la RN26". El Watan. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  114. ^ Yacine, A. (1 February 2011). "Mostaganem : La population de Tazgaït ferme la mairie". El Watan. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  115. ^ a b "Les émeutes reprennent en Algérie : Naciria, El harrouch, Sidi Amar, Boumerdes..". Algérie Focus. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  116. ^ Tarek, B. S. (9 February 2011). "Algérie : Grèves, marches et sit-in". Algérie Soir. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  117. ^ "Algérie/Des chômeurs en colère: Vague de protestations à Bordj Menaïel et Naciria". Le Midi Libre. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  118. ^ Chams, Amar (13 February 2011). "Algérie/Des chômeurs en colère: Vague de protestations à Bordj Menaïel et Naciria". Le Courrier d'Algérie. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  119. ^ "Algeria unrest: Akbou protesters clash with police". BBC News. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  120. ^ A., Rachid (17 February 2011). "Émeutes à Tadmaït : Cinq personnes arrêtées". El Watan. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  121. ^ Semmar, Abderrahmane (17 February 2011). "Les chômeurs de Hassi Messaoud menacent de recourir à l'émeute". El Watan. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  122. ^ Semmar, Abderrahmane (17 February 2011). "Très vive tension à Hassi Messaoud : 500 jeunes chômeurs se rassemblent devant la daïra". El Watan. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  123. ^ Semmar, Abderrahmane (17 February 2011). "Algérie : Une centaine de jeunes chômeurs manifestant à Touggourt". El Watan. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  124. ^ Gaidi, Mohamed Faouzi (17 February 2011). "Les demandeurs d’emploi reviennent à la charge". El Watan. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  125. ^ Semmar, Abderrahmane (21 February 2011). "Alger : La police réprime des étudiants devant le siège du ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur". El Watan. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  126. ^ Omar, Yacine (21 February 2011). "Boumerdès : Les habitants de Ammal ferment le siège de l’APC". El Watan. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  127. ^ Essaid, Mouas (23 February 2011). "Draâ El Mizan (Tizi-Ouzou) : Des villageois ferment le siège de la daïra". El Watan. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  128. ^ B, Issac (23 February 2011). "Relizane : La population de Ammi Moussa assiège la mairie". El Watan. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  129. ^ B., Abdelkrim (23 February 2011). "Sit-in à la maternité de Sidi Bel Abbès". El Watan. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  130. ^ Semmar, Abderrahmane (23 February 2011). "Université de Bouzaréah: Grève générale après l'agression sauvage d'une étudiante". El Watan. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  131. ^ Alim, Yacine (24 February 2011). "Mostaganem : Des chômeurs assiègent la mairie de Sidi Lakhdar". El Watan. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  132. ^ L., Aziza (24 February 2011). "Djelida(Ain Defla) : Des centaines de citoyens ferment le siège de l’APC". El Watan. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  133. ^ "10 injured, several arrested in Algeria protests". Algiers: Google News. Agence France-Presse. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  134. ^ "Anger at squalid housing unleashes Algeria protest". Reuters. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  135. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/08/201383204337179567.html
  136. ^ "Middle East rulers make concessions". Al Jazeera. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  137. ^ "L'état d'urgence bientôt levé en Algérie, dit Bouteflika". L'Express. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  138. ^ "Algerian president lifts the emergency law, except in Algiers". Arab Reform Bulletin (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace). 9 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  139. ^ "Algeria: President announced the lifting of emergency laws". Allvoices.com. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  140. ^ "Algerian Emergency Law to End". Allvoices.com. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  141. ^ Al Jazeera. Headlines.
  142. ^ "North Africa Under Stress: Latest Developments". The North Africa Journal. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  143. ^ "France asks Algeria to allow peaceful protests". Paris. Agence France-Presse. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  144. ^ Leigh Phillips. "EUobserver / EU Parliament chief condemns Algeria crackdown". EUobserver. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  145. ^ Hankir, Zahra (20 February 2011). "Dubai Shares Drop as Mideast Unrest Sparks Risk Aversion; Emaar, Zain Fall". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  146. ^ ennahar (14 January 2011). "Al-Qaeda supports the events in Tunisia and Algeria". Ennaharonline/ M. O. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  147. ^ Adem Amine in Algiers and Jamel Arfaoui in Tunis for Magharebia (13 January 2011). "AQIM leader exploits Tunisia, Algeria unrest". Magharebia. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  148. ^ "Operation Algeria". Anonnews.org. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  149. ^ "Dernière minute. Le site du RND mis hors service par The Anonymous". Algérie Focus. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Evans, Martin; Phillips, John (2007). Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10881-8. 
  • Larsson, Disa Kammars (August 2010). A Stable State: Authoritarianism in Algeria. CMES 2010 Paper Series. 
  • Lowi, Miriam R. (2009). Oil Wealth and the Poverty of Politics: Algeria Compared. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11318-2. 
  • Tamburini Francesco (2012), 'L'era glaciale dell'Algeria e il fallimento dell'‘onda verde', "Africana", pp. 165–184.
  • Werenfels, Isabelle (2009). Managing Instability in Algeria: Elites and Political Change Since 1995. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-55886-0. 

External links[edit]