The 2010 Championship 1 was a semi-professional rugby league football competition played in the United Kingdom, the third tier of the sport in the country. The winner of this league, Hunslet Hawks, were promoted to the Co-operative Championship along with play-off winners, York City Knights. There was no relegation from this league as it is the lowest tier of professional rugby league in the UK.
All of the teams competed in the 2010 Challenge Cup but South Wales did not compete in the 2010 National League Cup.
The competition features mainly the same teams as it did in 2009. The exceptions being that the Dewsbury Rams and the Keighley Cougars were both promoted to compete in the 2010 RFL Championship. Originally, Doncaster and the Leigh Centurions were supposed to be relegated. However, Gateshead Thunder breached the insolvency laws which meant that it was they, instead of Leigh, who were relegated.
The competition was going to contain 10 teams but one more was added when the Super League team the Crusaders left their home base at Bridgend and moved to Wrexham. This resulted in a new club being formed in Neath, South Wales, called the South Wales Scorpions who will play at the Gnoll.
| Blackpool Panthers
||Woodlands Memorial Ground
||Lytham St Annes, Lancashire
||Doncaster, South Yorkshire
| Hunslet Hawks
||South Leeds Stadium
||Leeds, West Yorkshire
| Gateshead Thunder
||Gateshead, Tyne and Wear
| London Skolars
||New River Stadium
| Oldham Roughyeds
||(Start of season to May) Park Lane
||Whitefield, Greater Manchester
|(Rest of season) Whitebank Stadium
||Limeside, Oldham Greater Manchester
| Rochdale Hornets
||Rochdale, Greater Manchester
| South Wales Scorpions (2010 South Wales Scorpions season)
||Neath, West Glamorgan, Wales
| Swinton Lions
||Swinton, Greater Manchester
| Workington Town
| York City Knights
||York, North Yorkshire
(a) Blackpool were deducted 10 points for an operational rules breech.
(b): Gateshead were deducted 6 points for entering administration.