2010 G-20 Toronto summit
|2010 G-20 Toronto summit|
|Date||June 26–27, 2010|
|Venue(s)||Metro Toronto Convention Centre|
|Follows||2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit|
|Precedes||2010 G-20 Seoul summit|
The 2010 G-20 Toronto summit was the fourth meeting of the G-20 heads of government, in discussion of the global financial system and the world economy, which took place at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during June 26–27, 2010. The summit's priorities included evaluating the progress of financial reform, developing sustainable stimulus measures, debating global bank tax, and promoting open markets. Alongside the twenty-one representatives of the G-20 major economies, leaders of six invited nations, and eight additional intergovernmental organizations also took part in the summit.
Prior to the summit, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the theme would be "recovery and new beginnings," referring to an anticipated economic stimulus from the impact of the ongoing world recession. Harper initially proposed to hold the summit in Huntsville, Ontario, where the 36th G8 summit was scheduled immediately prior. Organizers later deemed the town insufficient to provide hospitality for the large number of G-20 delegates and journalists, favouring Toronto as the host location.
Organizers formed an Integrated Security Unit, consisting of police officers from several regional departments, to provide security during the summit in Downtown Toronto. The event was part of the largest and most expensive security operation in Canadian history. The total combined cost between the 36th G8 summit in Huntsville and the G20 summit in Toronto including security, infrastructure, and hospitality, was determined to be approximately C$858 million.
Many leaders of the G-20 disagreed about which issues should be discussed at the summit. The prime focus of the summit discussions was the recovery from the ongoing global recession and the European debt crisis. Summit leaders were divided over which strategies would be best for tackling these problems. The European Union emphasized the need to cut their deficits by focusing on austerity measures. In contrast, the United States emphasized the importance of maintaining economic stimulus spending in order to encourage growth. In summit discussions, the countries of the European Union explained projected reductions in spending and balanced budgets. Alternatively, China, India, and the United States argued in favor of increased stimulus funding to mitigate the effects of recession. Among the specifics proposed by the European Union were a global bank tax and a Robin Hood tax, but the United States and Canada opposed these plans. Other topics of concern were international development and continuing international aid to Africa and other developing nations. Some invitees expressed criticism of Israel's Gaza strip blockade and of the nuclear programs of North Korea and the United States raised issues of corruption and security in Afghanistan.
Security officials began preparing for summit security in Toronto in February 2010. General policing and patrolling was provided by the Toronto Police Service, the Ontario Provincial Police, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the Canadian Forces, while the Peel Regional Police aided in policing at Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga during the arrivals of delegates. The five departments formed an Integrated Security Unit (ISU), similar to the one created for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Additional officers were deployed from York Regional Police, Halton Regional Police Service, Barrie Police Service, Waterloo Regional Police Service, Niagara Regional Police Service, Hamilton Police Service, Ottawa Police Service, and Service de police de la Ville de Montréal. Calgary Police Service supplied 150 volunteer police officers a week before the summit.
According to an early estimate by The Globe and Mail, 25,000 uniformed police officers, 1,000 security guards, and several Canadian military forces were to be deployed during the summit. The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) conducted Amalgam Virgo exercises on May 6 and 7 across the Greater Toronto Area using CF-18 Hornet jets, CH-124 Sea Kings, and CH-146 Griffon helicopters at low altitudes. The total cost for security at both the G8 and the G-20 summits was determined to be $1.8 billion, paid entirely by the federal Crown-in-Council, excluding the costs of any possible damage to local business.
The ISU created a security perimeter, beginning with the outer boundary, specifically bordered by King Street to the north, Lake Shore Boulevard to the south, Yonge Street to the east, and Spadina Avenue to the west, where vehicles would be restricted during the summit dates. Residents who lived within the security zone were issued registration cards prior to the summit and other pedestrians who wished to enter the security zone were only able to do so at one of 38 checkpoints, where they were required to present two pieces of photo identification and provide justification for entry. The area surrounding the Metro Toronto Convention Centre itself was fenced and off-limits to civilians and protesters. The 3-metre (10 ft) high fence, contracted to SNC-Lavalin by Public Works and Government Services Canada and installed by two Gormley, Ontario-based companies, was built at a cost of $5.5-million and installation began on June 7. The Toronto Police Service installed 77 additional closed-circuit television security cameras in the area and purchased four Long Range Acoustic Devices which were to be in use exclusively during the summit. The ISU decided on also using water cannons for riot control.
A former film studio located on Eastern Avenue was designated as a temporary detention centre for individuals arrested during the summit. Toronto Police Service announced that Trinity Bellwoods Park would be the designated protest area, but following opposition from local residents, police relocated the designated protest zone to the northern part of Queen's Park. Canada Post declared that it would remove post boxes in the security zone. Toronto Parking Authority removed some parking meters as well. Small trees along sidewalks around the convention centre were removed to prevent them from being used as weapons by protesters. Other removed municipal properties include 745 newspaper boxes, 200 public trash cans, 70 mailboxes, 29 bus shelters, and 5 public information boards.
Canada's largest banks, which are headquartered in Downtown Toronto, made plans to have employees work at alternate sites outside their downtown facilities, such as at home or in other branches. The Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) announced the closure of seven liquor stores in the downtown core during the summit as a precaution to looting. The PATH, CN Tower, University of Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, and the Ontario Legislative Building were also closed to public during the summit dates.
A three-game Major League Baseball series between the Toronto Blue Jays and the Philadelphia Phillies, scheduled June 25 to 27 at the Rogers Centre, was relocated to Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, after much discussion by league officials and amidst discontentment from fans, who highly anticipated the return of former Blue Jays pitcher Roy Halladay to Toronto after being traded to the Phillies. Mirvish Productions cancelled performances of two musicals at its theatres, Rock of Ages and Mamma Mia!, during the week of the summit. Similarly, the Factory Theatre cancelled shows during the summit week.
Highway 427 and the Gardiner Expressway, the route from Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga to the Convention Centre in downtown, periodically closed down for motorcades, and police jammed wireless reception along the two highways. Exits to Yonge Street and Bay Street from the Gardiner Expressway were closed during the summit dates. Toronto Transit Commission announced that subway stations near the convention centre would remain open and operational, despite some detoured bus routes and the closure of Queens Quay Station. Via Rail announced that it would not operate at Union Station during the summit dates, instead providing shuttle bus service from the Yorkdale and Scarborough Centre bus terminals to the Brampton and Oshawa stations respectively. Nav Canada announced that it would place restrictions on the airspace in Toronto, making it limited to commercial flights only while all others would be restricted within a 30-nautical-mile (56 km) radius. Porter Airlines received permission to continue flights to and from Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport. The Toronto District School Board and Toronto Catholic District School Board cancelled school bus services to six Downtown schools on June 25, affecting 45,000 students, 10,000 of whom were physically disabled.
Summit organizers established a media centre for international media personnel, journalists, and press reporters at the Direct Energy Centre at the Exhibition Place. The Federal and Ontario governments constructed a 20,000-square-foot (1,858 m2) pavilion, called Experience Canada or Canadian Corridor in the media centre to promote Canadian tourism internationally. The pavilion included three life-sized government-funded displays: Cityscape, which showcased successful Canadian businesses and innovation; The Bridge, which included information kiosks for media personnel as well as large high-definition screens that televised the 2010 FIFA World Cup games; and Northern Ontario Oasis, an artificial lakefront based on Muskoka region's cottage country. The Northern Ontario Oasis included donated canoes, a shoreline with deck chairs for journalists to cool off, and a mobile phone recharging station. The background was a large screen that portrayed various images of the Muskoka region. The cost of the international media centre, the Experience Canada pavilion, and artificial lake, which were $23 million, $1.9 million, and $57,000 respectively, was the target of controversies.
Participants of the Toronto summit were announced by Stephen Harper on May 8, 2010. Harper extended invitations to the leaders of Ethiopia and Malawi to further represent the continent of Africa along with South Africa, a G-20 member. He also invited leaders of the Netherlands, Spain, Vietnam, and Nigeria.
Toronto Pearson International Airport was the port of entry for delegates attending both the G8 and G-20 summits. French president Nicolas Sarkozy and Chinese president Hu Jintao were the first of the G-20 leaders to arrive. The arrival of Hu coincided with his state visit to Canada, hosted by Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean in Ottawa. Presidents Jacob Zuma of South Africa and Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria arrived on June 24. British prime minister David Cameron arrived on June 25, following a short visit in Halifax to celebrate the centennial of the Canadian Forces Maritime Command. Remaining leaders with the G8 also arrived on the same day.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Labour Organization, as well as Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Vietnam made their first G-20 summit appearances in Toronto. Recently designated heads of government, namely Cameron and Japanese prime minister Naoto Kan, made the G8 and G-20 summits their first international conferences. Australia's deputy prime minister, Wayne Swan, attended the summit on behalf of Julia Gillard, whose appointment as prime minister occurred on June 24. Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva cancelled his trip to remain in his country due to the then-recent flooding in northeastern Brazil; in his place, Guido Mantega, Brazil's finance minister, headed the nation's delegation. After the G8 summit in Huntsville, Ontario ended, Cameron, whose aircraft was grounded due to weather conditions, shared transportation to Toronto in Marine One with US President, Barack Obama.
Major protests occurred in Downtown Toronto during the week of the summit, which abruptly escalated during the days of the summit. Early opposition to the G-20 included an incident in Ottawa where a bank was firebombed by anarchists, who claimed they would be present during the G-20 summit in Toronto. The perceived security threat caused the Integrated Security Unit to increase security measures.
Protests began one week ahead of the summit, organized by groups including Oxfam Canada and the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty. Issues such as poverty, gay rights, capitalism and globalization, indigenous rights, and controversial issues with the summit itself were the object of protests. Despite a few arrests, protests over the week were mainly determined to be peaceful.
As the first day of the summit approached, protesters grew in numbers. Several streets were closed to demonstrations on the debut of the summit. Peaceful protests were followed by black bloc tactics as individuals dressed in black dispersed from the crowd and began damaging the windows of particular businesses across Downtown Toronto, mostly fast food chains, retail stores and banks, as well as local businesses. Police cruisers were set on fire and vehicles of media corporations were damaged. Nearby hospitals, shopping centres, and hotels were put in lockdown mode while public transit services were diverted from Downtown to other locations.
As security was further tightened and forces increased in presence the following day, protests against police brutality occurred in front of the Eastern Avenue temporary detention centre, where nearly 500 arrested individuals were kept from the previous day's riots. A group of protesters was also "kettled" for several hours through the night after black bloc protesters were believed to be in the crowd. Over 1100 people were confirmed to be arrested over the week. The ISU performed sweeping arrests within a specific boundary from the summit venue. Individuals arrested during the protests condemned the treatment they received from police.
Prior to the Toronto summit, it was speculated that it would not see the same outcome as previous summits. This was partially due to most countries' entering recovery mode from the global economic recession after the past G-20 summits; thus, the likelihood of new issues being raised was minimal.
During the working dinner for G-20 leaders on the evening of June 26, South African president Jacob Zuma promoted more partnership between the international community and Africa for the development in the continent. "As Africa we bring to the G20 Summit the key message that we must, together as the developing and developed worlds, promote stronger and more effective and equal international partnerships for growth and development," he remarked.
At the summit, US president Barack Obama warned that global recovery was still "fragile." In hopes of boosting American exports, he proposed a free trade agreement between the United States and South Korea. A key agreement the leaders of developed nations made was to cut annual budget deficits in half by 2013. The leaders also agreed on reducing debt-to-GDP ratio in each economy by 2016. The debate on imposing a tax on financial institutions was settled as the group agreed that financial institutions would be required to make fair contributions to recover costs from the financial sector reform, but the manner of collecting the contributions would be left to each government. Participants also decided that the institutions would be required to keep a higher amount of financial capital in case of future financial shocks. Climate change and food security were also discussed; the leaders reiterated their commitment to a "greener growth".
The G-20 Toronto Summit Declaration, which was released shortly after the summit concluded, stated that "serious challenges remain." According to the document, the challenges include high unemployment rates in various economies and the concurrent existence of the impact of the financial crisis. The International Monetary Fund, in its post-summit document, indicated that a speedy cut in deficits may substantially slow growth. In a publication entitled Top Ten Commandments for Fiscal Adjustment in Advanced Economies, the organization insisted that balanced public spending could stabilize bond markets, reduce interest rates from less government spending, and encourage private investment. It also recommended that emerging economies such as China, which has largely benefited from trade surpluses, rely less on developed nations and increase their own spending in order to promote domestic demand.
The financial costs of hosting the G8 and G-20 summits was the topic of several political debates and the target of criticism by local groups. The reasons for the large price for both summits were questioned by some politicians and local groups. Members of Parliament Olivia Chow and Mark Holland labelled the initially claimed budget of $1.1-billion for hosting the summits as "obscene" and "insane" while others argued that the money could have been used for long-pending municipal projects in Canada, such as Transit City. The security cost for the two summits was believed to be more expensive than the combined security costs of the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia, which were $878 million. However, according to final calculations from the House of Commons of Canada as of October 2010, the exact cost for holding both summits was $857,901,850.31, making it less expensive than the security costs for the 2010 Winter Olympics.
It was initially claimed that the summits stand as the most expensive ever held, with security costs for the London and Pittsburgh G-20 summits in 2009 reported as having been only $30 million and $18 million, respectively. However, the Canadian Parliamentary Budget Officer, Kevin Page, stated in his official report on the costs of the Huntsville and Toronto gatherings that other countries had not been as open about the full price for the similar meetings held there and that the $18 million figure for the Pittsburgh summit was merely for overtime pay for local police and the cost of law enforcement brought from other regions. Ward Elcock, former Canadian Security Intelligence Service director and the chief of the Integrated Security Units for the Winter Olympics and the G8/G-20 summits, claimed that the security costs were in fact "comparable" with those of previous summits. Finance minister Jim Flaherty defended the security cost, claiming "it's necessary to spend substantially to have security. It's Canada's turn, and it's necessary that we either don't take our turn or pay the appropriate price to have the security that is necessary so that everyone is safe here in Toronto."
The creation of the $23-million international media centre, which included the $1.9 million Experience Canada pavilion and $57,000 artificial lake, at the Exhibition Place was widely opposed and criticized by politicians as "a waste of taxpayers' money." Criticism mainly targeted Stephen Harper and Canada's Conservative government. Some protesting groups gave names to the artificial lake, such as "Harper's Folly". In a debate in the House of Commons, member Mark Holland said, "Instead of hosting world leaders, maybe the government should consider party planning for Lady Gaga." According to some critics, the spending misled the objective of the summits into showing off Canada's attributes instead of promoting the summits' agendas. New Democratic Party leader Jack Layton condemned the Harper government, saying, "we've got a government here that has to create an artificial lake when Canada has more lakes than just about any other country in the world. It is the taxpayers who are going to end up at the bottom of the fake lake." Transport minister John Baird defended the artificial lake, saying that the summits gave a "chance to showcase the very best that [Canada] has to offer." Foreign affairs minister Lawrence Cannon said it was "normal practice" for a country to showcase its attributes while hosting world events. Harper also defended by saying, "This is a classic attempt for us to be able to market the country." Upon its opening, the artificial lake received mostly negative reviews from Canadian reporters.
The summit's economic impact was a major concern of a few local politicians and citizens. The municipal government of Toronto, as well as some public representatives, previously argued that the G-20 summit should be held at an isolated venue, such as the Exhibition Place, rather than the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, which is located in the city's central business district. As a result, during the aftermath of the protests during the summit, when several business and properties in Downtown Toronto were damaged, mayor David Miller urged the federal government to compensate for all the damages. It was initially outlined by the government that only damages to businesses within the security zone would be compensated. However, all damages occurred outside of the security zone. Some businesses in the downtown core suffered financially as a result. According to Member of Parliament John McCallum, "Stephen Harper made a huge mistake in holding this summit in downtown Toronto." According to the Toronto Star, at least 40 stores in the Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area suffered damages and one repair firm performed up to $750,000 in repairs.
On June 17, the United States Department of State issued a travel alert for Toronto, warning tourists of the expected traffic disruptions and potentially violent protests during the G-20 summit. The alert, which was expected to expire on the last day of the summit, stated that "Even demonstrations that are meant to be peaceful can become violent and unpredictable." Toronto Mayor David Miller described the warning as an "over-reaction."
During the summit, a few overseas reporters commented on Canada and the summits. A reporter of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) made positive remarks about Canada's economy, saying "The Canadians, it seems, have answers for even the toughest puzzles and they are keen to share their strategies with the rest of the world. Why in this economy, we all want to be Canadian." A writer in The New York Times made positive comments about the summits' preparations and natural beauty of the Muskoka region. The Times of India and The Hindu commented on impacts on city life in Toronto due to the G-20 summit and the "unprecedented" security measures taken in Canada. A Reuters reporter, on the other hand, condemned the international media centre's artificial lake.
- Ronald D. Orol (27 June 2010). "G-20 countries set deficit and debt-reducing goals". The Wall Street Journal (New York City: marketwatch.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Background: Summit Issues". The Globe and Mail (Toronto: theglobeandmail.com). April 28, 2010. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada". Government of Canada. 18 March 2010. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- "PM announces participation of key leaders at the Toronto G-20 Summit this June" (Press release). Government of Canada. 8 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Rob Gillies (26 May 2010). "Opposition miffed by $1 billion summit security". The Boston Globe (boston.com). Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "G20 Toronto". Toronto Police Service. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Alcoba, Natalie (25 February 2010). "G8/G20: Gearing up for the biggest security event in Canadian history". National Post (Mostly Water). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G8/G20 costs top $857M". CBC News (CBC.ca). 5 November 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- Roya Wolverson (24 June 2010). "The G20's Twenty Agendas". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Recession recovery tops G20 agenda". Qatar: Al Jazeera. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- Rhodri Davies (26 June 2010). "G20:Battles within and outside". Qatar: Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- "Forgotten Goals". Qatar: Al Jazeera. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- "G20 police didn't have time to prepare: chief". CBC News (CBC.ca). 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
- Peter Kuitenbrouwer (22 June 2010). "Downtown doesn’t feel like home during G20". National Post (nationalpost.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Justin Skinner (25 June 2010). "Protesters gather at Allan Gardens to oppose G20 Summit". Toronto Star (InsideToronto). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Nadia Moharib (28 June 2010). "Calgary cops return home from G8/G20 duty". Calgary Sun (Calgarysun.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Mary Beth Currie (6 May 2010). "Canada: Toronto G8 and G20 Summits – Employer Planning Issues". Mondaq.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Siri Agrell (6 May 2010). "It's a bird, it's a plane, it's a terrifying display of military might". The Globe and Mail (Toronto: theglobeandmail.com). Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Susan Delacourt (28 May 2010). "G20 security tab: What else could $1B buy?". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "Security chief defends high cost of G8-G20 summits". CTV News. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
- Noor Javed (18 June 2010). "G20 survival guide". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Joanna Lavoie (28 May 2010). "G20 traffic and perimeter plans unveiled". Inside Toronto. insidetoronto.com. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Mary Ormsby (19 June 2010). "Fortress Toronto: Secrets of the fence". thestar.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Kenyon Wallace (10 June 2010). "G20: Toronto's controversial security fence cost $5.5-million". National Post (nationalpost.com). Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Police sound off on G20 security tools". Globalnational.com. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Jesse McLean (21 June 2010). "Police add water cannon to G20 arsenal". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "Protesters prepare for G20 demonstrations". CTV Toronto. Toronto.ctv.ca. 11 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Police chief reconfirms that Queen's Park will be designated protest area during G20". CP24. 11 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Siri Agrell (4 May 2010). "Keep those cards and letters coming ...". The Globe and Mail (Toronto: theglobeandmail.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Collin D'Mello (16 June 2010). "Trees could be removed around Metro Toronto Convention Centre for summit". CFTR (AM) (680News). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G20: Is security going too far?". Cbc.ca. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Fortress Toronto". National Post. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Richard Blackwell (9 May 2010). "Banks make plans for employees to work off-site during G20". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Police ride herd as G20 protesters march the streets". CTV News. Toronto.ctv.ca. 29 April 2010. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Amid G20 security concerns, CN Tower to be shut". CTV News. Toronto.ctv.ca. 16 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- "U of T to shut down during G20 Summit". CTV News. Toronto.ctv.ca. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "AGO to close for G20 weekend". CBC News (CBC.ca). 7 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Rob Ferguson (3 June 2010). "Legislature closing for G20 summit". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Mark Zwolinski (11 May 2010). "G20 summit scuppers Halladay's first trip to Toronto as a Philly". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Halladay's Return To Toronto Is Rerouted to Philadelphia". The New York Times (NYTimes.com). Associated Press. 2010-05-11. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Canada (2010-05-11). "Jays-Phillies series moving to Philadelphia". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Adam Hetrick (18 June 2010). "G20 Summit Forces Cancellation of Toronto Mamma Mia! and Rock of Ages Performances". Playbill. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- John Coulbourne (4 June 2010). "G20 summit dims Toronto musicals". Jam.canoe.ca. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G8-G20 wireless signal blockers unlikely to leave cell phone users in a jam". CFTR (AM) (680News). The Canadian Press. 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Don Peat (28 May 2010). "G20 should cause only token disruption of TTC". Toronto Sun (torontosun.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Via Rail to close at Union Station during G20". CTV News (Toronto.ctv.ca). Canadian Press. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Tom Godfrey (9 June 2010). "Fighter jets on alert during G20". Toronto Sun (torontosun.com). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "Business as usual for Porter?". The Globe and Mail (Toronto: theglobeandmail). 5 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G20 forces Toronto school bus cancellations". CBC News (cbc.ca). The Canadian Press. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Media Centre". G20.gc.ca. 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "G8/G20 organizer says marketing Canada worth cost". CTV News (Ottawa.ctv.ca). 13 June 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G20 media centre with fake lake to cost $1.9 million". Toronto Star (thestar.com). The Canadian Press. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Siri Agrell (17 June 2010). "Ottawa steered clear of corporate sponsorships for G8-G20". The Globe and Mail (Toronto: theglobeandmail.com). Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Heather Scoffield (7 June 2010). "Fake lake part of $1.9M G20/G8 Toronto media centre". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "PM defends G8 fake lake pavilion". CBC News (cbc.ca). 8 June 2010. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Canadian Prime Minister invites Malawi, Ethiopia, for G20 summit in Toronto". New Sudan Vision. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G8 Invites 7 African Countries to Muskoka". Voice of America. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Tonda MacCharles (14 June 2010). "Chinese president to make extended visit to Canada". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Leaders begin arriving for G8, G20". Toronto Star (thestar.com). 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Leaders arrive in Canada ahead of G8/G20 summits". CTV News. CTV.ca. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Iuri Dantas (25 June 2010). "Lula Will Skip G-20 Summit to Oversee Brazil Flood Relief, Official Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Jane Wardell (28 June 2010). "Britain's Cameron bolsters reputation at summits". The Boston Globe (boston.com). Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Sebastián Campanario (26 June 2010). "Cristina dirá ante las potencias que no hay una sola salida para la crisis". Los Andes (in Spanish) (losandes.com.ar). Retrieved 2011-04-06.
- Sandra O'Malley (26 June 2010). "Swan to take International Stage at G20". The Sydney Morning Herald (smh.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Xavier, Luciana. "G-20 deve definir meta de reform a para aprovação em novembro," Estadão (Brazil). June 26, 2010, retrieved 2011-04-06; Moura, Fabiola. "Brazil Calls 'Draconian' Goal to Halve G-20 Nations' Deficits," Bloomberg Businessweek (US). June 26, 2010, retrieved 2011-04-06.
- "Prime Minister's biography". Government of Canada. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- Raveena Aulakh (25 June 2010). "Are pandas China’s G20 gift to Toronto?". Toronto Star (thestar.com).
- Romain Gubert (26 June 2010). "Quatre Français pour rien". Le Point (in French) (lepoint.fr). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "The G20 Leaders Make an Entrance; Heads of State are Greeted by Mounties as They Arrive for the Summit". Maclean's (macleans.ca). 25 June 2010, retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "Packed Schedule Awaits Manmohan Singh in Toronto". Hindustan Times (New Delhi). 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "Arriba Calderón a Toronto para participar en Cumbre de G-20". La Crónica de Hoy (Mexico City: cronica.com.mx). 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Syed Rachid Husain (28 June 2010). "G20 leaders agree to disagree". Arab News (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: arabnews.com). Retrieved 2011-03-26.
- "Kingdom's G20 participation reflects its stature". arabnews.com. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
- Sewell Chan and Jackie Calmes (26 June 2010). "We're staying put, Obama warns North Korea". The Sydney Morning Herald (smh.com.au). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Okan Haksever (27 June 2010). "Erdogan Toronto'ya Mavi Marmara dosyasiyla gitti". Dünya Bülteni (Turkey).
- "Differences on Economy Set to Play out in Toronto". The Hindu (Chennai: thehindu.com). 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "PM announces participation of key leaders at the Toronto G-20 Summit this June". Government of Canada. 8 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "Balkenende in Canada voor G20-top". RTL Nieuws (in Dutch) (rtl.nl). 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "Zapatero pide ante los líderes de la cumbre imponer "deberes" a los mercados". La Razón (in Spanish) (Madrid: larazon.es). 27 June 2010.
- Mahmood Hasan (4 July 2010). "Rich man, poor man". The Daily Star (Dhaka: dailystar.net). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Les Whittington and Bruce Campion-Smith (25 June 2010). "G20 set to tackle sharp differences over economic policy". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Pradumna B. Rana (6 July 2010). "How can Asia strengthen its voice at G-20?". The Korea Times (koreatimes.co.kr). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "Biography of Juan Somavia, Director-General". International Labour Organization. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General (CV)". OCED.
- Olivia Ward (26 June 2010). "Ban Ki-moon at G20 as 'defender of the defenceless'". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- "RBC firebombed as protest, group claims". CBC News (CBC.ca). 8 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Gail Swainson (21 May 2010). "Ottawa firebombing proves security need, Clement says". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- Cameron French and Pav Jordan (17 June 2010). "Toronto G20 protest hints at more to come". Reuters (Canada). Archived from the original on 22 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Yang, Jennifer; Casey, Liam (2010-06-22). "G20 turning downtown Toronto into a ghost town". thestar.com. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Poisson, Jayme (21 June 2010). "G20 protesters try to take over downtown property". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
- Edwards, Peter (24 June 2010). "First nations demonstrators take over downtown streets". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- "Riot police turn back largest G20 protest yet". CTV News. Toronto.ctv.ca. 25 June 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- "Protests continue in Toronto as G20 nears". CBC News (CBC.ca). 22 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- The Canadian Press (2010-06-26). "Violent Black Bloc tactics on display at G20 protest". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
- "Police attempt to clear crowds amid G20 unrest". CTV News. Toronto.ctv.ca. 26 June 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "TTC lines, Eaton Centre locked down as protests heat up". CTV News. Toronto.ctv.ca. 26 June 2010. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Jesse Ship (2010-06-28). "Another large demonstration follows the G20". CFTO-DT. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- Jill Mahoney and Ann Hui (29 June 2010). "G20-related mass arrests unique in Canadian history". The Globe and Mail (theglobeandmail.com). Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Jennifer Yang (25 June 2010). "G20 law gives police sweeping powers to arrest people". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- Jesse Ship (28 June 2010). "I will not forget what they have done to me". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "G20 lacks governing instruments". RT News. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Zuma urges more partnerships at G20 dinner". Independent Online. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Howard Schneider (28 June 2010). "President Obama urges G-20 nations to spend; they pledge to halve deficits". The Washington Post (washingtonpost.com). Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Harper applauds summit outcome but says G20 still has a lot more to do". CP24. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Outcome of the Toronto G20 summit". Federal Ministry of Finance (Germany). 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Whittingon, Les; Bruce Campion-Smith and Richard J. Brennan (27 June 2010). "G20 adopts Canadian compromise on deficits, bank tax". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- Clark Gascoigne (23 April 2010). "G20 Finance Ministers Communiqué is Released" (Press release). Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "G-20 Toronto Summit Addresses Energy Subsidies, Climate Change and Food Security". International Institute for Sustainable Development. 27 June s010. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "The G20 Toronto summit declaration". Government of Canada. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- David Rider (22 February 2010). "Toronto warns Ottawa on G20 costs". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- "Security chief defends high cost of G8-G20 summits". CTV.ca. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- Jon Sufrin (26 May 2010). "$833-million security bill for G20 and G8 called 'insane'". Toronto Life (torontolife.com). Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- Stephen Pate (27 June 2010). "$1 billion price tag for G20 security and climbing". Oye! Times (oyetimes.com). Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- Janice Tibbetts (23 June 2010). "Tories 'transparent' on security costs: Watchdog". Ottawa Citizen (canada.com). Canwest News Service. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Financial reform taking too long: Flaherty". CTV News. CTV.ca. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "G20 summit's $2 million "fake lake" has Canadian taxpayers in stitches". Loon. Canada. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Bryn Weese (7 June 2010). "'Fake lake' flak dogs PM". Toronto Sun (Torontosun.com). Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Jane Taber (7 June 2010). "Tories pilloried for fake lake at G8/G20 media centre". The Globe and Mail (theglobeandmail.com). Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Siri Agrell (7 June 2010). "Ottawa defends $1.9-million taste of Muskoka at G20 media centre". The Globe and Mail (theglobeandmail.com). Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- David Rider (23 June 2010). "G20 'Fake Lake' makes its debut". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "Advocates want compensation for T.O. businesses". CTV News Toronto (CTV.ca). 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- David Rider and Susan Delacourt (29 June 2010). "Pressure builds on Ottawa for compensation". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Jesse McLean (18 June 2010). "U.S. issues G20 travel alert for Toronto". Toronto Star (thestar.com). Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- "World media buzzing about cost of G20 security and fake lake". CP24. The Canadian Press. 26 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Bill Curry (27 June 2010). "Sarkozy says his G8/G20 will cost one-tenth of Canada’s". The Globe and Mail (theglobeandmail.com). Retrieved 2012-04-03.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2010 G-20 Toronto summit.|