2011 Census of India
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. House listing phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings. Information for National Population Register was also collected in the first phase, which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to all registered Indians by Unique Identification Authority of India. The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 to 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since 1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected. According to the provisional reports released on 31 March 2011, the Indian population increased to 1.21 billion with a decadal growth of 17.64%. Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04% with a decadal growth of 9.21%. The motto of census 2011 was 'Our Census, Our future'.
Spread across 28 states and 7 union territories, the census covered 640 districts, 5,767 tehsils, 7,933 towns and more than 600,000 villages. A total of 2.7 million officials visited households in 7,933 towns and 600,000 villages, classifying the population according to gender, religion, education and occupation. The cost of the exercise was approximately 2200 crore (US$350 million) – this comes to less than $0.50 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.60 per person. Conducted every 10 years, this census faced big challenges considering India's vast area and diversity of cultures and opposition from the manpower involved.
Information on castes was included in the census following demands from several ruling coalition leaders including Lalu Prasad Yadav, Sharad Yadav and Mulayam Singh Yadav supported by opposition parties Bharatiya Janata Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Information on caste was last collected during the British Raj in 1931. During the early census, people often exaggerated their caste status to garner social status and it is expected that people downgrade it now in the expectation of gaining government benefits. Earlier, there was speculation of conduction caste-based census in 2011, first time after 80 years since 1931, to find the exact population of Other Backward Class (OBCs) in India, but later the proposal was dropped. Mandal Commission report of 1980 quoted OBC population at 52%, though National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey of 2006 quoted OBC population at 41%
There is only one instance of a caste-count in post-independence India. It was conducted in Kerala in 1968 by the Communist government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad to assess the social and economic backwardness of various lower castes. The census was termed Socio-Economic Survey of 1968 and the results were published in the Gazetteer of Kerala, 1971.
C. Chandramauli is the Registrar General and commissioner of 2011 Indian census. Census data was collected in 16 languages and training manual was prepared in 18 languages.The census was conducted in two phases. The first houselisting phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of data about all the buildings and census houses. Information for National population register was also collected in the first phase. The second population enumeration phase was conducted from 9–28 February 2011 all over the country. The eradication of epidemics (2) availability of more effective medicines for the treatment of various types of diseases and the improvement in the standard of living these are the main reason for the high growth of population in India.
The Houselisting schedule contained 35 questions.
Census house number
Predominant material of floor, wall and roof of the census house
Ascertain use of actual house
Condition of the census house
Total number of persons in the household
Name of the head of the household
Sex of the head
Caste status (SC or ST or others)
|Ownership status of the house
Number of dwelling rooms
Number of married couple the household
Main source of drinking water
Availability of drinking water source
Main source of lighting
Latrine within the premises
Type of latrine facility
Waste water outlet connection
Bathing facility within the premises
|Availability of kitchen
Fuel used for cooking
Availing Banking services.
|Name of the person
Relationship to head
Date of birth and age
Current marital status
Age at marriage
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe
|Other languages known
Status of attendance (Education)
Highest educational level attained
Working any time during last year
Category of economic activity
Occupation Nature of industry
Trade or service
Class of worker
Non economic activity
|Seeking or available for work
Travel to place of work
Place of last residence
Reason for migration
Duration of stay in the place of migration
Children ever born
Number of children born alive during last one year
National Population Register
The National Population Register household schedule contained 9 questions.
|Name of the person and resident status
Name of the person as should appear in the population register
Relationship to head
Date of birth
Names of father, mother and spouse
Once the information will be collected and digitalised, fingerprints and photos will be collected. Unique Identification Authority of India will issue a 12-digit identification number to all individuals and the first ID was to be issued in 2011.
Provisional data from the census was released on 31 March 2011 (and was updated on 20 May 2013).
|Density of population||per km2||382|
|Sex ratio||per 1000 males||940 females|
|Child sex ratio (0–6 age group)||per 1000 males||919 females|
The population of India on 1 March 2011 was 1,210,193,422. India added 181.5 million to its population since 2001, slightly lower than the population of Brazil. India with 2.4% of the world's surface area accounts for 17.5% of its population. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state with roughly 200 million people. A little over 5 out of 10 Indians live in the six states of Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
India is the homeland of major belief systems such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism and Jainism, while also being home to several indigenous faiths and tribal religions which have survived the influence of major religions for centuries.
Ever since its inception, the Census of India has been collecting and publishing information about the religious affiliations as expressed by the people of India. In fact, population census has the rare distinction of being the only instrument that collects this diverse and important characteristic of the Indian population.
|Type||Population||% ||Males||Females||Sex Ratio
|19||Jammu and Kashmir||State||12,541,302||1.04||6,640,662||5,900,640||889||67.16||7,627,062||2,516,638||222,236||56|
|32||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||UT||380,581||0.03||202,871||177,710||876||86.63||239,954||116,198||8,249||46|
|33||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||UT||343,709||0.03||193,760||149,949||774||76.24||170,027||50,463||491||698|
|34||Daman and Diu||UT||243,247||0.02||150,301||92,946||618||87.10||100,856||57,348||112||2,169|
|TOTAL||India||28 + 7||1,210,193,422||100||623,724,248||586,469,174||943||73.00||833,087,662||377,105,760||3,287,240||382|
Any one above age 7 who can read and write in any language with an ability to understand was considered a literate. In censuses before 1991, children below the age 5 were treated as illiterates. The literacy rate taking the entire population into account is termed as "crude literacy rate", and taking the population from age 7 and above into account is termed as "effective literacy rate". Effective literacy rate increased to a total of 74.04% with 82.14% of the males and 65.46% of the females being literate.
|S.No.||Census Year||Total (%)||Male (%)||Female (%)|
- The table lists the "crude literacy rate" in India from 1901 to 2011.
- C Chandramouli (23 August 2011). "Census of India 2011 – A Story of Innovations". Press Information Bureau, Government of India.
- Demand for caste census rocks Lok Sabha
- India to conduct first record of nation’s caste system since days of the Raj
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