2011 Sindh floods
Location of Sindh,
|Duration||August 2011–September 2011|
|Fatalities||At least 434 dead, 8.9 million affected|
|Damages||8.9 million affected, 2.7 million children affected, 6.79 million acres land damaged, 1.52 million homes damaged|
|Sindh, southern Balochistan, eastern Punjab and Azad Kashmir|
The flood was originated mostly because of rainfall and observed the highest ever recorded monsoon rain in Sindh started from Aug 11, 2011 to Sept 14, 2011. So the inundated area increased respectively with rainfall and ceased on Sept 15, 2011 effectively with the stop of rainfall. After Sept 15, 2011 the inundated area was reduced with the rate of 167 km2/day. The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected. Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was extensive. At least 1.7 million acres of arable land was inundated as a result of the flooding. The flooding followed the previous year's historic 2010 Pakistan floods, which devastated the entire country. Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh province.
- 1 Causes
- 2 Protests by flood victims
- 3 Health concerns
- 4 Domestic reaction
- 5 International reactions to the floods
- 6 Notes
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In the month of July Pakistan received below normal monsoon rains; however in August and September the country received above normal monsoon rains. A strong weather pattern entered the areas of Sindh from the Indian states of Rajasthan and Gujarat in August and gained strength with the passage of time and caused heavy downpours. The four weeks of continuous rain have created an unprecedented flood situation in Sindh.
The District Badin in Sindh province received record breaking rainfall of 615.3 millimeters (24.22 in) during the monsoon spell breaking earlier recorded 121 millimeters (4.8 in) in Badin in 1936. The area of Mithi also received record rainfall of 1,290 millimeters (51 in) during the spell, where maximum rainfall was recorded 114 millimeters (4.5 in) in Mithi in 2004. The heavy cloudburst during last 48–72 hours displaced many people besides destroying crops in the area. The Met Office had informed all district coordination officers, Provincial Disaster Management Authority, chief secretaries and chief ministers about the heavy monsoon rain-spell two days earlier to take precautionary measures.
It was found that severe flood occurred in Badin and inundated it by 3820.39 km2, Mirpurkhas by 1836.26 km2, Jacobabad by 1352.32 km2, Shahdadkot by 1597.50 km2, Dadu by 1887.57 km2 and Sanghar by 2494.18 km2, in cumulative. Furthermore the above mentioned districts contributed 61% of the total inundated area among 23 districts in Sindh.
Qamar uz Zaman Chaudhry, Director General Pakistan Meteorological Department said: "the rains in Sindh are the highest ever recorded monsoon rains during the four weeks period of August and September, 2011. Before the start of these rains in the second week of August, Sindh was under severe drought conditions and it had not received any rainfall for the last 12 months. The last severe rainfall flooding in Sindh occurred in July 2003," he said and added, "but this time the devastating rains of Mithi, Mirpurkhas, Diplo, Parker, Nawabshah, Badin, Chhor, Padidan, and Hyderabad etc during the four weeks period have created unprecedented flood situation in Sindh." According to Dr. Qamar, the total volume of water fallen over Sindh during the four weeks is estimated to be above 37 million acre feet, “which is unimaginable. The August monsoon rainfall, over province of Sindh (271% above normal) is the heaviest recorded during the period 1961–2011.
Torrential rainfall recorded in August and September in Sindh
The following are the heavy rainfalls recorded in Sindh province in the months of August and September 2011 based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department. The first monsoon spell hit the southern parts of Sindh on 10 August. It produced record breaking widespread torrential rainfalls and resulted in floods in district Badin. The second spell hit the areas on 30 August and lasted until 2 September.
In the month of September four more consecutive spells of monsoon rainfall devastated the southern parts of the province. The first spell of September hit the already inundated parts of the province on 2 September. Thereafter, the second spell hit on 5 September, the third on 9 September, and the fourth on 12 September 2011. The four spells of monsoon produced even more devastating torrential rains in the already affected areas of Sindh.
|City||August Rainfall (mm)||Rainfall (in)||September Rainfall (mm)||Rainfall (in)||Total Rainfall (mm)||Total Rainfall (in)||Notes||References|
* Indicates new record.
Heaviest spell of monsoon rains of 2011 in Sindh
|City||Rainfall (mm)||Rainfall (in)||Monsoon Spell||Notes|
|Mithi||760||30.0||1 to 14 September*|||
|Mirpur Khas||603||23.7||1 to 14 September|||
|Padidan||356||14.0||30 August to 4 September*|||
|Nawabshah||353.2||13.9||1 to 14 September|||
|Dadu||348.1||13.7||1 to 14 September|||
|Badin||302.1||11.8||10 to 14 August*|||
|Chhor||268||10.6||1 to 14 September|||
|Hyderabad||244.2||9.6||1 to 14 September|||
|Karachi||212.2||8.3||1 to 14 September|||
- 1 to 14 September 2011, four consecutive spells of monsoon rains.
- 1 to 14 August 2011, first spell of monsoon rains in Sindh.
- 30 August to 4 September, second spell of monsoon rains in Sindh.
Flooding and impact
Millions of people have been affected because of heavy rains that started in August, coinciding with monsoon season. Rural villages have become particularly affected. The area of Sanghar is declared as the most dangerous region. In the aftermath of the monsoon rains, Oxfam warned that aid should be provided to Pakistanis or they will die. 8,920,631 people have been affected because of floods. 433 people are said to have been killed.
Protests by flood victims
Some Pakistanis affected by the flood are protesting the government's response as slow and inadequate. Aid organizations have reported that some ruling party politicians and officials are distributing aid only to their party supporters and people from their villages.
A special wing of the ministry of the Government of Sindh has been created to deal with the flooding. The Chief Minister of Sindh Qaim Ali Shah has visited the affected areas, announcing a million rupees in relief for each of flood victims. Various politicians are also engaged in setting up relief camps for the victims. A helpline 0800-11-121 has been set up for the victims.
The Pakistani Army and Navy are actively engaged in flood relief and helping victims. According to aid organization Save the Children, the flooding is more disastrous than that during the 2004 tsunami.
International reactions to the floods
- United Nations- UN is engaged in assisting the flood victims by the help of its agencies.10 million are announced by UNICEF.It has said to feed 500,000 victims of flood specially these part of the country-in Badin district.
- China- China has announced the $4.7 million aid for the flood victims.
- Iran- Iran has also announced the $10 million aid for the flood victims.
- United States- The U.S. embassy in Islamabad has said to help the affected. All type of aid is coming from USA.
- Japan- Japanese Government has also provided aid to flood victims. It has announced 35 million yen for them.
- A. ^ Indicates new record. Record-breaking torrential monsoon rains in Sindh.
- List of floods in Pakistan
- 2011 Kohistan floods
- 2010 Pakistan floods
- List of extreme weather records in Pakistan
- "Flood Damage". CNN World. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Haq, M., Akhtar, M., Muhammad, S., Paras, S., & Rahmatullah, J. (2012). "Techniques of Remote Sensing and GIS for flood monitoring and damage assessment: A case study of Sindh province, Pakistan". The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 15 (2): 135–141.
- "Floods worsen, 270 killed: officials". The Express Tribune. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Government of Pakistan. Pakmet.com.pk. Retrieved on 19 September 2011.
- "Daily Express News Story". Daily Express. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "2011 Sindh Floods". The Star Online. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- Monsoon 2011. Pakmet.com.pk. Retrieved on 19 September 2011.
- Pakistan Meteorological Department. Pakmet.com.pk (5 October 2010). Retrieved on 19 September 2011.
- Weather Advisory & Press Releases. Pakmet.com.pk. Retrieved on 19 September 2011.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- 28 September 2011 "28 September 2011".
- Guerin, Orla (17 October 2011). "Pakistan's Sindh province remains hostage to flood water". BBC News. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response". BBC World News South Asia. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "UN Relief". The Nation. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Heavy rains, floods kill 233, affect 5.5 million in Pakistan". CNN World. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Foreign Aid". Daily News. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Aid pours in from Japan, US for Sindh flood survivors". Pakistan Today. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Japan aid for flood victims". Frontier Post. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
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