2011 Tour de France

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2011 Tour de France
2011 UCI World Tour, race 17 of 27
Route of the 2011 Tour de France.png
Route of the 2011 Tour de France
Race details
Dates 2–24 July
Stages 21
Distance 3,430 km (2,131 mi)
Winning time 86h 12′ 22″ (39.79 km/h or 24.72 mph)
Palmares
Winner  Cadel Evans (AUS) (BMC Racing Team)
Second  Andy Schleck (LUX) (Leopard Trek)
Third  Fränk Schleck (LUX) (Leopard Trek)

Points  Mark Cavendish (GBR) (HTC-Highroad)
Mountains  Samuel Sánchez (ESP) (Euskaltel-Euskadi)
Youth  Pierre Rolland (FRA) (Team Europcar)
Team Garmin-Cervélo
2010
2012

The 2011 Tour de France was the 98th edition of the race. It started on 2 July at the Passage du Gois and ended on the Champs-Élysées in Paris on 24 July. The cyclists competed in 21 stages over 23 days, covering a distance of 3,430 kilometres (2,130 mi). The route entered Italy for part of two stages, including an overnight stop.

The emphasis was on the Alps in 2011, as it was on the Pyrenees in 2010, commemorating the 100th anniversary of those peaks first being visited in the Tour.[1] The Col du Galibier was visited twice during the race and the 18th stage was the first time the peloton finished on the 2,645-metre (8,678 ft) pass.[2] It was the highest summit finish in Tour history, beating the finish of the Col du Granon (2,413 metres (7,917 ft)) during the 1986 Tour. For only the second time since 1967, the 2011 Tour started with a mass start stage instead of a prologue, the last occasion being in 2008.[3]

Australian Cadel Evans won the race, having gained the lead in a time-trial on the penultimate day. He became the first Australian to win the race, and at 34, the oldest post-war winner.[4] The de facto winner of the previous edition, Andy Schleck of Luxembourg, was second, and his brother Fränk Schleck third. Mark Cavendish was the first British winner of the points classification, Pierre Rolland won the young rider competition and Samuel Sánchez of Spain won the mountains category.

Rule changes[edit]

New rules were adopted for the 2011 Tour regarding the points classification and King of the Mountains competitions.

Previously, stages classified flat had three intermediate sprint points worth 6, 4, and 2 points to the first three riders across the line. Starting in 2011, flat stages have just one intermediate sprint, but it is now worth 20 points to the first rider across the line, and the first 15 score points. The intention is to have green jersey favourites needing to sprint twice during the day to score well.[5] Points awarded at the finish of flat stages also increased, from 35 points for the winner in 2010 to 45.[6] Medium mountain stages award 30 points to the winner, high mountain stages and the individual time trial 20 points.[7]

Previously in the mountains classification, any hors catégorie, first-category, or second-category climb awarded double points if it was the last of the day. In 2011, only the summit stage finishes awarded double points, specifically stage 12 ending at Luz Ardiden, stage 14 at the Plateau de Beille, stage 18 at the Col du Galibier, and stage 19 at L'Alpe d'Huez. Previously the first eight riders across a first-category climb scored points, as well as the first six across a second-category and the first four across a third-category. The new points schedule for the mountains classification is:

  • Climbs rated "hors catégorie" (HC): 20, 16, 12, 8, 4 and 2 points awarded for first 6 riders to reach the summit.
  • Category 1: 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 and 1 points awarded for first 6 riders to reach the summit.
  • Category 2: 5, 3, 2 and 1 points awarded for first 4 riders to reach the summit.
  • Category 3: 2 and 1 points awarded for first 2 riders to reach the summit.
  • Category 4: 1 point awarded for first rider to reach the summit.[8]

Early analysis led to speculation that the mountains classification winner would be more likely, under this system, to be a general classification contender than in years past.[9] This speculation proved accurate, as Samuel Sánchez, who finished 6th in the general classification, took the polka-dot jersey, and the top three finishers in the GC were in the top five of the mountains classification.

Teams[edit]

All 18 teams in the UCI's Proteam category were entitled, and obliged, to enter the race. Four UCI Professional Continental teams, all French-based, were also invited.[10]

†: Invited Pro-continental teams

Pre-race favourites[edit]

2010 winner Alberto Contador was suspended from cycling during a doping investigation from September 2010 to February 2011, during which time 2010 runner-up Andy Schleck was regarded as the favourite. When the suspension was lifted, Contador declared his desire to compete in both the Tour and the 2011 Giro d'Italia, which he went on to win. Of the others listed among the favourites, Denis Menchov is a member of the Geox-TMC team, who were not invited to participate.

Race summary[edit]

Classics specialist Philippe Gilbert took the first yellow jersey, winning the opening stage in the Vendée,[11] but on the second day Garmin-Cervélo were the fastest on the team time trial, allowing Thor Hushovd[12] to take the race leadership, which he retained for seven days. The first week and a half was notable for the number of crashes involving high profile riders, with Andreas Klöden, Bradley Wiggins, Alexandre Vinokourov, Janez Brajkovič, Chris Horner and Jurgen Van Den Broeck all having to withdraw injured, while Robert Gesink, Alberto Contador, Samuel Sánchez and Levi Leipheimer all lost considerable amounts of time and condition due to falls. There was controversy when Nicki Sørensen was struck by a motorbike carrying a photographer, and Johnny Hoogerland and Juan Antonio Flecha were injured after an incident with a television car. A breakaway on stage nine saw Thomas Voeckler gain the overall lead,[13] which he kept, contrary to expectation, through the Pyrenean and all but one of the Alpine stages, and for ten racing days in total.

On the winners' podium in Paris, Cadel Evans (centre) shakes hands with Fränk Schleck while Andy Schleck waves to the crowd

The key time differences between the riders who eventually took the top three places in the general classification, Cadel Evans of BMC Racing Team, Luxembourger Andy Schleck, and his older brother and Leopard Trek teammate Fränk, occurred on stage 16, when Evans gained 21 seconds on Fränk Schleck and 1'09" on Andy on the descent to Gap in wet conditions;[14] stage 18, when a 60 km breakaway by Andy Schleck gave him an advantage of more than two minutes at the highest stage finish in tour history at the Col du Galibier;[15] and on the penultimate day, when Evans came second in a time trial and beat the Luxembourgish pair by more than two and a half minutes to secure victory.[16] Both Andy Schleck and Evans wore the yellow jersey for only one day each: Schleck for the time trial, and Evans on the final, largely ceremonial, stage in Paris.

The stages that were suited to sprint finishes were dominated by Manx sprinter Mark Cavendish, who won five stages, including a record third successive victory on the final stage on the Avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris. In doing so, he won the points category, ahead of José Joaquín Rojas and Philippe Gilbert, becoming the first British rider to claim the maillot vert.[17][18]

The mountains category was won by Spaniard Samuel Sánchez, who had a win and two second places on the four mountain-top finishes. Andy Schleck finished second in that category, with Belgian Jelle Vanendert third.[19]

Pierre Rolland won the young riders category, largely by virtue of positions he attained in supporting his team leader, Voeckler, during the time he held the yellow jersey, but he also earned a stage win on the prestigious climb to Alpe d'Huez.[20]

Stages[edit]

Stages of the 2011 Tour de France[21][22][23]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
1 2 July Passage du GoisMont des Alouettes 191.5 km (119 mi) Flat stage  Philippe Gilbert (BEL)
2 3 July Les EssartsLes Essarts 23.0 km (14 mi) History.gif Team time trial Garmin-Cervélo
3 4 July Olonne-sur-MerRedon 198.0 km (123 mi) Flat stage  Tyler Farrar (USA)
4 5 July LorientMûr-de-Bretagne 172.5 km (107 mi) Flat stage  Cadel Evans (AUS)
5 6 July CarhaixCap Fréhel 164.5 km (102 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
6 7 July DinanLisieux 226.5 km (141 mi) Flat stage  Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR)
7 8 July Le MansChâteauroux 218.0 km (135 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
8 9 July AigurandeSuper-Besse 189.0 km (117 mi) Medium-mountain stage  Rui Costa (POR)
9 10 July IssoireSaint-Flour 208.0 km (129 mi) Medium-mountain stage  Luis León Sánchez (ESP)
11 July Rest day
10 12 July AurillacCarmaux 158.0 km (98 mi) Flat stage  André Greipel (GER)
11 13 July Blaye-les-MinesLavaur 167.5 km (104 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
12 14 July CugnauxLuz Ardiden 211.0 km (131 mi) Mountain stage  Samuel Sánchez (ESP)
13 15 July PauLourdes 152.5 km (95 mi) Mountain stage  Thor Hushovd (NOR)
14 16 July Saint-GaudensPlateau de Beille 168.5 km (105 mi) Mountain stage  Jelle Vanendert (BEL)
15 17 July LimouxMontpellier 192.5 km (120 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)
18 July Rest day
16 19 July Saint-Paul-Trois-ChâteauxGap 162.5 km (101 mi) Medium-mountain stage  Thor Hushovd (NOR)
17 20 July GapPinerolo 179.0 km (111 mi) Mountain stage  Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR)
18 21 July PineroloCol du Galibier / Serre Chevalier 200.5 km (125 mi) Mountain stage  Andy Schleck (LUX)
19 22 July ModaneL'Alpe d'Huez 109.5 km (68 mi) Mountain stage  Pierre Rolland (FRA)
20 23 July GrenobleGrenoble 42.5 km (26 mi) History.gif Individual time trial  Tony Martin (GER)
21 24 July CréteilParis (Champs-Élysées) 95.0 km (59 mi) Flat stage  Mark Cavendish (GBR)

Classification leadership[edit]

There were four main classifications contested in the 2011 Tour de France, with the most important being the general classification. The general classification was calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification was considered the winner of the Tour.[24] In 2011, there were no time bonuses given.[25]

Additionally, there was a points classification, which awards a green jersey. In the points classification, cyclists get points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points led the classification, and is identified with a green jersey.[24]

There was also a mountains classification. The organization categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reach the top of these climbs, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points led the classification, and was identified with a polka dot jersey.[24]

The fourth individual classification was the young rider classification, marked by the white jersey. This classification was calculated the same way as the general classification, but the classification was restricted to riders who were born on or after 1 January 1986.[24]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team is the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification were identified with yellow numbers.[25]

For the combativity award, a jury gives points after each stage to the cyclists they considered most combative. The cyclist with the most votes in all stages leads the classification.[25]

Stage Winner General classification
Jersey yellow.svg
Points classification
Jersey green.svg
Mountains classification
Jersey polkadot.svg
Young rider classification
Jersey white.svg
Team classification
Jersey yellow number.svg
Combativity award
Jersey red number.svg
1 Philippe Gilbert Philippe Gilbert Philippe Gilbert Philippe Gilbert Geraint Thomas Omega Pharma-Lotto Perrig Quemeneur
2 Garmin-Cervélo Thor Hushovd Garmin-Cervélo no award
3 Tyler Farrar José Joaquín Rojas Mickaël Delage
4 Cadel Evans Cadel Evans Jérémy Roy
5 Mark Cavendish Philippe Gilbert Iván Gutiérrez
6 Edvald Boasson Hagen Johnny Hoogerland Adriano Malori
7 Mark Cavendish José Joaquín Rojas Robert Gesink Yannick Talabardon
8 Rui Costa Philippe Gilbert Tejay van Garderen Tejay van Garderen
9 Luis León Sánchez Thomas Voeckler Johnny Hoogerland Team Europcar Flecha and Hoogerland
10 André Greipel Marco Marcato
11 Mark Cavendish Mark Cavendish Mickaël Delage
12 Samuel Sánchez Samuel Sánchez Arnold Jeannesson Leopard Trek Geraint Thomas
13 Thor Hushovd Jérémy Roy Garmin-Cervélo Jérémy Roy
14 Jelle Vanendert Jelle Vanendert Rigoberto Urán Leopard Trek Sandy Casar
15 Mark Cavendish Niki Terpstra
16 Thor Hushovd Garmin-Cervélo Mikhail Ignatiev
17 Edvald Boasson Hagen Rubén Pérez
18 Andy Schleck Rein Taaramäe Andy Schleck
19 Pierre Rolland Andy Schleck Samuel Sánchez Pierre Rolland Alberto Contador
20 Tony Martin Cadel Evans no award
21 Mark Cavendish
Final Cadel Evans Mark Cavendish Samuel Sánchez Pierre Rolland Garmin-Cervélo Jérémy Roy
Notes
  • In stage 2, Cadel Evans, who was second in the points classification, wore the green jersey, as Philippe Gilbert held the general classification as well as the points classification and the King of the Mountains classification. Thor Hushovd, who was third in both the general and points classifications, sported the polka-dot jersey.
  • In stage 3, as Philippe Gilbert held the points classification as well as the King of the Mountains classification, Cadel Evans, who was second on the only hill yielding points to that stage, wore the polka-dot jersey.
  • After stage 9, both Juan Antonio Flecha and Johnny Hoogerland were awarded the red number for stage 10. They received the combativity award after stage 9 for finishing the stage despite being sideswiped by a television car.[26] Flecha refused to accept the award on the podium after the stage; Hoogerland, having already been up there to receive the polka-dot jersey, did take the award.

Final standings[edit]

After the race finished, the results from Alberto Contador were removed. Contador had originally finished in fifth place, 3'57" from Evans. In the points classification, Contador was tenth with 105 points, and in the mountains classification Contador was sixth with 51 points.[27]

Legend
  Yellow jersey   Denotes the leader of the General classification   Polka dot jersey   Denotes the leader of the Mountains classification
  Green jersey   Denotes the leader of the Points classification   White jersey   Denotes the leader of the Young rider classification
  Jersey with a yellow background on the number bib.   Denotes the leader of the Team classification

General classification[edit]

Rider Team Time
1  Cadel Evans (AUS) Jersey yellow.svg BMC Racing Team 86h 12′ 22″
2  Andy Schleck (LUX) Leopard Trek + 1′ 34″
3  Fränk Schleck (LUX) Leopard Trek + 2′ 30″
4  Thomas Voeckler (FRA) Team Europcar + 3′ 20″
5  Samuel Sánchez (ESP) Polka-dotted jersey Euskaltel-Euskadi + 4′ 55″
6  Damiano Cunego (ITA) Lampre-ISD + 6′ 05″
7  Ivan Basso (ITA) Liquigas-Cannondale + 7′ 23″
8  Tom Danielson (USA) Jersey yellow number.svg Garmin-Cervélo + 8′ 15″
9  Jean-Christophe Péraud (FRA) Ag2r-La Mondiale + 10′ 11″
10  Pierre Rolland (FRA) Jersey white.svg Team Europcar + 10′ 43″

Points classification[edit]

Rider Team Points
1  Mark Cavendish (GBR) Green jersey HTC-Highroad 334
2  José Joaquín Rojas (ESP) Movistar Team 272
3  Philippe Gilbert (BEL) Omega Pharma-Lotto 236
4  Cadel Evans (AUS) Jersey yellow.svg BMC Racing Team 208
5  Thor Hushovd (NOR) Jersey yellow number.svg Garmin-Cervélo 195
6  Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR) Team Sky 192
7  André Greipel (GER) Omega Pharma-Lotto 160
8  Tyler Farrar (USA) Jersey yellow number.svg Garmin-Cervélo 127
9  Samuel Sánchez (ESP) Jersey polkadot.svg Euskaltel-Euskadi 105
10  Jeremy Roy (FRA) FDJ 104

King of the Mountains classification[edit]

Rider Team Points
1  Samuel Sánchez (ESP) Polka-dotted jersey Euskaltel-Euskadi 108
2  Andy Schleck (LUX) Leopard Trek 98
3  Jelle Vanendert (BEL) Omega Pharma-Lotto 74
4  Cadel Evans (AUS) Jersey yellow.svg BMC Racing Team 58
5  Fränk Schleck (LUX) Leopard Trek 56
6  Jérémy Roy (FRA) FDJ 45
7  Pierre Rolland (FRA) Jersey white.svg Team Europcar 44
8  Maxim Iglinskiy (KAZ) Astana 40
9  Johnny Hoogerland (NED) Vacansoleil-DCM 40
10  Sylvain Chavanel (FRA) Quick Step 38

Young Riders classification[edit]

Rider Team Time
1  Pierre Rolland (FRA) Jersey white.svg Team Europcar 86h 23′ 05″
2  Rein Taaramäe (EST) Cofidis + 46″
3  Jérôme Coppel (FRA) Saur-Sojasun + 7′ 53″
4  Arnold Jeannesson (FRA) FDJ + 10′ 37″
5  Rob Ruijgh (NED) Vacansoleil-DCM + 22′ 21″
6  Rigoberto Urán (COL) Team Sky + 32′ 05″
7  Geraint Thomas (GBR) Team Sky + 50′ 05″
8  Robert Gesink (NED) Rabobank + 54′ 26″
9  Cyril Gautier (FRA) Team Europcar + 1h 17′ 00″
10  Andrey Zeits (KAZ) Astana + 1h 21′ 05″

Team classification[edit]

Pos. Team Time
1 Garmin-Cervélo Jersey yellow number.svg 258h 18′ 49″
2 Leopard Trek + 11′ 04″
3 Ag2r-La Mondiale + 11′ 20″
4 Team Europcar + 41′ 53″
5 Euskaltel-Euskadi + 52′ 00″
6 Team Sky + 58′ 24″
7 Team Katusha + 1h 09′ 39″
8 Saxo Bank-SunGard + 1h 16′ 12″
9 FDJ + 1h 30′ 16″
10 Cofidis + 1h 47′ 29″
A chart of the prominent riders and their position relative to the yellow jersey as of Stage 20


World rankings points[edit]

The Tour de France was one of 27 events throughout the season that contributed points towards the 2011 UCI World Tour. Points were awarded to the top 20 finishers overall, and to the top five finishers in each stage. Only riders on UCI ProTour teams were eligible to receive rankings points.[28]

Prize money[edit]

In total, more than €3.5 million was distributed during the Tour. Initially, each team received €51,243, while each team with at least seven riders finishing the Tour received €1600 per rider. The winner of the General Classification received €450,000, with smaller prizes for each finishing position, down to €400 for the last rider.[8]

Prize money for each classification[8]
Standings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Per day
Jersey yellow.svg General €450,000 €200,000 €100,000 €70,000 €50,000 €23,000 €11,500 €7,600 €4,500 €3,800 €350
Jersey green.svg Points €25,000 €15,000 €10,000 €4,000 €3,500 €3,000 €2,500 €2,000 €300
Jersey polkadot.svg Mountains €25,000 €15,000 €10,000 €4,000 €3,500 €3,000 €2,500 €2,000 €300
Jersey white.svg Young €20,000 €15,000 €10,000 €5,000 €300
Jersey yellow number.svg Team €50,000 €30,000 €20,000 €12,000 €8,000
Jersey red number.svg Combative €20,000

The stage winner was awarded €8,000 on a normal stage and €10,000 for a time trial. The money gradually decreases, with the 20th finisher receiving €200. The first person to cross the intermediate sprint wins €1,500. Money is also awarded for crossing the categorized climbs, for the best young rider of each stage, the most combative rider, and the best team of the stage.[8]

Prize money stages and other contests[8]
Standings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Stage €8,000 €4,000 €2,000 €1,200 €830 €780 €730 €670 €650 €600
Team time trial €10,000 €5,000 €2,500 €1,000 €800 €700 €600 €600 €500 €500
Intermediate sprint €1,500 €1,000 €500
Hors Category Mtn. €800 €450 €300
1st Category Mtn. €650 €400 €150
2nd Category Mtn. €500 €250
3rd Category Mtn. €300
4th Category Mtn. €200
Young €500
Combative €2,000
Team €2,800

Two other special prizes were awarded. The first to ascend the Col du Tourmalet and the Col du Galibier receive the souvenir Jacques Goddet and the souvenir Henri Desgrange respectively. Each prize awarded €5,000.[8]

Summary of total amount of prize money awarded per team[31]
Pos. Team Prize money Major awards
Jerseys/awards Stage wins Top 10 Classifications
(or best outside top 10)
1 BMC Racing Team €493,990 Jersey yellow.svg 1 1st
2 Leopard Trek €395,310 Souvenir Henri Desgrange 1 2nd & 3rd
3 Team Europcar €147,130 Jersey white.svg 1 4th
4 Garmin-Cervélo €145,940 Jersey yellow number.svg 4 9th
5 HTC-Highroad €104,940 Jersey green.svg 6 19th
6 Omega Pharma-Lotto €96,600 3 20th
7 FDJ €90,660 Jersey red number.svg
Souvenir Jacques Goddet
0 15th
8 Euskaltel-Euskadi €87,780 Jersey polkadot.svg 1 6th
9 Saxo Bank-SunGard €72,290 0 5th
10 Team Sky €67,000 2 24th
11 Movistar Team €46,660 1 36th
12 Ag2r-La Mondiale €45,560 0 10th
13 Cofidis €41,740 0 12th
14 Vacansoleil-DCM €35,650 0 21st
15 Lampre-ISD €30,100 0 7th
16 Saur-Sojasun €26,930 0 14th
17 Rabobank €24,290 1 33rd
18 Liquigas-Cannondale €22,360 0 8th
19 Quick Step €19,940 0 13th
20 Team Katusha €12,380 0 23rd
21 Astana €11,710 0 39th
22 Team RadioShack €10,540 0 16th

Doping cases[edit]

After the fifth stage, Alexandre Kolobnev tested positive for hydrochlorothiazide. When the news came out, he withdrew, and his results were annulled. In March 2012, the CAS decided that Kolobnev would only receive a warning for this, and no suspension, because his use of the drug was justified by 'medical reasons unrelated to performance'.[32]

All other doping tests were negative.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stephen Farrand. "2011 Tour De France To Celebrate The Alps". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  2. ^ "Tour de France 2011 – The Galibier 1911–2011". Letour.fr. 10 July 1911. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  3. ^ Tour de France – Blazin' Saddles: 2011 Prologue logged uk.eurosport.yahoo.com, published: 27 January 2010, accessed: 2 June 2011
  4. ^ Williams, Richard (24 July 2011). "Tour de France 2011: Grit powers old man Cadel Evans to the summit". Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Hedwig Kröner (19 October 2010). "2011 Tour De France Route Announced". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "Boonen Expects More Tactical Tussle For Tour's Green Jersey". Cyclingnews.com. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  7. ^ "The points classification explained". Team Sky. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Tour de France 2011 – Rules". Letour.fr. Retrieved 2011-07-25. 
  9. ^ Barry Ryan (19 October 2010). "Virenque Tips Sastre For Mountains Jersey At 2011 Tour De France". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  10. ^ "Tour de France selects 22 teams". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "Gilbert conquers Mont des Alouettes". Cycling News. 
  12. ^ "Garmin-Cervelo wins team time trial". Cycling News. 
  13. ^ "Luis León Sánchez wins crash-hit stage". Cycling News. 
  14. ^ "Hushovd smashes breakaway for second stage win". Cycling news. 
  15. ^ "Schleck's mountain raid nets stage win". Cycling News. 
  16. ^ "Evans conquers all with picture perfect time trial". Cycling News. 
  17. ^ "Cadel Evans wins 2011 Tour de France". Cycling News. 
  18. ^ "Mark Cavendish wins historic green jersey". BBC Sport. 24 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "Rolland wins on the Alpe d'Huez at end of epic stage". Cycling News. 
  20. ^ "Rolland takes white jersey to Paris". Cycling News. 
  21. ^ "The Tour 2011". LeTour.fr. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "Cycling: Tour de France 2011 to start in Vendee". AFP. 30 January 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  23. ^ "Tour de France organizers unveil climb-heavy 2011 route". VeloNews. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  24. ^ a b c d Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c "Zoom… 2012". letour.fr. Amaury Sport Organisation. 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  26. ^ Julien Pretot (10 July 2011). "Tour riders outraged after ‘reckless driving’ leads to crash". National Post. 
  27. ^ "98ème Tour de France 2011" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 7 February 2012. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Points scale – UCI World Ranking". Union Cycliste Internationale. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-17. 
  29. ^ "2011 UCI World Ranking Detailed Gained Points". Union Cycliste Internationale. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  30. ^ "UCI World Ranking – 2011". Union Cycliste Internationale. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  31. ^ "BMC takes home biggest share of the prize money". sporza.be (in Dutch). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  32. ^ a b "Alexandr Kolobnev escapes doping ban but fined £1,040". BBC. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 

External links[edit]