2012–13 Tana River District clashes

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2012 Tana River District clashes
The violence occurred in the Tana River District of Coast Province, Kenya.
Location Tana River District
Coordinates 1°30′S 40°0′E / 1.500°S 40.000°E / -1.500; 40.000Coordinates: 1°30′S 40°0′E / 1.500°S 40.000°E / -1.500; 40.000
Date 22 August 2012
Target Orma tribe
Attack type
Ethnic-communal clashes between Orma and Pokomo people
Weapons Machetes, bows and arrows, spears, handguns
Deaths 118,[1][2][3]
Perpetrators Pokomo tribe

In August 2012, a series of ethnic clashes between the Orma and Pokomo tribes of Kenya's Tana River District resulted in the deaths of at least fifty-two people. The violence was the worst of its kind in Kenya since the country's 2007–08 crisis.The violence left 118 people dead and more than 13,500 displaced and another more than 30,000 people affected by the ethno-political clashes. Over 50% of the 13500 are children the rest being women and elderly.[3]

Background[edit]

The major ethnic groups of the Tana River District are the Pokomo, many of whom are farmers along the Tana River, and the Orma, who are predominantly a cattle-herding nomadic people.[4] The district is generally dry and prone to drought, with erratic rainfall during the March–May and October–December rainy seasons. The climate has sparked numerous clashes between farmers and nomadic peoples over access to water.[5]

Approximately ten days before the ethnic clash on 22 August 2012, three Pokomo people were killed by members of the Orma community. In retaliation, the Pokomo people raided Orma villages and burned more than one hundred houses.[6]

2012[edit]

22 August incident[edit]

On 22 August 2012, in the worst violent incident in Kenya since 2007, at least fifty-two people were killed in ethnic violence in the Tana River District between the Orma and Pokomo groups.[2] The violence occurred in southeast Kenya, in the Reketa area of Tarassa, near the coast and approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the capital, Nairobi.[6]

The ethnic violence was the result of a dispute over land rights for the tribes' chickens. Police believe that the attack was carried out by the Pokomo people, who attacked the Orma,[7][8] following an Orma invasion of farms belonging to the Pokomo.[9]

The attackers were armed with machetes, bows and arrows, spears and handguns.[10] Thirty-one women, eleven children, and six men were killed during the violence.[7][8] Of these, thirty-four people were hacked to death with machetes, while fourteen people were burned to death.[7] Four other Kenyans later died from injuries sustained during the attack.[11] In addition, the Pokomo captured approximately two hundred cattle belonging to the Orma.[9]

September Incident[edit]

On 7th Sept at 3am in the morning of 12 people were killed by Orma. The Capital FM quoted incident as:[12] Police and the Kenya Red Cross said the attacks occurred at Tarasaa where houses were burnt, in what is believed to be retaliatory attacks by the Orma people against the Pokomos.

Kenya Red Cross state that over 300 cattle and 400 goat have been raided,house torched.[13]

On 10th Sept 38 people were killed by Pokomo, including 9 police officer. The deceased include 16 men, five women, nine police officers and eight children. The officers include five GSU, two Administration Police and two regular police officers. The violence occurred at Kilelengwani Village [14]

On the next morning of 11th, 3 people were killed by Orma at Semikaro, Laini, Nduru and Shirikisho villages of Tana Delta.[15]

On 13th Sept over 1311 paramilitary police officers to quell unrest in Tana River.[16]

On Monday 17th Sept at around 5.45am 67 houses were torched at Ozi Village. there were no casualties reported. The next day MP Mungatana claimed that house were torched by GSU sent there earlier from Nairobi to quel the violence.[17]

The same day (Monday 17th) police found a grave which was suspecting to be having copse. Police were issued with a court order to dig up suspected grave but found nothing apart from part of a human leg. A member of Red Cross said it was strange because there was a strong stench coming out of the area.[18]

December Incident[edit]

On Friday, 21 December 2012, renewed fighting ensued, with initial reports indicating the deaths of over 27 people. The brutal raid was carried out in the wee hours of the morning.[19] Subsequent reports however confirmed that thirty nine people were killed.[20]

Among the dead were assailants whose corpses were burnt in anger by residents. Police also arrested over 65 suspects in the aftermath of the killings.[21]

2013[edit]

January[edit]

On 9 January 2013, 11 people were killed in fresh fighting when Suspected Pokomo raiders attacked Nduru Village killing six Ormas. Villagers countered the attackers killing two raiders on the spot, and two more as they pursued them. Another assailant died from injuries while fleeing.[22]

Dawn attacks on 10 January 2013 resulted in the death of 11 people at the Pokomo community Village of Kibusu. The dead included three women, three men and five children.[23] The attack also resulted in the burning of 19 homes in the village which is approximately 20 km from Nduru village which had been attacked a day earlier.[24] The Kenya Red Cross also indicated that over 112,000 people had been displaced since the fighting begun despite deployment of 2,000 law enforcement officers[25]

State Reaction[edit]

The Galole Legislator and an Assistant Livestock Minister Dhadho Godhana,was arrested and charged with incitement and he was released with a cash bail of Kshs. 500,000.00.[26]

The same day Kenyan parliament passed a motion urging the executive to send Kenyan defence forces to Tana River. The motion was introduced by Garsen MP Danson Mungatana.[27]

Judicial Inquiry[edit]

On September 22, the government has set up a Judicial Commission of Inquiry into the Tana River clashes chaired by High Court judge Grace Nzioka.[28] The full membership of the commission appointed by President Mwai Kibaki is:

  • Lady Justice Grace Nzioka - Chair
  • Chief Magistrate Emily Ominde
  • Principal Magistrate Abdulqadir Lorot Ramadhan

Assisting counsel are:[29]

Among the witnesses who have testified are:[30]

  • Defence minister Yusuf Haji
  • Coast Provincial Commissioner Samuel Kilele
  • Provincial police boss Aggrey Adoli
  • Lands Commissioner Zablon Mabea

Casualties Statistic[edit]

The following is a table of casualties as captured by Kenya Red Cross.[1] as at 12th Sept 2012

Date Village Death Casualty Property Lost H/H POP.
. . Male Female Child Total . House Cattle Goat . .
14th Aug Kau 2 1 0 3 7 110 198 0 324 1924
22nd Aug Reketa 6 34 13 53 22 78 60 0 383 2298
1st Sept Semikaro 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 200 0 0
7th Sept Chamwanamuma 15 13 1 17 10 94 200 400 1094 6564
10th Sept Kilelengwani 25 5 8 38 8 167 0 0 200 1200
11th Sept Laini 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0
11th Sept Sirikisho 0 0 0 0 0 109 0 0 0 0
11th Sept Semikaro 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
11th Sept Nduru 0 0 0 0 0 90 0 0 0 0
Total 51 43 22 116 49 668 458 600 2001 12006

Source Kenya Red Cross as at 12th Sept 2012

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kenya Red Cross
  2. ^ a b "Dozens killed in Kenya clashes". Al Jazeera. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Kenya Red Cross
  4. ^ Weiss, Taya. Guns in the Borderlands. pp. 89–93. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "Tana River District: a showcase of conflict over natural resources". Practical Action. September 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Over 50 Kenyans hacked, burned to death: police". AFP. Yahoo News. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c Hanrahan, Mark (22 August 2012). "Kenya Killings: Clashes In Tana River District Kill At Least 48 People". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "Kenya clashes kill at least 48 in Coast Province". BBC. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Leposo, Lillian (22 August 2012). "52 killed in Kenya territory clash, officials say". CNN. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  10. ^ Dixon, Robyn (22 August 2012). "In Kenya, ethnic clash over land kills 52". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Over 50 Kenyans hacked, burned to death: police". AFP. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  12. ^ 12 Kenyans killed in fresh Tana River violence http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2012/09/11-kenyans-killed-in-fresh-tana-river-violence/
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Police officers among 38 killed in Tana River
  15. ^ Three killed in fresh Tana violence
  16. ^ Standard Media. GSU officers off to clash torn Tana River
  17. ^ Daily Nation. MP claims GSU officers razed village in Tana
  18. ^ Capital News. No bodies found in suspected mass grave in Kenya
  19. ^ http://www.nation.co.ke/News/-/1056/1648922/-/x8wukhz/-/index.html
  20. ^ "Kenya: Tana River clashes leave dozens dead". BBC News. 21 December 2012. 
  21. ^ http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/?articleID=2000073545&story_title=Kenya-Tana-villagers-burn-up-slain-attackers%E2%80%99-bodies
  22. ^ http://www.nation.co.ke/News/Eleven-more-killed-in-Tana-Delta-clashes/-/1056/1661280/-/gxqe8j/-/index.html
  23. ^ http://www.kbc.co.ke/news.asp?nid=79700
  24. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/01/201311082028453451.html
  25. ^ http://www.nation.co.ke/News/UN-condemns-inhumane-Tana-violence-/-/1056/1662478/-/9gqc6r/-/index.html
  26. ^ Daily Nation. Minister Godhana arrested over Tana clashes
  27. ^ Daily Nation. House passes motion to deploy KDF to Tana Delta
  28. ^ http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2012/09/kibaki-appoints-commission-to-probe-tana-clashes/
  29. ^ http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/?articleID=2000067427&story_title=tana-inquiry-team-commences-task
  30. ^ http://www.nation.co.ke/News/I-had-no-role-in-Tana-clashes-says-minister-/-/1056/1642940/-/82ynsf/-/index.html