2012 Chicago summit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 2012 Chicago Summit)
Jump to: navigation, search
2012 Chicago Summit
NATO Summit Chicago 2012
Logo of the 2012 Chicago Summit
Host country United States
Date 20–21 May 2012
Venue(s) McCormick Place
Cities Chicago
Website www.chicagonato.org

The 2012 Chicago Summit was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held in Chicago, Illinois, on 20 and 21 May 2012. This is the first time ever that a NATO summit has been held in the United States outside of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C.[1] The event was originally scheduled to coincide and be held after the 2012 G8 summit in Chicago as well, but the G8 summit was later rescheduled to be held at Camp David.[2][3]

Agenda[edit]

The previous summit was the 2010 summit in Lisbon, Portugal. The summit in Chicago discussed the impact of recent events since then, such as the Arab Spring, Libyan civil war, as well as the global financial crisis, and transition for NATO forces in Afghanistan, and a missile shield system for Europe[4] to seek routes out.[5]

Middle East[edit]

NATO is planning to craft specific resolutions concerning the Middle East. Issues to address include the organization's continuing military support of active insurrections in the region, as well conflict with Iran. The group is going to make plans for defending certain areas, such as the Strait of Hormuz.[6]

Nuclear weapons[edit]

NATO will also discuss missile defense and nuclear deterrence more generally.

NATO's secretary general Rasmussen has confirmed plans to proceed with ballistic missile defense, a system that would alter the longstanding balance of mutually assured destruction between the United States and Russia, but yet protect NATO-member nations from missile attacks from rogue nations such as Iran or North Korea. Many years prior, NATO member the United States had informed Russia on several occasions that if Russia didn't limit its cooperation with the Iranian missile program, the defense shield would be necessary. Rasmussen announced that a successful test had been conducted in April 2012 of the missile defense system, and that further details about existing "interim capability" would be announced at the Chicago summit.[7][8][9] This position has been changed since the Lisbon Summit, during which NATO powers ordered the creation of a "Deterrence and Defense Posture Review" (DDPR)—a document expected to express and discuss conflicts some of the wide-ranging conflicts on the topic within NATO.

The United States is also planning to upgrade 180 tactical nuclear weapons currently positioned in Europe. The upgrade would improve guidance systems on the missiles, rendering them able to hit targets more precisely.[10]

Russia has requested that the NATO countries declare "adherence to the rules of international law" in the nuclear policy they agree upon at the Chicago summit.[11] Russia has also announced that it may retaliate against the deployment of NATO's defense system by using Iskander theater ballistic missile weapons[12] or by striking weapons sites in Europe, although experts believe Russia will not risk war with the United States and its NATO allies by attacking such targets.[13]

Russia[edit]

Russia worries that its own nuclear arsenal could be rendered useless with the full activation of a missile shield by the United States. Russia's nuclear stockpile is the one remaining aspect it has that makes it a major player in global affairs. But the United States insists that a defense system is necessary to mitigate any threat from Iran.[14] In previous years, Russia had been invited on several occasions to work with NATO on defense systems, but declined. The organization also plans to review its collective relationship to Russia. Indeed, NATO has stated that Russia's attendance at the Chicago event will depend upon accession to a system of European missile defense.

Afghanistan war[edit]

NATO command in Kabul

The Afghanistan issue in particular faces a public relations timeline due to a declaration by Barack Obama that NATO activities in Afghanistan would be concluded by 2014,[15] but 28-nation military bloc was clearly divided, as the new French President, Francois Hollande, indicated that he will pull out all 3,400 French troops at the end of 2012 or 2 years ahead of NATO's timetable.[16]

Main topics and results[edit]

Afghanistan war[edit]

The leaders of the NATO-member countries endorsed on 21 May 2012 an exit strategy for the War in Afghanistan and declared their long-term commitment to Afghanistan.[17][18][19] The NATO-led ISAF Forces will hand over command of all combat missions to Afghan forces by the middle of 2013,[16][20] while shifting at the same time from combat to a support role of advising, training and assisting the Afghan security forces[18][21] and then withdraw most of the 130,000 foreign troops by the end of December 2014.[16] A new and different NATO mission will then advise, train and assist the Afghan security forces including the Afghan Special Operations Forces.[21][22][23] The pace of withdrawal will determined by each country individually, but coordinated with coalition planners.[18] According to an Western official nations with troops in Afghanistan pledged roughly $1 billion to fund Afghan security forces after 2014, while the majority of the funding will come from the United States.[24] This was conformed by a report of The Los Angeles Times which stated that according to British Prime Minister David Cameron Australia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Estonia and others had made pledges that added "almost" $1 billion.[25] However, these figures changed later as in June 2012 news media like The Globe and Mail,[26] The Herald Sun,[27] Al Jazeera English,[28] The Washington Post,[29] Shanghai Daily[30] and BBC News Online[31] published that at the NATO Chicago summit an annual aid of 4.1 billion U.S. dollars was pledged to pay for ongoing training, equipment and financial support for Afghanistan's security forces after 2014.

Smart Defense[edit]

As consequence of shrinking defense budgets the NATO leaders agreed to share the costs of weapons and equipment as part of a so-called "Smart Defense" initiative.[32][33] The NATO leaders approved 20 projects for this initiative. These projects cover the funding for remotely controlled robots used to clear roads of homemade bombs or mines, the creation of a pool of maritime patrol planes from a number of nations, the creation of a joint management of munitions for buying and storage of munitions, maintenance of armored vehicles, sharing of medical facilities, common management of fuel handling, cooperation in the use of surveillance aircraft with joint training for intelligence specialists and purchase of Global Hawk surveillance drones operated by NATO in the name of all its member states.[24][34][35][36][37] "Together, we will keep NATO capable of responding to the security challenges of tomorrow, because no country, no continent can deal with them alone," Secretary General of NATO Anders Fogh Rasmussen told the leaders ahead of the discussion about budget cuts. "We can find common solutions to common problems."[32] Rasmussen explained the reason behind the "Smart Defense" initiative is that the military must do more with less in a time of budget cuts due to NATO members need to save money in the time of the Great Recession.[32]

Anders Fogh Rasmussen's "Smart Defense" initiative, which advocates "pooling and sharing resources, setting better priorities and encouraging countries to specialize in things they are best at,”[38] was inspired after the remarks made by U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in June 2011, who stated that NATO faced "the real possibility [of] a dim, if not dismal future"[39] because of chronically underfunded defense apparatuses in Europe. Only four European countries—Great Britain, France, Albania, and Greece—have committed to the alliance's agreed benchmark of committing two percent of their GDP to defense.[40] The United States, which contributes three-quarters to NATO's operating budget, is experiencing severe budgetary problems while simultaneously re-balancing military commitments to the Pacific, further straining the Atlantic alliance. "Current projections show the U.S. defense budget shrinking by $487 billion in the decade to come, with another half trillion in cuts possible depending on the outcome of the highly partisan negotiations over future reductions to the federal deficit."[41]

Smart Defense is intended to make Europe more responsible for European security and the European periphery as the United States military withdraws from the continent. NATO's Libya operation may be a model for such engagement: “The United States will do what it must—playing roles and providing surge capabilities that only it can provide—and Europe will bear the rest of the burden for operations that are more in its own interests than those of the United States.”[41] Because Europe is not experiencing an existential threat like it did during the Cold War, the preponderance of U.S. assets for military campaigns that do not fall under Article 5 will diminish.

Skepticism of Smart Defense is plenty. Francois Heisburg, chairman of The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy says that governments typically choose "jobs in defense companies at home over [the] military logic" of pooling resources.[38] Former Ambassador to NATO and Professor at Harvard Kennedy School, R. Nicholas Burns recognizes the structural troubles facing NATO but is nonetheless optimistic, stating "Investment in an alliance that in large measure denationalizes defense, and contains or resolves old antagonism through family arguments around NATO's kitchen table, provides a remarkable rate of return."[42]

Missile defence[edit]

During the 2010 Lisbon summit NATO members agreed to establish a missile defense system that would have the capability of covering all member states in Europe, as well as the United States and Canada.[43] In Chicago NATO leaders declared that this system has reached interim capability.[32][36][44] Interim capability means that a basic command and control capability has been tested and installed at NATOs Headquarters Allied Air Command in Ramstein, Germany, while NATO Allies provide sensors and interceptors to connect to the system.[45] It also means that US ships with anti-missile interceptors in the Mediterranean Sea and a Turkey-based radar system been have put under NATO command in the German base.[32][46] "Our system will link together missile defence assets from different Allies – satellites, ships, radars and interceptors – under NATO command and control. It will allow us to defend against threats from outside the Euro-Atlantic area,” NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said.[33]

The NATO missile defense system is expected to have limited capability by 2015 and to be fully operational by 2018.[37] NATO longterm goal is to merge missile defence assets provided by individual Allies into a coherent defence system so that full coverage and protection for all NATO European populations, territory and forces against the threats posed by proliferation of ballistic missiles is ensured. This goal is expected to be realised sometime between the end of the 2010s and the beginning of the 2020s.[45] To this end Spain will host four US Aegis warships at its port in Rota while Poland and Romania have agreed to host US land-based SM-3 missiles in the coming years.[46]

Protests[edit]

Planners expect the NATO summit to draw protests from the Occupy movement, as well as the anti-globalization movement, and many protesters from around the world.[47] Some parochial schools -only those near the downtown meeting site- had considered closing for the event. However, no Chicago Public Schools closed for the event -not even those near the downtown site.[48]

Citizen journalism[edit]

A range of groups were in the city for an organize citizen journalism centers to provide independent media coverage of the summit.

Alderman Rick Munoz has proposed legislation for the City Council that prohibits police from interfering with online media and cell phones during the event.[49] However, that legislation was not passed.

Security[edit]

Police Forces[edit]

Chicago mounted police, 2010

The summit has been designated a National Special Security Event (NSSE) by the Department of Homeland Security. Final authority over law enforcement thus belongs to the Secret Service of the United States.[50] The NSSE steering committee, which also includes representatives from the Chicago Police Department and has 24 subcommittees, began meeting in October 2011.[51]

Local security forces are being trained by an Illinois company, Controlled F.O.R.C.E., which specializes in subduing crowds if necessary.[52] Police are being trained in "Mechanical Advantage Control Holds," as well as the use of tasers.[53]

The city has signed a $193,461 contract for the procurement of new face shields that fit over gas masks; the shields are intended to protect police officers from liquids.[54][55] The Chicago Police Department will also prepare its mounted unit with riot gear: armor for horses along with "crowd control training."[56]

New Chicago rules[edit]

Chicago mayor, Rahm Emanuel, has proposed and passed new ordinances. These ordinances will be permanent, remaining in effect after the summits are over.[57][58] The new measures include:

  • Authorization for the Mayor to purchase and deploy surveillance cameras throughout the city.[59][60]
  • Restrictions on public activity, including amplified sound and morning gatherings.[61]
  • Restrictions on parades, including the requirement to purchase an insurance policy worth $1 million and to register every sign or banner that will be held by more than one person.[62]
  • Allow the Chicago Police Superintendent to deputize many different types of law enforcement personnel other than the Chicago Police Department if this becomes necessary.[60]

These new ordinances drew protests from the ACLU, Amnesty International, and the Occupy Movement (particularly Occupy Chicago).[58] Some local business owners have asked for more retail security during the summit.[63]

HR 347[edit]

HR 347, a federal law, also known as the Federal Restricted Buildings and Grounds Improvement Act, was also modified at this time —essentially a Washington, DC update on an already existing law. The law already protected those under the Secret Service's protection, except in Washington, DC where these protections fell under the local law for trespassing. The Secret Service requested the change because it was not an actual federal violation to jump the White House fence and run across the lawn, but now the modification makes it a federal violation.[64] Mara Verheyden-Hilliard, executive director of the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund, contends the modification can somehow be used against protesters and has argued that this law only plays a small part in a larger campaign against free speech.[65]

Summit costs[edit]

The city of Chicago presented on 29 June 2012 a bill for nearly $15.6 million in expenses for the May NATO summit – in part to one of its own agencies – and said more bills are coming. In a series of letters, the city formally requested that units of the state and federal governments and World Business Chicago, the public/private group that served as the summit host committee, reimburse it for $15,578,267.33 in expenses. Almost all of that was for the police department, which wracked up millions of dollars in overtime, training and related costs. The city seeks payment of $14.6 million for police services. The remainder of the bill, a little less than $1 million, is for fire department services.[66][67] Sarah Hamilton, Mayor Rahm Emanuel's communications director, described the bill as "our first reimbursement request," with more to come. "We will make others and plan to have all reimbursements submitted within the month," she said in an email, but added that the 29 June bill represent most of what eventually will be requested.[66]

Leaders in attendance[edit]

Member states[edit]

  • Albania Albania – Prime Minister Sali Berisha
  • Belgium Belgium – Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo
  • Bulgaria Bulgaria – President Rosen Plevneliev
  • Canada Canada – Prime Minister Stephen Harper
  • Croatia Croatia – Prime Minister Zoran Milanović
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic – President Vaclav Klaus
  • Denmark Denmark – Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt
  • Estonia Estonia – Prime Minister Andrus Ansip
  • France France – President François Hollande
  • Germany Germany – Chancellor Angela Merkel
  • Greece Greece – Minister of Foreign Affairs Petros Molyviatis
  • Hungary Hungary – Prime Minister Viktor Orbán
  • Iceland Iceland – Prime Minister Johanna Sigurdardottir
  • Italy Italy – Prime Minister Mario Monti
  • Latvia Latvia – President Andris Bērziņš
  • Lithuania Lithuania – President Dalia Grybauskaite
  • Luxembourg Luxembourg – Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker
  • Netherlands Netherlands – Prime Minister Mark Rutte
  • Norway Norway – Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg
  • Poland Poland – President Bronislaw Komorowski
  • Portugal Portugal – Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho
  • Romania Romania – President Traian Basescu
  • Slovakia Slovakia – President Ivan Gasparovic
  • Slovenia Slovenia – Prime Minister Janez Jansa
  • Spain Spain – Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy
  • Turkey Turkey – President Abdullah Gul
  • United Kingdom United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron
  • United States United States – President Barack Obama
  • NATO NATO – Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen

Non-member states & organisations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sweet, Lynn (12 December 2011). "NATO, G8 meetings to be hosted in McCormick Place". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  2. ^ Mack, Kristen et al. "Chicago to host NATO, G-8 next year," Chicago Tribune (US). 22 June 2011; "Administration official: Obama to bring NATO, G8 summits in hometown of Chicago in 2012," Washington Post (US). 22 June 2011; retrieved 22 June 2011
  3. ^ Rushe, Dominic (5 March 2012). "G8 summit moved from Chicago to Camp David". The Guardian (London). 
  4. ^ Benitez, Jorge (9 November 2011). ""A crucial summit at a crucial time:" Obama and Rasmussen discuss agenda for upcoming NATO summit". NATOSource. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  5. ^ NATO to endorse Afghan exit plan, seeks routes out
  6. ^ Dodds, Paisley (23 January 2012). "NATO official previews Chicago summit". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  7. ^ "NATO plans to continue building missile shield". B92. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  8. ^ Rasmussen, Anders Fogh (14 May 2012). "NATO's First Step on Missile Defense". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  9. ^ "Nato chief determined to move ahead with missile shield". AFP. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  10. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (10 May 2012). "Nato plans to upgrade nuclear weapons 'expensive and unnecessary'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Shestakov, Yevgeny (25 April 2012). "NATO has started an arm race". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  12. ^ "Russia Repeats Iskander Deployment Threat". RIA Novosti. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  13. ^ Waterman, Shaun (3 May 2012). "Russia threatens to strike NATO missile defense sites". Washington Times. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  14. ^ AFP (26 January 2012). "NATO sees little progress in missile talks with Russia". Space Daily. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  15. ^ "NATO Secretary General announces Chicago summit dates". NATO. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c "NATO sets "irreversible" but risky course to end Afghan war". Reuters. Reuters. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  17. ^ Helene Cooper and Matthew Rosenberg (21 May 2012). "NATO Agrees on Afghan Security Transition in 2013". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c Scott Wilson and Karen DeYoung (21 May 2012). "NATO leaders agree on framework to wind down Afghan mission". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  19. ^ "Nato endorses Afghanistan withdrawal timetable". BBC News US & Canada. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "Nato chief optimistic Pakistan will reopen Afghan route". BBC News US & Canada. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "Chicago NATO Summit 2012 Declaration". NATO. Defence Talk – Global Defense, Aerospace & Military Portal. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Elise Labott and Mike Mount (22 May 2012). "NATO accepts Obama timetable to end war in Afghanistan by 2014". CNN. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  23. ^ "NATO leaders agree to Afghan exit strategy". Al Jazeera English. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  24. ^ a b "NATO allies focus on ending unpopular Afghan war". Agence France-Presse. Defence Talk- Global Defense, Aerospace and Military Portal. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  25. ^ David S. Cloud and Kathleen Hennessey (21 May 2012). "NATO summit: Obama's Pakistan gamble falls flat". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  26. ^ Talmadge, Eric (7 July 2012). "Donors pledge $16-billion in development aid for Afghanistan". The Associated Press. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  27. ^ "Tokyo hosts donors for Afghanistan". Herald Sun. 7 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  28. ^ "Donor nations pledge $16bn to Afghanistan". Al Jazeera English. 8 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  29. ^ Karen DeYoung and Joshua Partlow (7 July 2012). "Corruption in Afghanistan still a problem as international donors meet". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  30. ^ "Afghans show mixed attitudes towards Tokyo conference". Shanghai Daily. 7 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  31. ^ "Afghanistan aid: Donors pledge $16bn at Tokyo meeting". BBC News Asia. 7 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  32. ^ a b c d e "NATO declares first stage of missile shield operational". Deutsche Welle. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  33. ^ a b "NATO Declares Missile Defense System Operational". MISSILETHREAT.com – A project of the Claremont Institute. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  34. ^ Shanker, Tom (19 May 2012). "United States to Unveil Plans to Bolster NATO Alliance". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  35. ^ "NATO moves to share costs of military hardware". Agence France-Presse. Defence Talk- Global Defense, Aerospace and Military Portal. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  36. ^ a b "NATO announces progress in missile shield, smart defense". Xinhua. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  37. ^ a b Karen DeYoung and Scott Wilson (20 May 2012). "As Obama opens NATO summit in Chicago, focus is on winding down Afghanistan war". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  38. ^ a b "NATO's sea of troubles". The Economist. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  39. ^ "Forward". Smart Defense and the Future of NATO: v. March 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  40. ^ Braml, Josef (March 2012). "NATO's Inward Outlook: Global Burden Shifting". Smart Defense and the Future of NATO: 18. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  41. ^ a b Pavel, Barry and Jeff Lightfoot (March 2012). "The Transatlantic Bargain after Gates". Smart Defense and the Future of NATO: 67. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  42. ^ Burns, Nicholas (17 May 2012). "NATO: When I'm Sixty-Four". New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  43. ^ "NATO Members Back Joint Missile Defense System". NPR. 19 November 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  44. ^ "Missile defense shield in place to protect Europe, NATO chief says". CNN Wire Staff. CNN. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  45. ^ a b "NATO Declares Interim Missile Defence Capability". NATO. Defence Talk – Global Defense, Aerospace and Military Portal. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  46. ^ a b "NATO decides to activate missile shield despite Russian threats". Agence France-Presse. The Raw Story. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  47. ^ Lisa Balde; Phil Rogers (26 January 2012). "Adbusters Wants 50,000 G8/NATO Protesters in Chicago". NBC. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  48. ^ Rogers, Phil (17 February 2012). "Schools Consider Closing for G8/NATO". NBCChicago. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  49. ^ Johnson, Steven Ross (15 February 2012). "Ald. Munoz' Plan To Protect Free Speech During G8, NATO Summits". Progress Illinois. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  50. ^ "CITY AND SISTER AGENCIES BEGIN TO ISSUE PERMITS FOR NATO/G8-RELATED EVENT". Office of the Mayor, City of Chicago. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  51. ^ "Police, Protesters Already Planning For G8/NATO Summits in May". CBS Chicago. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  52. ^ Padilla, Anita (3 February 2012). "Local Security Forces Get Special Training in Advance of G8, NATO Summits". My Fox Chicago. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  53. ^ "Instructor Development Training at 2012 NAFTO Conference". Controlled FORCE. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  54. ^ Spielman, Fran (14 February 2012). "City buys face shields to protect cops from G-8 protesters". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  55. ^ Chicago Police Department. "Emergency Request for SEER Face Shields". Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  56. ^ Spielman, Fran (21 February 2012). "Chicago Police horses will also get riot gear for NATO/G-8 summits". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  57. ^ Hal Dardick; Kristen Mack (3 January 2012). "Emanuel admits he erred on describing G8, NATO parade rules as temporary". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  58. ^ a b Milner, Conan (16 January 2012). "Chicago to Decide on New Rules for Protesters". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  59. ^ "ACLU of Illinois continues opposition to amended ordinances on demonstration rules, urges City Council to expand oversight of surveillance cameras". ACLU. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  60. ^ a b Harcourt, Bernard (19 January 2012). "Outlawing dissent: Rahm Emanuel's new regime". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  61. ^ Kristen Mack; Hal Dardick (18 January 2012). "Chicago aldermen approve Emanuel's G-8, NATO protest crackdown". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  62. ^ Kilkenny, Allison (26 January 2012). "Adbusters Calls for 50,000 Protesters to Meet at Chicago's G8". In These Times. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  63. ^ Fran, Spielman (25 January 2012). "Business leader asks for more retail security during NATO and G-8 summits". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  64. ^ Gabbatt, Adam (15 May 2012). "Nato summit in Chicago and G8 at Camp David – live build-up Tuesday 15 May". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  65. ^ Lennard, Natasha (7 March 2012). "Inside that new anti-Occupy bill". Salon.com. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  66. ^ a b Hinz, Greg (29 June 2012). "City presents first bill for NATO costs: $15.6 million". Chicago Business. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  67. ^ David Heinzmann and Jeff Coen (30 June 2012). "Chicago police racked up $15M in overtime costs for NATO work". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  68. ^ "Leaders in Attendance". chicagonato.org. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 

External links[edit]