2012 in paleontology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
            List of years in paleontology           
... 2002 . 2003 . 2004 . 2005 . 2006 . 2007 . 2008 ...
2009 2010 2011 -2012- 2013 2014 2015
... 2016 . 2017 . 2018 . 2019 . 2020 . 2021 . 2022 ...
   In science: 2009 2010 2011 -2012- 2013 2014 2015     
Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...

Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2012.

Note: In 2012 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature was amended, with new regulations allowing the publication of new names and nomenclatural acts in zoology after 2011 in works "produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures (...) widely accessible electronic copies with fixed content and layout", provided that the work is registered in ZooBank before it is published, the work itself states the date of publication with evidence that registration has occurred, and the ZooBank registration states both the name of an electronic archive intended to preserve the work and the ISSN or ISBN associated with the work.[2][3] New scientific names appearing in electronic works are not required to be registered in ZooBank, only the works themselves are.[2] Works containing descriptions of some of the taxa listed below weren't printed on paper in 2012; however, the taxa that were described in works which were registered in ZooBank in 2012 are listed as valid.

Plants[edit]

Gymnosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Calocedrus huashanensis[4]

Sp. nov

Valid

Shi, Zhou, & Xie

Oligocene

Ningming Formation

 China

An extinct species in the modern genus Calocedrus

Ginkgo cranei[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhou, Quan, & Liu

upper Paleocene

Sentinel Butte Formation, North Dakota

 USA

An extinct species in the modern genus Ginkgo

Duartenia araripensis[6]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mohr et al.

Early Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Schenkeriphyllum glanduliferum[7]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mohr, Coiffard & Bernardes-de-Oliveira

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Fossil magnolialean angiosperm.

Arthropods[edit]

The following is a summary of the arthopods described in 2012

  • 41 arachnids
  • 105 crustaceans
  • 362 insects
  • 5 merostomatans
  • 51 trilobites
  • 9 other arthropods

Bryozoans[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Admirandopora[8]

Nom. nov.

Valid

Ariunchimeg

Lower Carboniferous

 Mongolia

A replacement name for the genus Admiranda Ariunchimeg, 1996.

Antoniettella[9]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino & Taylor

Early or middle Miocene

 Indonesia

A cribrimorph ascophoran. The type species is Antoniettella exigua.

Argentinodictya[10]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ernst & Carrera

Late Ordovician (Sandbian)

 Argentina

A cryptostome bryozoan, a member of Ptilodictyina. The type species is Argentinodictya lenticulata.

Celleporina medoborensis[11]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hara & Jasionowski

Miocene (early Sarmatian)

 Ukraine

A celleporid cheilostome bryozoan, a species of Celleporina.

Chasmatopora rossae[10]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ernst & Carrera

Late Ordovician (Sandbian)

 Argentina

A phyloporinine, a species of Chasmatopora.

Lunostoma[12]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ernst, Taylor, Bohatý & Wyse Jackson

Middle Devonian

 Germany

A cryptostome bryozoan. The type species is Lunostoma pulchra.

Parvohallopora parvula[10]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ernst & Carrera

Late Ordovician (Sandbian)

 Argentina

A trepostome bryozoan, a species of Parvohallopora.

Ptilodictya intermedia[10]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ernst & Carrera

Late Ordovician (Sandbian)

 Argentina

A cryptostome bryozoan, a species of Ptilodictya.

Rorypora[13]

Gen. et comb. nov.

Valid

Taylor

Jurassic

  Switzerland

A new genus for "Diastopora" retiformis.

Trigonodictya parvula[10]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ernst & Carrera

Late Ordovician (Sandbian)

 Argentina

A cryptostome bryozoan, a species of Trigonodictya.

Brachiopods[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Amydroptychus markowitzi[14]

sp nov

Valid

Feldman et al.

Callovian

Mughanniyya Formation

 Jordan

A tetrarhynchiid rhynchonellide, a species of Amydroptychus.

Bolilaspirifer riccardii[15]

Sp. nov

Valid

Manceñido in Damborenea & Manceñido

Late Triassic

 Argentina

A lepismatinid brachiopod, a species of Bolilaspirifer.

Burrirhynchia angustisinuata[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Burrirhynchia latimarginata[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Burrirhynchia oweni[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Burrirhynchia subgrasiana[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Cincinnetina[17]

Gen, sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Jin

Late Ordovician

 United States

A dalmanellid brachiopod, with C. multisecta, C. meeki, C. minnesotensis

Crurithyris tazawai[18]

sp nov

Valid

He et al..

Late Permian (Changhsingian)

 China

An ambocoeliid brachiopod, a species of Crurithyris.

Cyclothyris aliformis[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Cyclothyris alikentica[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Cyclothyris burgemakensis[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Cyclothyris dagestanica[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Cyclothyris tenuicostata[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Cyclothyris zudakharica[16]

sp nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Burrirhynchia.

Daghanirhynchia susanae[14]

Species

Valid

Feldman et al.

Callovian

Mughanniyya Formation

 Jordan

A tetrarhynchiid rhynchonellide, a species of Daghanirhynchia.

Eodmitria anauris[19]

sp nov

Valid

Oleneva

Late Devonian (middle Frasnian)

 Russia

A cyrtospiriferid spiriferid, a species of Eodmitria.

Gatosella[20]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Benedetto

Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian)

San Juan Formation

 Argentina

A plectambonitoid brachiopod. The type species is Gatosella muricata.

Gracianella (Sublepida) paulula[21]

sp nov

Valid

Baliński

Early Devonian

Khudykivtsi Beds

 Ukraine

An atrypinid brachiopod, a species of Gracianella.

Kuangshanotreta[22]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Early Cambrian

Heilinpu Formation

 China

An acrotretoid, a member of Lingulata. The type species is Kuangshanotreta malungensis.

Kudrjavzevina[16]

Gen. et 3 sp. nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide. Genus contains 3 species: K. ulluchaensis, K. regularis and K. fragilis.

Lamellaerhynchia latiovalis[16]

Sp. nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A praecyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Lamellaerhynchia.

Lobachevina[16]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A cyclothyridid rhynchonellide. Genus contains 2 new species: L. angusteinis and L. vagus.

Lynnica[23]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Madison

Ordovician

 Russia

A member of Strophomenida. The type species is Lynnica fragilis.

Plectodonta mariae pantherae[21]

Subsp nov

Valid

Baliński

Early Devonian

Khudykivtsi Beds

 Ukraine

A sowerbyellid brachiopod, a subspecies of Plectodonta mariae.

Rotutaspirifer[19]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Oleneva

Late Devonian (middle Frasnian)

 Russia

A cyrtospiriferid spiriferid. The type species is Rotutaspirifer rotutus.

Sharovaella[24]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pakhnevich

Late Devonian (Famennian)

 Russia

A punctate rhynchonellide brachiopod. The type species is Sharovaella mirabilis.

Skenidioides tatyanae[21]

sp nov

Valid

Baliński

Early Devonian

Khudykivtsi Beds

 Ukraine

A skenidiid brachiopod, a species of Skenidioides.

Sulcirhynchia insolitus[16]

Sp. nov

Valid

Smirnova

Early Cretaceous

 Russia

A praecyclothyridid rhynchonellide, a species of Sulcirhynchia.

Molluscs[edit]

The following is a summary of the Molluscs described in 2012

  • 54 ammonites
  • 14 other cephalopods
  • 52 gastropods
  • 15 other molluscs

Echinoderms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anatifopsis fillmorensis[25]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sumrall et al.

Early Ordovician

 United States

A mitrate, a species of Anatifopsis.

Anatifopsis ninemilensis[25]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sumrall et al.

Early Ordovician

McKelligon Canyon Formation
Ninemile Shale

 United States

A mitrate, a species of Anatifopsis.

Andymetra[26]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A comatulid crinoid. The type species is Andymetra galei.

Aorocrinus meyeri[27]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ausich & Roeser

Late Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A camerate crinoid, a species of Aorocrinus.

Aphelecrinus gracilis[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kammer & Roeser

Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A cladid crinoid, a species of Aphelecrinus.

Apiocrinites negevensis[29]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ausich & Wilson

Middle Jurassic (Callovian)

Matmor Formation

 Israel

An apiocrinitid crinoid, a species of Apiocrinites.

Aryballocrinus martini[27]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ausich & Roeser

Late Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A camerate crinoid, a species of Aryballocrinus.

Atelestocrinus meszarosi[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kammer & Roeser

Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A cladid crinoid, a species of Atelestocrinus.

Brissopsis (Kleinia) riccardii[30]

Sp. nov

Valid

Parma

Eocene to Oligocene or early Miocene

 Argentina

A brissopsid echinoid, a species of Brissopsis.

Ctenoimbricata[31]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Zamora, Rahman & Smith

Cambrian

 Spain

A stem group echinoderm. The type species is Ctenoimbricata spinosa.

Cuyahogacrinus[28]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kammer & Roeser

Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A cladid crinoid. The type species is Cuyahogacrinus lodiensis.

Cyathocrinites simplex[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kammer & Roeser

Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A cladid crinoid, a species of Cyathocrinites.

Cyrtocrinus praenutans[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A cyrtocrinid crinoid, a species of Cyrtocrinus.

Diploblastus fadigai[32]

Sp. nov

Valid

Atwood & Sumrall

Carboniferous (Mississippian)

Glen Dean Formation

 United States

A blastoid, a species of Diploblastus.

Drepanocystis[25]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sumrall et al.

Early Ordovician

Wah Wah Limestone

 USA

A possible solute. The type species is Drepanocystis dubius.

Faorina maullui[33]

Sp. nov

Valid

Stara & Borghi

Early Miocene

 Italy

A pericosmid sea urchin, a species of Faorina.

Goniocrinus sceletus[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kammer & Roeser

Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A cladid crinoid, a species of Goniocrinus.

Heckerocrinus[34]

Nom nov.

Valid

Doweld

Ordovician

A replacement name for the crinoid genus Bockia Hecker 1940.

Leadagmara[35]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[36]

Thuy et al.

Late Triassic (early Carnian)

 Japan

An ophiacanthid brittle star. The type species is Leadagmara gracilispina.

Lebetocrinus ohioensis[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kammer & Roeser

Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A cladid crinoid, a species of Lebetocrinus.

Neotaxocrinus[37]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mirantsev

Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian)

 Russia

A taxocrinid crinoid. The type species is Neotaxocrinus arendti.

Palaeocomaster messingi[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A comatulid crinoid, a species of Palaeocomaster.

Pentacrinites ausichi[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Late Bajocian or early Bathonian

 France

A species of Pentacrinites.

Pentremites fredericki[32]

Sp. nov

Valid

Atwood & Sumrall

Carboniferous (Mississippian)

Glen Dean Formation

 United States

A blastoid, a species of Pentremites.

Pentremites meganae[32]

Sp. nov

Valid

Atwood & Sumrall

Carboniferous (Mississippian)

Glen Dean Formation

 United States

A blastoid, a species of Pentremites.

Phyllocrinus voultensis[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A cyrtocrinid crinoid, a species of Phyllocrinus.

Phymosoma ravni[38]

Sp nov.

Valid

Schlüter et al.

Late Cretaceous

Western Europe and Middle East

A phymosomatoid sea urchin, a species of Phymosoma.

Platycrinites burkei[27]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ausich & Roeser

Late Kinderhookian

Cuyahoga Formation

 United States

A camerate crinoid, a species of Platycrinites sensu lato.

Praetetracrinus bathonicus[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A cyrtocrinid crinoid, a species of Praetetracrinus.

Pygolampas[39]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Saucède, Dudicourt & Courville

Early Cretaceous (Early Hauterivian)

 France

A sea urchin. The type species is Pygolampas edita.

Salvaster[39]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Saucède, Dudicourt & Courville

Early Cretaceous (Early Hauterivian)

 France

A sea urchin. The type species is Salvaster roberti.

Scutellacrinus[26]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Late Bajocian or early Bathonian

 France

A cyrtocrinid crinoid. The type species is Scutellacrinus tenuis.

Segmentocolumnus (col.) hanshessi[40]

Sp. nov

Valid

Donovan et al.

Middle Ordovician (latest Darriwilian)

 China

Probably a stem-group cladid crinoid, possibly a dendrocrinid; a species of Segmentocolumnus.

Singillatimetra[26]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A comatulid crinoid. The type species is Singillatimetra inordinata.

Solanocrinites voultensis[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess

Early Bathonian

 France

A comatulid crinoid, a species of Solanocrinites.

Thylechinus (Thylechinus) sinaiensis[41]

Sp. nov

Valid

Abdelhamid & Azab

Turonian

 Egypt

A phymosomatid echinoid, a species of Thylechinus.

Toxaster dakhlensis[41]

Sp. nov

Valid

Abdelhamid & Azab

Turonian

 Egypt

A toxasterid echinoid, a species of Thylechinus.

Yanjiahella[42]

Gen. et 3 sp. nov

Valid

Guo et al.

Early Cambrian

Yanjiahe Formation

 China

An animal of uncertain phylogenetic position, a possible relative of echinoderms. Genus contains Yanjiahella ancarpa (the type species), Y. monocarpa and Y. biscarpa.

Ascidians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Burykhia[43]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Fedonkin et al.

Vendian

Verkhovka Formation or Ust-Pinega Formation

 Russia

An ausiid, a possible ascidian, Its type species is Burykhia hunti.

Conodonts[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carnepigondolella angulata[44]

Sp nov

Valid

Mazza, Cau & Rigo

Late Triassic

 Italy

A species of Carnepigondolella.

Carnepigondolella gulloae[45]

Sp nov

Valid

Mazza, Rigo & Gullo

Late Triassic

 Italy

A species of Carnepigondolella.

Carnepigondolella tuvalica[45]

Sp nov

Valid

Mazza, Rigo & Gullo

Late Triassic

 Italy

A species of Carnepigondolella.

Caudicriodus schoenlaubi[46]

Sp nov

Valid

Drygant & Szaniawski

Early Devonian (middle to late Lochkovian)

Chortkiv Formation

 Ukraine

An icriodontid, a species of Caudicriodus.

Epigondolella heinzi[44]

Sp nov

Valid

Mazza, Cau & Rigo

Late Triassic

 Italy

A species of Epigondolella.

Epigondolella miettoi[44]

Sp nov

Valid

Mazza, Cau & Rigo

Late Triassic

 Italy

A species of Epigondolella.

Muellerina[47]

Gen. et sp. nov

Junior homonym

Bardashev & Bardasheva

Middle Devonian (Givetian)

 Tajikistan

The type species is Muellerina idrisovi. The generic name turned out to be preoccupied by Muellerina Bassiouni (1965); Bardashev & Bardasheva (2013) subsequently renamed the conodont genus Muellerilepis.[48]

Nealeodus[49]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Stouge

Middle Ordovician

 Canada

A new genus for "Lenodus" martinpointensis (Johnston and Barnes, 2000).

Norigondolella trinacriae[44]

Sp nov

Valid

Mazza, Cau & Rigo

Late Triassic

 Italy

A species of Norigondolella.

Pandorinellina? parva[46]

Sp nov

Valid

Drygant & Szaniawski

Early Devonian (late Lochkovian or Pragian)

Ivanye Formation

 Ukraine

A spathognathodontid, possibly a species of Pandorinellina.

Periodon hankensis[49]

Sp nov

Valid

Stouge

Middle Ordovician

 Canada

A species of Periodon.

Spinodus wardi[49]

Sp nov

Valid

Stouge

Middle Ordovician

 Canada

A species of Spinodus.

Fishes[edit]

During 2012, 81 new species of fish were described.

Amphibians[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A study of the braincase of Eocaecilia micropodia and a phylogenetic analysis of non-amniote tetrapods is published by Hillary C. Maddin, Farish A. Jenkins Jr and Jason S. Anderson (2012).[50]
  • A study of anatomy and relationships of Solenodonsaurus janenschi is published by Marylène Danto, Florian Witzmann and Johannes Müller (2012).[51]
  • A study of limb joint mobility of Ichthyostega is published by Stephanie E. Pierce, Jennifer A. Clack and John R. Hutchinson (2012).[52]

New taxa[edit]

Newly named basal tetrapods[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ymeria[53]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Clack, Ahlberg, Blom & Finney

Famennian

Celsius Bjerg Group

 Greenland

A stem tetrapod closely related to Ichthyostega.

Newly named temnospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Arachana[54]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Piñeiro, Ramos & Marsicano

? Late Permian

Buena Vista Formation

 Uruguay

A rhinesuchid-like stereospondyl.

Benthosuchus gusevae[55]

Sp. nov

Valid

Novikov

Early Triassic

Kamennyi Yar Formation

 Russia

A trematosauroid.

Cacops woehri[56]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fröbisch & Reisz

Leonardian

 USA

A dissorophid.

Microposaurus averyi[57]

Sp nov

Valid

Warren

Anisian

Rouse Hill Siltstone

 Australia

A trematosaurine stereospondyl, a species of Microposaurus.

Microposaurus averyi.

Nyranerpeton[58]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Werneburg

Late Carboniferous

 Czech Republic

A micromelerpetontid.[59] The type species is Nyranerpeton amilneri.[58]

Platyrhinops fritschi[58]

Sp. nov

Valid

Werneburg

Late Carboniferous

 Czech Republic

An amphibamid, a species of Platyrhinops.

Qantas[60]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Novikov

Early Triassic

Kamennyi Yar Formation

 Russia

A trematosauroid temnospondyl. The type species is Qantas samarensis.

Sclerocephalus stambergi[61]

Sp nov

Valid

Klembara & Steyer

Early Permian

Boskovice Basin

 Czech Republic

A stereospondylomorph, a species of Sclerocephalus.

Trematosuchoides[60]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Novikov

Triassic

Cynognathus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A trematosaurid temnospondyl. The type species is Trematosuchoides africanus.

Newly named lepospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Altenglanerpeton[62]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Glienke

Gzhelian or Asselian

Altenglan Formation

 Germany

A microsaur with an elongated body.

Newly named lissamphibians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Albionbatrachus oligocenicus[63]

Sp. nov

Valid[64]

Venczel, Codrea & Fărcaş

Early Oligocene

 Romania

A palaeobatrachid frog, a species of Albionbatrachus.

Bakonybatrachus[65]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Szentesi & Venczel

Santonian

Csehbánya Formation

 Hungary

A discoglossine discoglossid.

Beiyanerpeton[66]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gao & Shubin

Oxfordian

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

A salamandroid. The type species is Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis.

Piceoerpeton naylori[67]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gardner

Latest Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian), possibly also early Paleocene

 United States

A scapherpetontid salamander, a species of Piceoerpeton.

Seminobatrachus[68]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Skutschas & Gubin

late Paleocene - early Eocene

 Ukraine

A urodelan salamander

Uberabatrachus[69]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Báez et al.

Maastrichtian

Marília Formation

 Brazil

A neobatrachian, a possible member of Nobleobatrachia. The type species is Uberabatrachus carvalhoi.

Anapsids[edit]

Newly named anapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Belebey augustodunensis[70]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Falconnet

Latest Carboniferous (Gzhelian) or earliest Permian (Asselian)

 France

A bolosaurid, a species of Belebey.

Feeserpeton[71]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Macdougall & Reisz

Early Permian

 United States

A lanthanosuchoid. The type species is Feeserpeton oklahomensis.

Lasasaurus[72]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Falconnet et al.

Lower Triassic

Middle Sakamena Formation

 Madagascar

A procolophonid. The type species is Lasasaurus beltanae.

Turtles[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A large phylogenetic analysis of basal turtles is published by Jérémy Anquetin (2012).[73]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Allopleuron qazaqstanense[74]

Sp. nov

Valid

Karl, Gröning & Brauckmann

Eocene (Lutetian)

 Kazakhstan

A member of Cheloniidae, a species of Allopleuron.

Axestemys cerevisia[75]

sp nov

Valid

Vitek

Eocene

Bridger Formation

 United States

A trionychid, a species of Axestemys.

Axestemys montinsana[75]

sp nov

Valid

Vitek

Paleocene

Denver Formation
Fort Union Formation
Melville Formation

 United States

A trionychid, a species of Axestemys.

Ballerstedtia[76]

Gen. et comb. et sp. nov

Valid

Karl et al.

Early Cretaceous

 Germany
 United Kingdom

A member of Paracryptodira, a new genus for "Pleurosternon" typocardium Seeley (1869). Genus also contains a new species Ballerstedtia bueckebergensis.

Bashuchelys[77]

Gen. et comb. et sp. nov

Valid

Tong, Danilov, Ye, Ouyang & Peng

Middle Jurassic

Xiashaximiao Formation

 China

A bashuchelyid cryptodiran, a new genus for "Chengyuchelys" zigongensis (Ye, 1982). Genus also contains a new species Bashuchelys youngi.

Berruchelus[78]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García

Upper Paleocene

Western Europe

A paracryptodiran closely related to Compsemys. The type species is Berruchelus russelli.

Carbonemys[79]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cadena et al.

Late Palaeocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

A podocnemidid turtle. The type species is Carbonemys cofrinii.

Chuannanchelys[77]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Tong, Danilov, Ye, Ouyang & Peng

Middle Jurassic

Xiashaximiao Formation

 China

A bashuchelyid cryptodiran, a new genus for "Chengyuchelys" dashanpuensis (Fang, 1987).

Foxemys trabanti[80]

sp nov

Valid

Rabi, Tong & Botfalvai

Santonian

Csehbánya Formation

 Hungary

A bothremydid, a species of Foxemys.

Galvechelone[81]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García & Murelaga

Early Cretaceous

 Spain

A cryptodiran turtle. The type species is Galvechelone lopezmartinezae.

Guangdongemys[82]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Claude et al.

Late Eocene

 China

A geoemydid turtle. The type species is Guangdongemys pingi.

Hoyasemys[83]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García, Fuente & Ortega

Late Barremian

Calizas de La Huérguina Formation

 Spain

A basal eucryptodiran.

Iberoccitanemys[84]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Pérez-García, Ortega & Murelaga

Late Campanian to Maastrichtian

 France
 Spain

A bothremydid, a new genus for "Elochelys" convenarum (Laurent et al. 2002).

Kinosternon pojoaque[85]

Species

Valid

Bourque

Middle Miocene

 United States

A species of Kinosternon.

Kinosternon skullridgescens[86]

Species

Valid

Bourque

Early middle Miocene

Tesuque Formation

 United States

A species of Kinosternon.

Larachelus[87]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García & Murelaga

Early Cretaceous (late Hauterivian–early Barremian)

Pinilla de los Moros Formation

 Spain

A basal member of Pan-Cryptodira (the clade containing living cryptodirans and all extinct turtles that were more closely related to them than to pleurodirans). The type species is Larachelus morla.

Oertelia[88]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Karl, Biermann & Tichy

Early Cretaceous (early Aptian)

 Germany

A toxochelyid sea turtle, a new genus for "Toxochelys" gigantea Oertel (1914).

Peligrochelys[89]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[90]

Sterli & de la Fuente

Palaeocene

Salamanca Formation

 Argentina

A relative of meiolaniids. The type species is Peligrochelys walshae.

Polysternon isonae[91]

Species

Valid

Marmi et al..

Late Maastrichtian

 Spain

A bothremydid, a species of Polysternon.

Protoxinjiangchelys[77]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tong, Danilov, Ye, Ouyang & Peng

Middle Jurassic

Xiashaximiao Formation

 China

A xinjiangchelyid cryptodiran.

Puentemys[92]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Cadena, Bloch & Jaramillo

Paleocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

A bothremydid turtle. The type species is Puentemys mushaisaensis.

Rhinoclemmys panamaensis[93]

Sp nov

Valid

Cadena et al.

Miocene

Cucaracha Formation

 Panama

A geoemydid turtle, a species of Rhinoclemmys.

Staurotypus moschus[93]

Sp nov

Valid

Cadena et al.

Miocene

Cucaracha Formation

 Panama

A kinosternid turtle, a species of Staurotypus.

Tasbacka danica[94]

Sp. nov

Valid

Karl & Madsen

Early Eocene

Fur Formation

 Denmark

A member of Cheloniidae, a species of Tasbacka.

Terrapene parornata[95]

Sp nov

Valid

Joyce et al..

Miocene/Pliocene boundary

 United States

A box turtle.

Yuchelys[96]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tong et al.

Late Cretaceous

Gaogou Formation

 China

A nanhsiungchelyid cryptodiran. The type species is Yuchelys nanyangensis.

Ichthyopterygians[edit]

Newly named ichthyosaurs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acamptonectes[97]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Fischer et al..

Hauterivian–Cenomanian

Cambridge Greensand Formation

 United Kingdom

An ophthalmosaurid. Type species is Acamptonectes densus.

Skull roof of Acamptonectes densus.

Cryopterygius[98]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Druckenmiller et al.

Late Jurassic

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

An ophthalmosaurid. The type species is Cryopterygius kristiansenae.

Palvennia[98]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Druckenmiller et al.

Late Jurassic

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

An ophthalmosaurid. The type species is Palvennia hoybergeti.

Stenopterygius aaleniensis[99]

Sp. nov

Valid

Maxwell, Fernández & Schoch

Aalenian

 Germany

A species of Stenopterygius.

The holotype of Stenopterygius aaleniensis.

Temnodontosaurus azerguensis[100]

Sp. nov

Valid

Martin et al.

Middle Toarcian

 France

A species of Temnodontosaurus.

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named saurosphargids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Largocephalosaurus[101]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cheng, Chen, Zeng & Cai

Middle Triassic

Guanling Formation

 China

Initially thought to be an eosauropterygian sauropterygian and a relative of Wumengosaurus, pachypleurosaurs and nothosauroids,[101] but subsequently reinterpreted as member of Saurosphargidae (a non-sauropterygian diapsid, though related to sauropterygians), closely related to Saurosphargis and Sinosaurosphargis.[102] The type species is Largocephalosaurus polycarpon.

Newly named sauropterygians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Albertonectes[103]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kubo, Mitchell & Henderson

Upper Campanian

Bearpaw Formation

 Canada

An elasmosaurid. The type species is Albertonectes vanderveldei.

Albertonectes vanderveldei.

Anningasaura[104]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Vincent & Benson

Early Jurassic

 United Kingdom

A basal member of Plesiosauria. The type species is Anningasaura lymense.

Avalonnectes[105]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Benson, Evans & Druckenmiller

Early Jurassic, most likely earliest Hettangian.

Blue Lias Formation

 United Kingdom

A rhomaleosaurid. The type species is Avalonnectes arturi.

Avalonnectes.

Djupedalia[106]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Knutsen, Druckenmiller & Hurum

Late Jurassic

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

A long-necked plesiosaurian. The type species is Djupedalia engeri.

Dolichorhynchops tropicensis[107]

sp nov

Valid

McKean

Early Turonian

Tropic Shale

 United States

Third species of Dolichorhynchops.

Eoplesiosaurus[105]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Benson, Evans & Druckenmiller

Early Jurassic, most likely earliest Hettangian.

 United Kingdom

A basal plesiosauroid. The type species is Eoplesiosaurus antiquior.

Eoplesiosaurus.

Hastanectes[108]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid[109]

Benson et al.

Early Cretaceous

 United Kingdom

A new genus for "Cimoliasaurus" valdensis

Lusonectes[110]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Smith, Araújo & Mateus

Toarcian

São Gião Formation

 Portugal

A plesiosaurid plesiosaur.

Pliosaurus funkei[111]

Sp. nov

Valid

Knutsen, Druckenmiller & Hurum

Late Jurassic

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

A species of Pliosaurus.

Qianxisaurus[112]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cheng et al.

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Falang Formation

 China

An eosauropterygian, a relative of pachypleurosaurs and nothosauroids. The type species is Qianxisaurus chajiangensis.

Spitrasaurus[113]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov.

Valid

Knutsen, Druckenmiller & Hurum

Late Jurassic

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

A long-necked plesiosaurian. Genus contains two species: Spitrasaurus wensaasi and S. larseni.

Stratesaurus[105]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Benson, Evans & Druckenmiller

Early Jurassic, most likely earliest Hettangian.

Blue Lias Formation

 United Kingdom

A rhomaleosaurid. The type species is Stratesaurus taylori

Stratesaurus.

Vectocleidus[108]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[109]

Benson et al.

Early Cretaceous (late Barremian)

Vectis Formation

 United Kingdom

A leptocleidid. The type species is Vectocleidus pastorum.

Newly named rhynchocephalians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Oenosaurus[114]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Rauhut et al.

Late Jurassic (early Tithonian)

Mörnsheim Formation

 Germany

A sphenodontid rhynchocephalian. The type species is Oenosaurus muehlheimensis.

Sphenocondor[115]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Apesteguía, Gómez & Rougier

Middle Jurassic

 Argentina

A rhynchocephalian lepidosaur. The type species is Sphenocondor gracilis.

Squamates[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A large phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil squamates is published by Jacques A. Gauthier et al. (2012).[116]
  • A study of squamate diversity in North America during the latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) and the impact of Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event on the diversity of the group is published by Nicholas R. Longrich, Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar and Jacques A. Gauthier (2012).[117]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Chianghsia[118]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mo, Xu & Evans

Late Cretaceous

Nanxiong Formation

 China

A platynotan lizard, probably a monstersaurian. The type species is Chianghsia nankangensis.

Dornosaurus[119]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Alifanov

Eocene

 Mongolia

An arretosaurid iguanian. The type species is Dornosaurus gobiensis.

Eremiasaurus[120]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Leblanc, Caldwell & Bardet

Maastrichtian

 Morocco

A mosasaur.

Ergiliinsaurus[119]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Alifanov

Oligocene

Ergiliin Zoo Formation

 Mongolia

An arretosaurid iguanian. The type species is Ergiliinsaurus postumus.

Jucaraseps[121]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bolet & Evans

Early Cretaceous

 Spain

A lizard related to scleroglossan lizards. The type species is Jucaraseps grandipes.

Khaichinguana[119]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Alifanov

Eocene

Khaychin Formation

 Mongolia

An arretosaurid iguanian. The type species is Khaichinguana eocaenica.

Pannoniasaurus[122]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Makádi, Caldwell & Ősi

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Ajka Coal Formation
Csehbánya Formation

 Hungary

A tethysaurine mosasauroid closely related to Tethysaurus, Russellosaurus and Yaguarasaurus. The type species is Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus.

?Placosaurus ragei[123]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Sullivan et al.

Earliest Eocene

 Belgium

A glyptosaurine anguid lizard, possibly a species of Placosaurus.

Pseudopus ahnikoviensis[124]

Sp. nov

Valid

Klembara

Early Miocene

 Czech Republic

An anguid, a species of Pseudopus.

Purbicella[125]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Evans, Jones & Matsumoto

Early Cretaceous

Purbeck Limestone Group

 United Kingdom

A member of Lacertoidea. The type species isPurbicella ragei.

Ragesaurus[126]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Bailon & Auge

Early Pleistocene

 Spain

An anguid lizard. The type species is Ragesaurus medasensis.

Sphaerodactylus ciguapa[127]

Sp. nov

Valid

Daza & Bauer

Late Early Miocene or early Middle Miocene (20 to 15 MYA)

 Dominican Republic

A sphaerodactylid gecko found in Dominican amber, a species of Sphaerodactylus.

Uquiasaurus[128]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Daza et al.

Late Pliocene

Uquía Formation

 Argentina

An iguanian lizard. The type species is Uquiasaurus heptanodonta.

Varanus (Varaneades) amnhophilis[129]

Subgen. et sp. nov

Valid

Conrad, Balcarcel & Mehling

Miocene (Turolian)

Mytilini Formation

 Greece

A monitor lizard.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Chanaresuchus ischigualastensis[130]

sp nov

Valid

Trotteyn, Martínez & Alcober

Late Triassic

Ischigualasto Formation

 Argentina

A proterochampsian archosauriform. Originally described as a species of Chanaresuchus;[130] subsequently made the type species of a separate genus Pseudochampsa by Trotteyn & Ezcurra (2014).[131]

Doswellia sixmilensis[132]

sp nov

Valid

Heckert, Lucas & Spielmann

Late Triassic

Bluewater Creek Formation

 United States

A doswelliid archosauromorph, a species of Doswellia.

Protome[133]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Stocker

Late Triassic

Chinle Formation

 USA

A phytosaur. The type species is Protome batalaria.

Protome batalaria.jpg

Archosaurs[edit]

The following is a summary of the archosaurs described in 2012

  • 8 pseudosuchians
  • 1 basal dinosauriform
  • 40 non-avian dinosaurs
  • 64 birds
  • 9 pterosaurs
  • 1 archosaur of uncertain phylogenetic placement

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian synapsids[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A phylogenetic analysis of basal synapsids is published by Roger B. J. Benson (2012).[134]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Fortunodon[135]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Kurkin

Upper Permian

 Russia

A dicynodont, a new genus for "Dicynodon" trautscholdi (Amalitzky, 1922) (considered to be a senior synonym of Vivaxosaurus permirus and assigned to the genus Vivaxosaurus by Kammerer et al., 2011).[136] "Dicynodon" amalitzkii (Sushkin, 1926) is considered by Kurkin (2012) to be a second species of Fortunodon[135] (Kammerer et al., 2011 classify it as the type species of the genus Peramodon.[136])

Novocynodon[137]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ivakhnenko

Middle Permian

 Russia

A thrinaxodontid cynodont. The type species is Novocynodon kutorgai.

Pampaphoneus[138]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cisneros, Abdala, et al.

Guadalupian (Middle Permian)

Rio do Rasto Formation

 Brazil

An anteosaurid dinocephalian.

Skull of Pampaphoneus biccai.

Panchetocynodon[139]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Das & Gupta

Early Triassic

Panchet Formation

 India

A cynodont. The type species is Panchetocynodon damodarensis.

Purbeckodon[140]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Butler, Sigogneau-Russell, & Ensom

Early Cretaceous

Purbeck Limestone Group

 United Kingdom

A possible morganucodontan.

Redondagnathus[141]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Spielmann & Lucas

Late Triassic

 United States

A trirachodontid cynodont. Described on the basis of three postcanine teeth. Abdala, Neveling and Welman (2006) claimed that the shape of their crowns does not closely match the trirachodontid pattern, and that the presence of columnar enamel is not enough to confidently refer these teeth to Cynodontia, as this trait is widely distributed in many amniotes and even some sarcopterygian fish.[142] However, Spielmann and Lucas (2012) claimed that the teeth "clearly possess three cusps on the transverse crest of the postcanines, a characteristic feature of the Trirachodontidae".[141] The type species is Redondagnathus hunti.

Sludica[137]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ivakhnenko

Upper Permian

 Russia

A procynosuchid cynodont. The type species is Sludica bulanovi.

Mammals[edit]

The following is a summary of the mammals described in 2012

  • 9 non-eutherian Mammals
  • 24 eutherian Mammals

Other animals[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Circotheca smetanai[143]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valent et al.

Middle Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs), a species of Circotheca.

Coronacollina[144]

Gen. et sp. nov.

Valid

Clites, Droser & Gehling

Ediacaran

 Australia

An animal of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Coronacollina acula.

Probactrotheca[143]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Valent et al.

Middle Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha. The type species is Probactrotheca briketa.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ a b International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2012). "Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication". Zootaxa 3450: 1–7. 
  3. ^ Zhi-Qiang Zhang (2012). "A new era in zoological nomenclature and taxonomy: ICZN accepts e-publication and launches ZooBank". Zootaxa 3450: 8. 
  4. ^ Shi, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xie, Z. (2012). "A new Oligocene Calocedrus from south China and its implications for transpacific floristic exchanges.". American Journal of Botany 99 (1): 108–120. doi:10.3732/ajb.1100331. 
  5. ^ Zhou, Z.; Quan, C.; Liu, Y-S (2002). "Tertiary Ginkgo ovulate organs with associated leaves from North Dakota, U.S.A., and their evolutionary significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences 173 (1): 67–80. JSTOR 10.1086/662651. 
  6. ^ Mohr, B.A.R.; Schultka, S.; Süss, H.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C. (2012). "A new drought resistant gymnosperm taxon Duartenia araripensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Cheirolepidiaceae?) from the Early Cretaceous of Northern Gondwana.". Palaeontographica Abteilung B 289 (1-3): 1–25. 
  7. ^ Mohr, B.A.R.; Coiffard, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C. (2012). "Schenkeriphyllum glanduliferum, a new magnolialean angiosperm from the Early Cretaceous of Northern Gondwana and its relationships to fossil and modern Magnoliales". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 189: 57–72. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2012.08.004. 
  8. ^ Ya. Ariunchimeg (2012). "Admirandopora nom. nov., a new replacement generic name for a Carboniferous bryozoan". Paleontological Journal 46 (3): 330. doi:10.1134/S0031030112030045. 
  9. ^ E. Di Martino and P.D. Taylor (2012). "Systematics and life history of Antoniettella exigua, a new genus and species of cribrimorph bryozoan from the Miocene of East Kalimantan (Indonesia)". Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 51 (2): 99–108. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Andrej Ernst and Marcelo Carrera (2012). "Upper Ordovician (Sandbian) Bryozoan Fauna from Argentine Precordillera". Journal of Paleontology 86 (5): 721–752. doi:10.1666/12-024.1. 
  11. ^ Urszula Hara and Marek Jasionowski (2012). "The Early Sarmatian bryozoan Celleporina medoborensis sp. nov. from the Medobory reefs of western Ukraine (Central Paratethys)". Geological Quarterly 56 (4): 895–906. doi:10.7306/gq.1064. 
  12. ^ Andrej Ernst, Paul D. Taylor, Jan Bohatý and Patrick N. Wyse Jackson (2012). "Homeomorphy in Lunostoma, a new Middle Devonian cryptostome bryozoan". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 86 (2): 135–145. doi:10.1007/s12542-011-0127-8. 
  13. ^ Paul D. Taylor (2012). "A new bryozoan genus from the Jurassic of Switzerland, with a review of the cribrate colony-form in bryozoans". Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 131 (2): 201–210. doi:10.1007/s13358-011-0027-2. 
  14. ^ a b Howard R. Feldman, Mena Schemm-Gregory, Fayez Ahmad and Mark A. Wilson (2012). "Jurassic rhynchonellide brachiopods from the Jordan Valley". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (1): 191–204. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0092. 
  15. ^ Susana E. Damborenea and Miguel O. Manceñido (2012). "Late Triassic bivalves and brachiopods from southern Mendoza, Argentina". Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève. spécial 11: 317–344. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n T. N. Smirnova (2012). "Early Cretaceous rhynchonellids of Dagestan: System, morphology, stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic significance". Paleontological Journal 46 (11): 1197–1296. doi:10.1134/S0031030112110019. 
  17. ^ Jisuo Jin (2012). "Cincinnetina, a new Late Ordovician dalmanellid brachiopod from the Cincinnati type area, USA: implications for the evolution and palaeogeography of the epicontinental fauna of Laurentia". Palaeontology 55 (1): 205–228. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01113.x. 
  18. ^ Weihong He, G. R. Shi, Yang Zhang, Tinglu Yang, Fei Teng and Shunbao Wu (2012). "Systematics and palaeoecology of Changhsingian (Late Permian) Ambocoeliidae brachiopods from South China and implications for the end-Permian mass extinction". Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 36 (4): 515–530. doi:10.1080/03115518.2012.688669. 
  19. ^ a b N. V. Oleneva (2012). "New Spiriferids (Brachiopoda) from the Upper Devonian of Middle Timan". Paleontological Journal 46 (5): 461–469. doi:10.1134/S0031030112050073. 
  20. ^ Juan L. Benedetto (2012). "Gatosella, a new basal plectambonitoid brachiopod with undercut cardinal process from Middle Ordovician limestones of the Precordillera terrane, Argentina". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (3): 435–443. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.590536. 
  21. ^ a b c Andrzej Baliński (2012). "The brachiopod succession through the Silurian–Devonian boundary beds at Dnistrove, Podolia, Ukraine". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (4): 897–924. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0138. 
  22. ^ Haizhou Wang, Zhifei Zhang, Lars E. Holmer, Shixue Hu, Xiangren Wang, Guoxiang Li (2012). "Peduncular attached secondary tiering acrotretoid brachiopods from the Chengjiang fauna: Implications for the ecological expansion of brachiopods during the Cambrian explosion". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 323–325: 60–67. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.01.027. 
  23. ^ A. A. Madison (2012). "Formation of cardinal process in Ordovician strophomenids". Paleontological Journal 46 (12): 1362–1374. doi:10.1134/S0031030112120039. 
  24. ^ A. V. Pakhnevich (2012). "New Devonian punctate rhynchonellids (Brachiopoda) from Transcaucasia". Paleontological Journal 46 (6): 560–567. doi:10.1134/S0031030112060081. 
  25. ^ a b c Colin D. Sumrall, James Sprinkle, Thomas E. Guensburg and Benjamin F. Dattilo (2012). "Early Ordovician Mitrates and A Possible Solute (Echinodermata) from the Western United States". Journal of Paleontology 86 (4): 595–604. doi:10.1666/10-165R.1. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hans Hess (2012). "Crinoids from the Middle Jurassic (Bajocian–Lower Callovian) of Ardèche, France". Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 131 (2): 211–253. doi:10.1007/s13358-012-0044-9. 
  27. ^ a b c William I. Ausich and Edgar W. Roeser (2012). "Camerate and Disparid Crinoids from the Late Kinderhookian Meadville Shale, Cuyahoga Formation of Ohio". Journal of Paleontology 86 (3): 488–507. doi:10.1666/11-102.1. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f Thomas W. Kammer and Edgar W. Roeser (2012). "Cladid Crinoids from the Late Kinderhookian Meadville Shale, Cuyahoga Formation of Ohio". Journal of Paleontology 86 (3): 470–487. doi:10.1666/11-101.1. 
  29. ^ William I. Ausich and Mark A. Wilson (2012). "New Tethyan Apiocrinitidae (Crinoidea, Articulata) from the Jurassic of Israel". Journal of Paleontology 86 (6): 1051–1055. doi:10.1666/12-049R.1. 
  30. ^ Sara G. Parma (2012). "El género Brissopsis L. Agassiz, 1840 (Echinoidea: Spatangoida) en el Paleógeno y Neógeno de la República Argentina". Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève. spécial 11: 417–427. 
  31. ^ Samuel Zamora, Imran A. Rahman and Andrew B. Smith (2012). "Plated Cambrian Bilaterians Reveal the Earliest Stages of Echinoderm Evolution". PLoS ONE 7 (6): e38296. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038296. 
  32. ^ a b c James W. Atwood and Colin D. Sumrall (2012). "Morphometric Investigation of the Pentremites Fauna from the Glen Dean Formation, Kentucky". Journal of Paleontology 86 (5): 813–828. doi:10.1666/12-003.1. 
  33. ^ P. Stara and E. Borghi (2012). "First fossil record of the genus Faorina (Echinoidea: Pericosmidae)". Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 51 (2): 85–98. 
  34. ^ Alexander B. Doweld (2012). "Heckerocrinus, a new substitute generic name for fossil crinoid Bockia Hecker 1940 (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) non Reisinger 1924 (Vermes: Turbellaria)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 86 (4): 457–458. doi:10.1007/s12542-012-0148-y. 
  35. ^ Ben Thuy, Yoshiaki Ishida, Eiji Doi and Andreas Kroh (2013). "New ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the Upper Triassic of Japan: first insights into the origin and evolution of an extant deep-sea group". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 11 (5): 515–530. doi:10.1080/14772019.2012.702691. 
  36. ^ http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/A079A3B1-1CA4-4C69-98D2-A89A4D8BE8C7
  37. ^ G. V. Mirantsev (2012). "A new taxocrinid genus (Crinoidea, Flexibilia) from the Upper Carboniferous of the Moscow Region". Paleontological Journal 46 (6): 568–574. doi:10.1134/S0031030112060068. 
  38. ^ Nils Schlüter, Manfred Kutscher, Andrew B. Smith, John W. M. Jagt and Jackie A. Lees (2012). "Late Cretaceous phymosomatids and the true identity of Cidarites granulosus Goldfuss, 1829 (Echinoidea, Phymosomatoida)". Zootaxa 3271: 17–30. 
  39. ^ a b Thomas Saucède, Jean-Christophe Dudicourt and Philippe Courville (2012). "Description of two new fossil echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from the Early Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous) of the Paris Basin (France)". Zootaxa 3512: 75–88. 
  40. ^ Stephen K. Donovan, David A. T. Harper, Zhan Renbin, Lars Stemmerik, Liu Jianbo and Svend Stouge (2012). "A primitive cladid crinoid from the Jiacun Group, Tibet (Darriwilian, Middle Ordovician)". Geological Journal 47 (6): 653–660. doi:10.1002/gj.2436. 
  41. ^ a b Marouf Abdel-Aty Mohamed Abdelhamid and Mahmoud Moustafa Azab (2012). "Turonian-Santonian echinoids from Egypt". Geodiversitas 34 (3): 575–615. doi:10.5252/g2012n3a7. 
  42. ^ Junfeng Guo, Yong Li, Huiping Han, Qiang Ou, Jianren Zhou and Yajuan Zheng (2012). "New Macroscopic Problematic Fossil from the Early Cambrian Yanjiahe Biota, Yichang, Hubei, China". Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 86 (4): 791–798. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2012.00706.x. 
  43. ^ M. A. Fedonkin, P. Vickers-Rich, B. J. Swalla, P. Trusler and M. Hall (2012). "A new metazoan from the Vendian of the White Sea, Russia, with possible affinities to the ascidians". Paleontological Journal 46 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1134/S0031030112010042. 
  44. ^ a b c d Michele Mazza, Andrea Cau and Manuel Rigo (2012). "Application of numerical cladistic analyses to the Carnian–Norian conodonts: a new approach for phylogenetic interpretations". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (3): 401–422. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.573584. 
  45. ^ a b Michele Mazza, Manuel Rigo and Maria Gullo (2012). "Taxonomy and biostratigraphic record of the Upper Triassic conodonts of the Pizzo Mondello section (western Sicily, Italy), GSSP candidate for the base of the Norian". Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 118 (1). 
  46. ^ a b Daniel Drygant and Hubert Szaniawski (2012). "Lochkovian conodonts from Podolia, Ukraine, and their stratigraphic significance". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (4): 833–861. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0124. 
  47. ^ I. A. Bardashev and N. P. Bardasheva (2012). Platformennye konodonty iz pogranichnykh zhivet-franskikh otlozhenii (srednii-verkhnii devon). Donish. pp. 1–90. 
  48. ^ I. A. Bardashev and N. P. Bardasheva (2013). "Muellerilepis, a new replacement generic name for Muellerina Bardashev et Bardasheva, 2012 (Conodonta)". Paleontological Journal 47 (5): 554. doi:10.1134/S0031030113050055. 
  49. ^ a b c Svend Stouge (2012). "Middle Ordovician (late Dapingian–Darriwilian) conodonts from the Cow Head Group and Lower Head Formation, western Newfoundland, Canada". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 49 (1): 59–90. doi:10.1139/e11-057. 
  50. ^ Hillary C. Maddin, Farish A. Jenkins Jr and Jason S. Anderson (2012). "The Braincase of Eocaecilia micropodia (Lissamphibia, Gymnophiona) and the Origin of Caecilians". PLoS ONE 7 (12): e50743. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050743. PMC 3515621. PMID 23227204. 
  51. ^ Marylène Danto, Florian Witzmann and Johannes Müller (2012). "Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Solenodonsaurus janenschi Broili, 1924, from the Late Carboniferous of Nýřany, Czech Republic". Fossil Record 15 (2): 45–59. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200003. 
  52. ^ Stephanie E. Pierce, Jennifer A. Clack and John R. Hutchinson (2012). "Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega". Nature 486 (7404): 523–526. doi:10.1038/nature11124. 
  53. ^ Clack, J.A.; Ahlberg, P.E.; Blom, H.; and Finney, S.M. (2012). "A new genus of Devonian tetrapod from North-East Greenland, with new information on the lower jaw of Ichthyostega". Palaeontology 55 (1): 73–86. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01117.x. 
  54. ^ Graciela Piñeiro, Alejandro Ramos and Claudia Marsicano (2012). "A rhinesuchid-like temnospondyl from the Permo-Triassic of Uruguay". Comptes Rendus Palevol 11 (1): 65–78. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2011.07.007. 
  55. ^ I. V. Novikov (2012). "New data on trematosauroid labyrinthodonts of Eastern Europe: 4. Genus Benthosuchus Efremov, 1937". Paleontological Journal 46 (4): 400–411. doi:10.1134/S0031030112040089. 
  56. ^ Fröbisch, N.B.; and Reisz, R.R. (2012). "A new species of dissorophid (Cacops woehri) from the Lower Permian Dolese Quarry, near Richards Spur, Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.633586. 
  57. ^ Anne Warren (2012). "The South African stereospondyl Microposaurus from the Middle Triassic of the Sydney Basin, Australia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 538–544. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.658934. 
  58. ^ a b c Ralf Werneburg (2012). "Dissorophoide Amphibien aus dem Westphalian D (Ober-Karbon) von Nýřany in Böhmen (Tschechische Republik) - der Schlüssel zum Verständnis der frühen 'Branchiosaurier'". Semana. Naturwissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen des Naturhistorischen Museums Schloss Bertholdsburg Schleusingen 27: 3–50. 
  59. ^ Rainer R. Schoch and Andrew R. Milner (2014). Handbook of Paleoherpetology. Part 3A2. Temnospondyli I. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil. pp. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-89937-170-3. 
  60. ^ a b I. V. Novikov (2012). "New data on trematosauroid labyrinthodonts of Eastern Europe: 3. Qantas samarensis gen. et sp. nov.". Paleontological Journal 46 (2): 177–186. doi:10.1134/S0031030112020098. 
  61. ^ Jozef Klembara and J. Sébastien Steyer (2012). "A new species of Sclerocephalus (Temnospondyli: Stereospondylomorpha) from the Early Permian of the Boskovice Basin (Czech Republic)". Journal of Paleontology 86 (2): 302–310. doi:10.1666/11-051.1. 
  62. ^ Glienke, S. (2012). "A new "microsaur" (Amphibia; Lepospondyli) from the Rotliegend of the Saar–Palatinate region (Carboniferous/Permian transition; West Germany)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 86 (3): 297–311. doi:10.1007/s12542-012-0130-8. 
  63. ^ Márton Venczel, Vlad Codrea and Cristina Fărcaş (2013). "A new palaeobatrachid frog from the early Oligocene of Suceag, Romania". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 11 (2): 179–189. doi:10.1080/14772019.2012.671790. 
  64. ^ http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/D582DF3D-14FA-48FE-8240-8B81727B358E
  65. ^ Zoltán Szentesi and Márton Venczel (2012). "A new discoglossid frog from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) of Hungary". Cretaceous Research 34: 327–333. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.11.012. 
  66. ^ Ke-Qin Gao and Neil H. Shubin (2012). "Late Jurassic salamandroid from western Liaoning, China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (15): 5767–5772. doi:10.1073/pnas.1009828109. PMC 3326464. PMID 22411790. 
  67. ^ James D. Gardner (2012). "Revision of Piceoerpeton Meszoely (Caudata: Scapherpetontidae) and description of a new species from the late Maastrichtian and ?early Paleocene of western North America". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183 (6): 611–620. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.611. 
  68. ^ Pavel P. Skutschas and Yuri M. Gubin (2012). "A new salamander from the late Paleocene–early Eocene of Ukraine". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (1): 135–148. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0101. 
  69. ^ Ana M. Báez, Raúl O. Gómez, Luiz C.B. Ribeiro, Agustín G. Martinelli, Vicente P.A. Teixeira and Mara L.F. Ferraz (2012). "The diverse Cretaceous neobatrachian fauna of South America: Uberabatrachus carvalhoi, a new frog from the Maastrichtian Marília Formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil". Gondwana Research 22 (3–4): 1141–1150. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2012.02.021. 
  70. ^ Jocelyn Falconnet (2012). "First evidence of a bolosaurid parareptile in France (latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian of the Autun basin) and the spatiotemporal distribution of the Bolosauridae". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183 (6): 495–508. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.495. 
  71. ^ Mark J. Macdougall and Robert Reisz (2012). "A new parareptile (Parareptilia, Lanthanosuchoidea) from the Early Permian of Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (5): 1018–1026. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.679757. 
  72. ^ Jocelyn Falconnet, Misalalanirina Andriamihaja, Émilie Läng and J.-Sébastien Steyer (2012). "First procolophonid (Reptilia, Parareptilia) from the Lower Triassic of Madagascar". Comptes Rendus Palevol 11 (5): 357–369. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2012.04.001. 
  73. ^ Jérémy Anquetin (2012). "Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (1): 3–45. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.558928. 
  74. ^ Hans-Volker Karl, Elke Gröning and Carsten Brauckmann (2012). "New materials of the giant sea turtle Allopleuron (Testudines: Chelonioidea) from the marine Late Cretaceous of Central Europe and the Palaeogene of Kazakhstan". Stvdia Palaeocheloniologica IV, Stvdia Geologica Salmanticensia. n Especial 9: 153–173. 
  75. ^ a b Natasha S. Vitek (2012). "Giant fossil soft-shelled turtles of North America". Palaeontologia Electronica 15 (1): 13A. 
  76. ^ Hans-Volker Karl, Elke Gröning, Carsten Brauckmann and Mike Reich (2012). "Ballerstedtia bueckebergensis, a new turtle from the Early Cretaceous Wealden Facies of Germany (Testudines: Pleurosternidae)". Stvdia Palaeocheloniologica IV, Stvdia Geologica Salmanticensia. n Especial 9: 47–60. 
  77. ^ a b c Haiyan Tong, Igor Danilov, Yong Ye, Hui Ouyang and Guangzhao Peng (2012). "Middle Jurassic turtles from the Sichuan Basin, China: a review". Geological Magazine 149 (4): 675–695. doi:10.1017/S0016756811000859. 
  78. ^ Adán Pérez-García (2012). "Berruchelus russelli, gen. et sp. nov., a paracryptodiran turtle from the Cenozoic of Europe". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 545–556. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.658933. 
  79. ^ Edwin A. Cadena, Daniel T. Ksepka, Carlos A. Jaramillo and Jonathan I. Bloch (2012). "New pelomedusoid turtles from the late Palaeocene Cerrejón Formation of Colombia and their implications for phylogeny and body size evolution". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (2): 313–331. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.569031. 
  80. ^ Márton Rabi, Haiyan Tong and Gábor Botfalvai (2012). "A new species of the side-necked turtle Foxemys (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary and the historical biogeography of the Bothremydini". Geological Magazine 149 (4): 662–674. doi:10.1017/S0016756811000756. 
  81. ^ Adán Pérez-García and Xabier Murelaga (2012). "Galvechelone lopezmartinezae gen. et sp. nov., a new cryptodiran turtle in the Lower Cretaceous of Europe". Palaeontology 55 (5): 937–944. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01154.x. 
  82. ^ Julien Claude, Jiang-Yong Zhang, Jian-Jun Li, Jin-You Mo, Xue-Wen Kuang and Haiyan Tong (2012). "Geoemydid turtles from the Late Eocene Maoming basin, southern China". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183 (6): 641–651. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.641. 
  83. ^ Adán Pérez-García, Marcelo S. de la Fuente and Francisco Ortega (2012). "Hoyasemys jimenezi gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater basal eucryptodiran turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (2): 285–298. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0031. 
  84. ^ Adán Pérez-García, Francisco Ortega, Xabier Murelaga (2012). "A new genus of Bothremydidae (Chelonii, Pleurodira) in the Cretaceous of Southwestern Europe". Geobios 45 (2): 219–229. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2011.03.001. 
  85. ^ Jason R. Bourque (2012). "An extinct mud turtle of the Kinosternon flavescens group (Testudines, Kinosternidae) from the middle Miocene (late Barstovian) of New Mexico". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (1): 68–81. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.626824. 
  86. ^ Jason R. Bourque (2012). "A fossil mud turtle (Testudines, Kinosternidae) from the early middle Miocene (early Barstovian) of New Mexico". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (4): 836–853. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.670179. 
  87. ^ Adán Pérez-García and Xabier Murelaga (2012). "Larachelus morla, gen. et sp. nov., a new member of the little-known European Early Cretaceous record of stem cryptodiran turtles". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (6): 1293–1302. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.694592. 
  88. ^ Hans-Volker Karl, Stefanie Biermann and Gottfried Tichy (2012). "The oldest true sea turtle of the world, Oertelia gigantea (Oertel, 1914) n. gen. from the Aptian of Kastendamm near Hanover, Germany". Stvdia Palaeocheloniologica IV, Stvdia Geologica Salmanticensia. n Especial 9: 107–128. 
  89. ^ Juliana Sterli and Marcelo S. de la Fuente (2013). "New evidence from the Palaeocene of Patagonia (Argentina) on the evolution and palaeo-biogeography of Meiolaniformes (Testudinata, new taxon name)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 11 (7): 835–852. doi:10.1080/14772019.2012.708674. 
  90. ^ http://zoobank.org/References/C52A01FB-CC2B-4B9B-9B40-096CCCB9749A
  91. ^ J. Marmi, Á.H. Luján, V. Riera, R. Gaete, O. Oms and À. Galobart (2012). "The youngest species of Polysternon: A new bothremydid turtle from the uppermost Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees". Cretaceous Research 35: 133–142. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.12.004. 
  92. ^ Edwin A. Cadena, Jonathan I. Bloch and Carlos A. Jaramillo (2012). "New Bothremydid Turtle (Testudines, Pleurodira) from the Paleocene of Northeastern Colombia". Journal of Paleontology 86 (4): 688–698. doi:10.1666/11-128R1.1. 
  93. ^ a b Edwin Cadena, Jason R. Bourque, Aldo F. Rincon, Jonathan I. Bloch, Carlos A. Jaramillo and Bruce J. Macfadden (2012). "New Turtles (Chelonia) from the Late Eocene Through Late Miocene of the Panama Canal Basin". Journal of Paleontology 86 (3): 539–557. doi:10.1666/11-106.1. 
  94. ^ Hans-Volker Karl and Henrik Madsen (2012). "Tasbacka danica n. sp., a new Eocene marine turtle of Denmark (Testudines: Chelonioidea)". Stvdia Palaeocheloniologica IV, Stvdia Geologica Salmanticensia. n Especial 9: 193–204. 
  95. ^ Walter G. Joyce, Andrea Petričević, Tyler R. Lyson and Nicholas J. Czaplewski (2012). "A New Box Turtle from the Miocene/Pliocene Boundary (Latest Hemphillian) of Oklahoma and A Refined Chronology of Box Turtle Diversification". Journal of Paleontology 86 (1): 177–190. doi:10.1666/11-073.1. 
  96. ^ Haiyan Tong, Li Xu, Eric Buffetaut, Xingliao Zhang and Songhai Jia (2012). "A new nanhsiungchelyid turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Neixiang, Henan Province, China". Annales de Paléontologie 98 (4): 303–314. doi:10.1016/j.annpal.2012.08.001. 
  97. ^ Fischer,V.; Maisch, M.W.; Naish, D.; Kosma, R.; Liston, J.; Joger, U.; Krüger, F.J.; Pérez,J.P.; Tainsh, J.; Appleby, R.M. (2012). "New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary". PLoS ONE 7 (1): e29234. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029234. PMC 3250416. PMID 22235274. 
  98. ^ a b Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Jørn H. Hurum, Espen M. Knutsen and Hans Arne Nakrem (2012). "Two new ophthalmosaurids (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Agardhfjellet Formation (Upper Jurassic: Volgian/Tithonian), Svalbard, Norway". Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 311–339. 
  99. ^ Erin E. Maxwell, Marta S. Fernández and Rainer R. Schoch (2012). "First Diagnostic Marine Reptile Remains from the Aalenian (Middle Jurassic): A New Ichthyosaur from Southwestern Germany". PLoS ONE 7 (8): e41692. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041692. 
  100. ^ Jeremy E. Martin, Valentin Fischer, Peggy Vincent and Guillaume Suan (2012). "A longirostrine Temnodontosaurus (Ichthyosauria) with comments on Early Jurassic ichthyosaur niche partitioning and disparity". Palaeontology 55 (5): 995–1005. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01159.x. 
  101. ^ a b Long Cheng, Xiaohong Chen, Xiongwei Zeng and Yongjian Cai (2012). "A new eosauropterygian (Diapsida: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of Luoping, Yunnan Province". Journal of Earth Science 23 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1007/s12583-012-0231-z. 
  102. ^ Chun Li, Da-Yong Jiang, Long Cheng, Xiao-Chun Wu and Olivier Rieppel (2013). "A new species of Largocephalosaurus (Diapsida: Saurosphargidae), with implications for the morphological diversity and phylogeny of the group". Geological Magazine. in press. doi:10.1017/S001675681300023X. 
  103. ^ Tai Kubo, Mark T. Mitchell and Donald M. Henderson (2012). "Albertonectes vanderveldei, a new elasmosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Alberta". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 557–572. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.658124. 
  104. ^ Peggy Vincent and Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "Anningasaura, a basal plesiosaurian (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Lower Jurassic of Lyme Regis, United Kingdom". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (5): 1049–1063. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.686467. 
  105. ^ a b c Roger B. J. Benson, Mark Evans and Patrick S. Druckenmiller (2012). "High Diversity, Low Disparity and Small Body Size in Plesiosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary". PLoS ONE 7 (3): e31838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031838. PMC 3306369. PMID 22438869. 
  106. ^ Espen M. Knutsen, Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Jørn H. Hurum (2012). "A new plesiosauroid (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Agardhfjellet Formation (Middle Volgian) of central Spitsbergen, Norway". Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 213–234. 
  107. ^ Rebecca Schmeisser McKean (2012). "A new species of polycotylid plesiosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Lower Turonian of Utah: extending the stratigraphic range of Dolichorhynchops". Cretaceous Research 34: 184–199. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.10.017. 
  108. ^ a b Roger B. J. Benson, Hilary F. Ketchum, Darren Naish and Langan E. Turner (2013). "A new leptocleidid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Vectis Formation (Early Barremian–early Aptian; Early Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight and the evolution of Leptocleididae, a controversial clade". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 11 (2): 233–250. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.634444. 
  109. ^ a b http://zoobank.org/References/8A0A8BD0-F6BB-4F74-BB18-79CBBA2F105C
  110. ^ Adam S. Smith, Ricardo Araújo and Octávio Mateus (2012). "Lusonectes sauvagei, a new plesiosauroid from the Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of Alhadas, Portugal". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (2): 257–266. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0023. 
  111. ^ Espen M. Knutsen, Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Jørn H. Hurum (2012). "A new species of Pliosaurus (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the Middle Volgian of central Spitsbergen, Norway". Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 235–258. 
  112. ^ Yen-Nien Cheng, Xiao-Chun Wu, Tamaki Sato and Hsi-Yin Shan (2012). "A new eosauropterygian (Diapsida, Sauropterygia) from the Triassic of China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (6): 1335–1349. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.695983. 
  113. ^ Espen M. Knutsen, Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Jørn H. Hurum (2012). "Two new species of long-necked plesiosaurians (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Upper Jurassic (Middle Volgian) Agardhfjellet Formation of central Spitsbergen". Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 187–212. 
  114. ^ Oliver W. M. Rauhut, Alexander M. Heyng, Adriana López-Arbarello and Andreas Hecker (2012). "A New Rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Germany with a Dentition That Is Unique amongst Tetrapods". PLoS ONE 7 (10): e46839. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046839. 
  115. ^ Sebastián Apesteguía, Raúl O. Gómez and Guillermo W. Rougier (2012). "A basal sphenodontian (Lepidosauria) from the Jurassic of Patagonia: new insights on the phylogeny and biogeography of Gondwanan rhynchocephalians". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 166 (2): 342–360. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00837.x. 
  116. ^ Jacques A. Gauthier, Maureen Kearney, Jessica Anderson Maisano, Olivier Rieppel, Adam D.B. Behlke (2012). "Assembling the Squamate Tree of Life: Perspectives from the Phenotype and the Fossil Record". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 53 (1): 3–308. doi:10.3374/014.053.0101. 
  117. ^ Nicholas R. Longrich, Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar and Jacques A. Gauthier (2012). "Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (52): 21396–21401. doi:10.1073/pnas.1211526110. PMC 3535637. PMID 23236177. 
  118. ^ Jin-you Mo, Xing Xu and Susan E. Evans (2012). "A large predatory lizard (Platynota, Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous of South China". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (2): 333–339. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.588254. 
  119. ^ a b c V. R. Alifanov (2012). "Lizards of the family Arretosauridae Gilmore, 1943 (Iguanomorpha, Iguania) from the Paleogene of Mongolia". Paleontological Journal 46 (4): 412–420. doi:10.1134/S0031030112040028. 
  120. ^ Leblanc, A.R.H.; Caldwell, M.W.; and Bardet, N. (2012). "A new mosasaurine from the Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) phosphates of Morocco and its implications for mosasaurine systematics". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (1): 82–104. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.624145. 
  121. ^ Boler, Arnau; and Susan E. Evans (2012). "A tiny lizard (Lepidosauria, Squamata) from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain". Palaeontology 55 (3): 491–500. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01145.x. 
  122. ^ László Makádi, Michael W. Caldwell and Attila Ősi (2012). "The First Freshwater Mosasauroid (Upper Cretaceous, Hungary) and a New Clade of Basal Mosasauroids". PLoS ONE 7 (12): e51781. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051781. 
  123. ^ Robert M. Sullivan, Marc Augé, Eric Wille and Richard Smith (2012). "A new glyptosaurine lizard from the earliest Eocene of Dormaal, Belgium". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183 (6): 627–633. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.627. 
  124. ^ Jozef Klembara (2012). "A new species of Pseudopus (Squamata, Anguidae) from the early Miocene of Northwest Bohemia (Czech Republic)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (4): 854–866. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.670177. 
  125. ^ Susan E. Evans, Marc E. H. Jones and Ryoko Matsumoto (2012). "A new lizard skull from the Purbeck Limestone Group (Lower Cretaceous) of England". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183 (6): 517–524. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.517. 
  126. ^ Salvador Bailon and Marc Auge (2012). "A news genus, Ragesaurus (Squamata, Anguidae, Anguinae) from the lower Pleistocene of the islas Medas (Catalonia, Spain)". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 183 (6): 683–688. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.683. 
  127. ^ Juan D. Daza and Aaron M. Bauer (2012). "A new amber-embeded sphaerodactyl gecko from Hispaniola, with comments on morphological synapomorphies of the Sphaerodactylidae". Breviora 529: 1–28. doi:10.3099/529.1. 
  128. ^ Juan D. Daza, Virginia Abdala, J. Salvador Arias, Daniel García-López and Pablo Ortiz (2012). "Cladistic Analysis of Iguania and a Fossil Lizard from the Late Pliocene of Northwestern Argentina". Journal of Herpetology 46 (1): 104–119. doi:10.1670/10-112. 
  129. ^ Jack L. Conrad, Ana M. Balcarcel and Carl M. Mehling (2012). "Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)". PLoS ONE 7 (8): e41767. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041767. 
  130. ^ a b María J. Trotteyn, Ricardo N. Martínez and Oscar A. Alcober (2012). "A new proterochampsid Chanaresuchus ischigualastensis (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) in the early Late Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (2): 485–489. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.645975. 
  131. ^ María Jimena Trotteyn and Martín D. Ezcurra (2014). "Osteology of Pseudochampsa ischigualastensis gen. et comb. nov. (Archosauriformes: Proterochampsidae) from the Early Late Triassic Ischigualasto Formation of Northwestern Argentina". PLoS ONE 9 (11): e111388. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111388. 
  132. ^ Andrew B. Heckert, Spencer G. Lucas and Justin A. Spielmann (2012). "A new species of the enigmatic archosauromorph Doswellia from the Upper Triassic Bluewater Creek Formation, New Mexico, USA". Palaeontology 55 (6): 1333–1348. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01200.x. 
  133. ^ Michelle R. Stocker (2012). "A new phytosaur (Archosauriformes, Phytosauria) from the Lot’s Wife beds (Sonsela Member) within the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) of Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 573–586. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.649815. 
  134. ^ Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "Interrelationships of basal synapsids: cranial and postcranial morphological partitions suggest different topologies". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (4): 601–624. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.631042. 
  135. ^ a b A. A. Kurkin (2012). "Dicynodontids of Eastern Europe". Paleontological Journal 46 (2): 187–198. doi:10.1134/S003103011201008X. 
  136. ^ a b Kammerer, C.F.; Angielczyk, K.D.; and Fröbisch, J. (2011). "A comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and its implications for dicynodont phylogeny, biogeography, and biostratigraphy". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31 (Suppl. 1): 1–158. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.627074. 
  137. ^ a b M. F. Ivakhnenko (2012). "Permian Cynodontia (Theromorpha) of Eastern Europe". Paleontological Journal 46 (2): 199–207. doi:10.1134/S0031030112020062. 
  138. ^ Juan Carlos Cisneros, Fernando Abdala, Saniye Atayman-Güven, Bruce S. Rubidge, A. M. Celâl Şengör and Cesar L. Schultz (2012). "Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (5): 1584–1588. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115975109. 
  139. ^ D. P. Das and Abir Gupta (2012). "New cynodont record from the lower Triassic Panchet Formation, Damodar valley". Journal of the Geological Society of India 79 (2): 175–180. doi:10.1007/s12594-012-0022-2. 
  140. ^ P. M. Butler, D. Sigogneau-Russell and P. C. Ensom (2012). "Possible persistence of the morganucodontans in the Lower Cretaceous Purbeck Limestone Group (Dorset, England)". Cretaceous Research 33 (1): 135–145. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.09.007. 
  141. ^ a b Justin A. Spielmann and Spencer G. Lucas (2012). "Tetrapod fauna of the Upper Triassic Redonda Formation, east-central New Mexico; the characteristic assemblage of the Apachean land-vertebrate faunachron". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 55: 1–119. 
  142. ^ F. Abdala, J. Neveling and J. Welman (2006). "A new trirachodontid cynodont from the lower levels of the Burgersdorp Formation (Lower Triassic) of the Beaufort Group, South Africa and the cladistic relationships of Gondwanan gomphodonts". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 147 (3): 383–413. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00224.x. 
  143. ^ a b Martin Valent, Oldřich Fatka, Michal Szabad, Václav Micka and Ladislav Marek (2012). "Two new orthothecids from the Cambrian of the Barrandian area (Hyolitha, Skryje-Týřovice Basin, Czech Republic)". Bulletin of Geosciences 87 (2): 241–248. doi:10.3140/bull.geosci.1142. 
  144. ^ Erica C. Clites, Mary L. Droser and James G. Gehling (2012). "The advent of hard-part structural support among the Ediacara biota: Ediacaran harbinger of a Cambrian mode of body construction". Geology 40 (4): 307–310. doi:10.1130/G32828.1.