2012 in science

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25 May 2012: SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft (pictured) becomes the first commercial spacecraft to rendezvous with the International Space Station.

The year 2012 involved many significant scientific events and discoveries, including the first orbital rendezvous by a commercial spacecraft, the discovery of a particle highly similar to the long-sought Higgs boson, and the near-eradication of guinea worm disease. A total of 72 successful orbital spaceflights occurred in 2012, and the year also saw numerous developments in fields such as robotics, 3D printing, stem cell research and genetics. Over 540,000 patent applications were made in the United States alone in 2012.[1]

2012 marked Alan Turing Year, a celebration of the life and work of the English mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and computer scientist Alan Turing.[2] In addition, 2012 was declared the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All by the United Nations.[3]

Events, discoveries and inventions[edit]

January[edit]

1 January 2012: NASA's twin GRAIL satellites (artist's impression shown) begin studying the Moon's gravitational field.
4 January 2012: scientists create genetically engineered silkworms capable of producing bulk quantities of steel-strong spidersilk.
11 January 2012: astronomers report that nearly every star in the Milky Way galaxy may host exoplanets (artist's impression of Upsilon Andromedae d pictured).
12 January 2012: Paedophryne amauensis, the world's smallest known vertebrate, is formally described.
23 January 2012: stem cell therapy is successfully used to ease the symptoms of blindness in human volunteers (human embryonic stem cell shown).
27 January 2012: the most detailed 3D image of the Amazon rainforest yet produced is published.
31 January 2012: American scientists demonstrate a method of decoding human thoughts by studying the superior temporal gyrus (indicated).

February[edit]

3 February 2012: the Very Large Telescope array enters operation in northern Chile.
  • 1 February – Researchers report that the eruption of supervolcanoes could be predicted several decades before the event by detecting the seismic and chemical signs of a massive magma buildup. (BBC) (Nature)
  • 2 February
    • The European Commission issues a 225-million-euro (US$330 million) contract to an Anglo-German consortium for eight additional satellites to expand Europe's Galileo satellite navigation system. (BBC)
    • Astronomers report the discovery of a large exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of a star 22 light-years distant. This is the fourth potentially life-supporting exoplanet discovered since May 2011. (San Francisco Chronicle)
    • Researchers reportedly create the world's thinnest pane of glass, a sheet of silicon and oxygen just three atoms wide. The glass formed in an accidental reaction when the scientists were synthesizing graphene on copper-covered quartz. (ScienceMag) (Nano Lett.)
  • 3 February
    • The European Southern Observatory successfully activates its Very Large Telescope (VLT) by linking four existing optical telescopes to operate as a single device. The linked VLT is the largest optical telescope yet built, with a combined mirror diameter of 130 metres (430 ft). (BBC)
    • Physicists at Germany's Max Planck Institute unveil a microscope that can image living brain cells as they function inside a living animal. (PhysOrg) (Science)
    • American scientists demonstrate a medical procedure that may allow patients suffering from nerve damage to recover within weeks, rather than months or years. The procedure makes use of a cellular mechanism similar to that which repairs nerve axons in invertebrates. (Science Daily) (J. Neurosci Res.)
    • MIT researchers develop high-temperature photonic crystals capable of efficiently converting heat to electricity, potentially allowing the creation of pocket-sized microreactors with ten times the efficiency and lifespan of current commercial batteries. As photonic crystals are already a relatively mature technology, the new invention could be commercialised in as little as two years. (ExtremeTech)
    • A Lancet study reports that global malaria deaths may be badly underestimated, giving a revised 2010 malaria death toll of 1.24 million. By contrast, the World Health Organisation estimated that 655,000 people died of malaria in 2010. (BBC) (The Lancet)
  • 4 February – Dutch doctors successfully fit an 83-year-old woman with an artificial jaw made using a 3D printer. This operation, the first of its kind, could herald a new era of accurate, patient-tailored artificial transplants. (BBC)
4 February 2012: Dutch doctors successfully fit the first artificial jaw made with a 3D printer (ORDbot Quantum 3D printer pictured).
  • 6 February
    • After nearly 20 years of intermittent drilling, Russian scientists reportedly break through to the surface of the subterranean Lake Vostok, buried 2.5 miles (4.0 km) under the Antarctic ice. The lake, which has not been uncovered for over 15 million years, may harbour a unique prehistoric ecosystem. (The Guardian) (The Washington Post)
    • A team of engineers and biologists develop a working WORM computer memory out of salmon DNA molecules by combining the DNA with silver nanoparticles. (ExtemeTech) (Appl. Phys. Lett.)
  • 7 February
  • 8 February – NASA data reveals that the total land ice lost from Greenland, Antarctica and Earth's glaciers and ice caps between 2003 and 2010 totalled about 4.3 trillion tons (1,000 cubic miles), adding about 0.5 inches (12 millimeters) to global sea levels. Such a quantity of ice would be sufficient to cover the entire United States to a depth of 1.5 feet (0.5 meters). (NASA/JPL)
  • 9 February – Researchers at Case Western Reserve University discover that bexarotene, a drug normally used to treat skin cancer, can quickly reverse the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in mice, removing over 50% of the disease's trademark amyloid plaque from the brain within 72 hours. (CNN) (Science)
  • 10 February – Scientists at the University of California, San Diego report the creation of the tiniest telecommunications laser yet built, just 200 nanometers wide. The highly efficient nanolaser could be used to develop optical computers and ultra-high-resolution imaging systems. (PopSci) (Nature)
  • 13 February
    • A new UN report warns that 24 percent of global land area has declined in productivity over the past 25 years due to unsustainable land-use, and soil erosion rates are about 100 times greater than nature can replenish. (UPI) (UNEP)
    • The European Space Agency successfully conducts the maiden launch of its new Vega rocket, transporting several satellites into orbit, including the first Polish, Hungarian and Romanian satellites. (The Telegraph)
    • BAE Systems engineers unveil a carbon-fiber-based structural battery capable of being integrated into a device's framework, reducing weight while maintaining structural strength and power capacity. (BBC)
  • 14 February – In a groundbreaking human trial, American scientists report that damaged heart tissue in heart attack patients can be repaired with infusions of the patient's own stem cells. The treatment halved the amount of extant scar tissue within a year. (BBC) (The Lancet)
15 February 2012: Nevada becomes the first US state to release official regulations for the public testing of autonomous cars (prototype autonomous Audi pictured).

March[edit]

7 March 2012: scientists sequence the genome of the Western gorilla.
15 March 2012: scientists send the first coherent message using neutrinos (first recorded neutrino event pictured).
  • 14 March
    • A fly species, kept in complete darkness for 57 years (1,400 generations), showed genetic alterations that occurred as a result of environmental conditions, offering clear evidence of evolution. (Discover Magazine) (PLoS ONE)
    • A pill which doubles the length of time that patients with advanced skin cancer can survive has gone on sale in Britain for the first time. (The Telegraph)
    • America's coastlines are even more vulnerable to sea level rise than previously thought, according to a pair of new studies. Up to 32% more real estate could be affected by a 1-meter rise in sea level, while the population exposed to rising water is 87% higher than previously estimated. (Christian Science Monitor) (Environ. Res. Lett. 1) (Environ. Res. Lett. 2)
    • A process to "unprint" toner ink from paper has been developed by engineers at the University of Cambridge, using short laser pulses to erase words and images. (BBC) (Proc. Roy. Soc. A)
  • 15 March – American scientists use a particle accelerator to send a coherent neutrino message through 780 feet of rock. This marks the first use of neutrinos for communication, and future research may permit binary neutrino messages to be sent immense distances through even the densest materials, such as the Earth's core. (PopSci) (Mod. Phys. Lett. A.)
  • 16 March – Physicists found no discernible difference between the speed of a neutrino and the speed of light in latest test of the faster-than-light neutrino anomaly. (New York Times) (BBC) (ArXiv)
  • 18 March
    • Researchers have identified why a mutation in a particular gene can lead to obesity. (BBC) Nat. Med.
    • NEC has developed "organic radical battery" (ORB) technology with a thickness of just 0.3mm. (PhysOrg)
  • 19 March
    • Even if humankind manages to limit global warming to 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F), as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recommends, future generations will have to deal with sea levels 12 to 22 meters (40 to 70 feet) higher than at present, according to research published in the journal Geology. (Rutgers) (Geology)
    • Researchers at the RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan) have developed a way to create full-color holograms with the aid of surface plasmons. (PhysOrg)
    • The amount of photovoltaic solar panels installed in the US more than doubled from 2010 to 2011, according to a report by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and GTM Research. (PhysOrg)
    • Seagate claims it has paved the way for 3.5-inch hard drives with 60TB capacities, after breaking the 1TB/square inch density threshold. (PC Pro)
19 March 2012: researchers report that the number of solar panels in the United States more than doubled between 2010 and 2011.

April[edit]

5 April 2012: the Large Hadron Collider completes a landmark energy upgrade.
  • 2 April – The British Army announces the development of a conductive smart fabric for infantry uniforms. The fabric, which should enter widespread service by 2015, will eliminate the need for heavy, vulnerable power cables, making soldiers' electronics safer, cheaper and more durable. (BBC)
  • 4 April
    • A new, detailed record of past climate change has shown compelling evidence that the last ice age was ended by a rise in temperature driven by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The key result from the new study is that it shows the carbon dioxide rise during this major transition ran slightly ahead of increases in global temperature. (BBC) (Nature)
    • Austrian and Japanese researchers unveil solar cells that are thinner than a thread of spider silk, and flexible enough to be wrapped around a single human hair. (PhysOrg) (Nat. Commun.)
    • American researchers begin a new project, funded by the National Science Foundation, to develop printable robots that can be designed and made to order by the average person in less than 24 hours. The project, which is hoped to come to fruition by 2020, could allow any individual to cheaply build automated tools for any task in their own home. (BBC)
  • 5 April
  • 6 April – An international team of researchers reports that a new, drug-resistant strain of malaria has emerged on the ThaiCambodian border, potentially threatening global efforts to contain the disease. (Medical News Today) (The Lancet)
  • 8 April – American scientists reveal that transparent graphene sheets can be used to encapsulate liquids for study by electron microscopes. The discovery will greatly ease the accurate imaging of liquids at micro- and nanoscales. (BBC) (Science)
  • 10 April – The Wellcome Trust, one of the world's largest private funders of scientific research, states that it is launching a new online journal to promote the free sharing of scientific papers. The new journal, titled eLife, is part of a widespread push for open access to scientific research, and will compel researchers to make their work freely available online. (The Guardian)
  • 12 April
12 April 2012: German scientists create the world's first quantum computing network using entangled rubidium atoms (rubidium sample shown).
19 April 2012: international researchers develop synthetic DNA compounds.

May[edit]

6 May 2012: scientists develop a drug capable of preventing the breakdown of cerebral protein production, potentially offering a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease (cerebral plaques pictured).
20 May 2012: an annular solar eclipse occurs (eclipse photograph from Wolfforth, Texas, shown).
25 May 2012: SpaceX's Dragon becomes the first commercial spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station.
30 May 2012: the tomato genome is fully sequenced by international researchers.

June[edit]

  • 1 June
    • In a major milestone for neuroscience, researchers publicly release the first installment of data from their project to construct the first whole-brain wiring diagram of a vertebrate brain, that of a mouse. (KurzweilAI)
    • Scientists publish the results of a successful neurorehabilitation study, in which paralysed rats regained the ability to walk and even sprint after receiving targeted electrochemical therapy. The rats' damaged spinal cords were stimulated with chemicals and implanted electrodes, and a robotic assistive harness was used to "teach" the rats to walk again. (Science Daily) (BBC) (Science)
    • Australian researchers publish a new study revealing how the zebrafish heals its spinal cord after injury. According to the study, a specialised protein prevents paralysing glial scars forming when zebrafish suffer spinal cord damage. It is hoped that this protein may be exploited for the treatment of paralysed humans. (Sci-News) (J. Neurosci.)
  • 4 June – A partial lunar eclipse takes place. (MSNBC)
  • 5 June
5–6 June 2012: a transit of Venus, the last such event until 2117, occurs (transit image from Minneapolis shown).
13 June 2012: scientists publish the complete genome of the bonobo (female pictured).
29 June 2012: scientists develop an fMRI brain scanner which allows paralyzed people to communicate using thought alone (fMRI images shown).

July[edit]

4 July 2012: CERN scientists report the discovery of a particle with significant similarities to the Higgs boson (Higgs collision signature shown).
15 July 2012: the parasitic disease Dracunculiasis (extraction of a causative guinea worm pictured) is reportedly close to being eradicated.

August[edit]

  • 1 August – Researchers claim to have resolved one of the biggest controversies in cancer research – discovering the specific cancer cells that seem to be responsible for the regrowth of tumours. (Nature News)
6 August 2012: NASA's Curiosity rover, the largest such spacecraft yet launched, successfully lands on Mars (artist's impression pictured).
14 August 2012: Boeing's X-51 hypersonic scramjet prototype (pictured in launch configuration) is destroyed following a test flight malfunction.
21 August 2012: a study of major coastal cities asserts that Shanghai (skyline pictured) may be highly vulnerable to large-scale flooding in the near future.

September[edit]

5 September 2012: the most detailed analysis of the human genome yet produced is published.
12 September 2012: the monkey species Cercopithecus lomamiensis is formally described.
  • 10 September
    • A new scientific model suggests that even more extrasolar planets could harbour life than previously estimated. The model assumes that subsurface liquid water could host alien life, in addition to the surface water that scientists are searching for on nearby exoplanets. (BBC)
    • Caribbean coral reefs are on the verge of collapse, with less than 10% of the reef area showing live coral cover. (The Guardian) (IUCN)
  • 12 September
  • 13 September
    • Small spherical "blueberries" found in Martian rocks may have been formed by microbes, possibly indicating that life existed on Mars in the distant past. (Life Scientist) (Geology)
    • UNICEF reports that global child mortality rates have decreased significantly in recent years. Whereas approximately 12 million children died before their fifth birthday in 1990, by 2011 this figure had dropped to 6.9 million. This improvement is reportedly due to a combination of rising living standards, foreign aid and broader immunisation. (AFP)
    • An IBM team in Zürich has published single-molecule images so detailed that the type of atomic bonds between their atoms can be discerned. (BBC) (Science)
    • Scientists identify five genes that determine the form of the human face, in a find that could lead to police identification sketches based solely on DNA findings. (BBC) (PLoS Genet.)
  • 14 September
    • Scientists demonstrated that a brain implant can improve cognitive function in primates for the first time ever. IOP[29] (io9)
    • UK weather forecasters can predict extreme winter weather in future seasons with more confidence, due to a new analytical computer model. (BBC) (Environ. Res. Lett.)
17 September 2012: after nine months studying the Moon's gravitational field, NASA's GRAIL satellites report that the lunar crust is much thinner than previously estimated.
19 September 2012: sea ice cover in the Arctic reaches the lowest extent ever recorded.
  • 20 September
  • 22 September – NASA reveals plans for the "Gateway Spacecraft", a permanent outpost beyond the Moon, to be constructed from leftover components of the International Space Station. (Orlando Sentinel)
  • 23 September
    • Researchers have shown that many species of fruit fly will be unable to survive even a modest increase in temperature. Many are now close to or beyond their temperature safety margin, and very few have the genetic ability to adapt to climate change. (Sydney Morning Herald) (PNAS)
    • Japanese researchers achieve a new world record for data transmission, demonstrating one-petabit-per-second fiber transmission over 50 kilometres (31 mi): equivalent to sending 5,000 HDTV videos per second over a single fiber. (NTT)
    • The first continent-wide estimate of African great ape distribution and its changes over time has revealed a dramatic decline in ape habitats. (BBC) (Div. Distrib.)
  • 24 September
    • UK doctors report that a new "SARS-like" respiratory coronavirus has been identified. The disease has infected at least two people in the Middle East and killed one. (BBC)
    • A major reassessment of 18 years of satellite observations provides a new, more detailed view of the changes in sea level around the world. Incorporating the data from a number of spacecraft, the study re-affirms that ocean waters globally are rising by just over 3mm per year. (BBC)
    • The entire field of particle physics is set to switch to open-access publishing, a milestone in the push to make research results freely available to readers. (Nature News)
  • 25 September
  • 26 September – An international team of scientists identifies a key factor responsible for declining muscle repair during ageing, and discovers how to halt the process in mice with a common drug. (EurekAlert) (Nature)
  • 27 September
  • 30 September – Climate change will lead to smaller fish, according to a new study led by fisheries scientists at the University of British Columbia. Under a high emissions scenario, the maximum body weight most fish species reach could decline by up to a quarter by 2050. (Nat. Clim. Change)

October[edit]

3 October 2012: scientists discover that the black mamba (pictured), best known for its lethal venom, also produces a highly effective painkiller.
8–10 October 2012: the year's Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry and medicine (medal pictured) are awarded.
17 October 2012: scientists discover a new exoplanet (artist's impression pictured) orbiting Earth's nearest alien star, Alpha Centauri.
22 October 2012: a Da Vinci surgical robot (pictured) is used to perform the UK's first robot-assisted open-heart surgery.
  • 22 October
  • 24 October
    • As much as 44 billion tons of nitrogen and 850 billion tons of carbon stored in Arctic permafrost could be released over the next century, according to a new study led by the U.S. Geological Survey. This is roughly the amount of carbon already stored in the atmosphere today. (USGS) (Geophys. Res. Lett.)
    • Binge drinking – drinking less during the week and more on the weekends – significantly reduces the structural integrity of the adult brain, according to a new study. (Science Daily) (Neuroscience)
    • A new gene therapy method to prevent the inheritance of certain genetic diseases has been successfully demonstrated in human cells. It is believed that this research, along with other efforts, will pave the way for future clinical trials in human subjects. (Science Daily) (Nature)
    • The world's first commercial vertical farm opens in Singapore. The farm maximizes its growing space by using 120 high-rise cultivation towers, and can produce half a ton of vegetables a day. (Channel News Asia)
  • 25 October – Microsoft launches Windows 8, the most fundamental update to its Windows operating system in 17 years. (The Guardian)
  • 26 October
    • The oldest Mayan tomb yet discovered is found in Guatemala. The ancient tomb is believed to date back to between 400 BC and 700 BC. (BBC)
    • Scientists have recovered the sounds of music and laughter from the oldest playable American recording, dating back to 1878. (The Atlantic)
  • 27 October – Women who give up smoking by the age of 30 will almost completely evade the risks of dying young from tobacco-related diseases, according to a study of more than a million women. (BBC)
  • 28 October
  • 30 October
  • 31 October – Scientists in the Netherlands have demonstrated a form of self-healing concrete that uses limestone-producing bacteria. (BBC) (TU Delft)

November[edit]

6 November 2012: scientists report that regular leisure-time exercise can extend human life expectancy by over 4 years.
12 November 2012: TOP500 declares the US Titan supercomputer (pictured) to be the world's most powerful computer.
21 November 2012: in a breakthrough for quantum cryptography, scientists send encoded quantum signals using a standard commercial fiber optic, potentially allowing near-unbreakable quantum data security to be commercialised.
  • 20 November
    • NASA scientists report (via an NPR interview) that the Curiosity Mars rover, apparently based on a SAM analysis, has provided, according to John Grotzinger (MSL Principal Investigator), "data that is gonna be one for the history books. It's looking really good." Later, a NASA spokesperson said the discovery "won't be earthshaking, but it will be interesting." Nonetheless, the scientists are presently verifying their results and expect to make an official announcement at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, which will take place between 3 December and 7 December in San Francisco, according to Grotzinger in an interview with Space.com. The news is later played down by NASA. (NPR) (Universe Today) (Time) (Space.com) (New York Times)
    • More than 1,000 coal-fired power plants are being planned worldwide, new research from the World Resources Institute has revealed, with the majority being constructed in China and India. (The Guardian) (WRI)
    • The level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached 390.9 parts per million in 2011, a new record high, according to the World Meteorological Organization. Between 1990 and 2011, there was a 30% increase in radiative forcing. (WMO) (Report)
    • Physicists have shown that synthetic membrane channels can be constructed through "DNA nanotechnology." (Science Daily) (Science)
    • Scientists have developed a computer chip that mimics a dog's nose. It is capable of rapidly identifying trace amounts of vapour molecules, providing continuous real-time monitoring at concentrations of just 1 part per billion (ppb). (UCSB) (Anal. Chem.)
  • 21 November
    • For the first time, encrypted quantum signals are successfully sent down a conventional broadband fiber, instead of requiring a dedicated individual cable. This development could allow quantum cryptography, which offers near-impenetrable data security, to become available to the general public. (BBC) (Phys. Rev. X)
    • The effects of climate change are already evident in Europe and the situation is set to get worse, the European Environment Agency has warned. (BBC) (EEA)
    • A United Nations report – the Emissions Gap Report 2012 – says global attempts to limit CO2 emissions are falling well short of what is needed to stem dangerous climate change. (BBC)
    • For the first time, scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have defined key events that take place early in the process of cellular aging. They have shown that the acidity of the vacuole is critical to aging and the stable functioning of mitochondria. (FHCRC) (Nature)
    • The printing of 3D tissue has taken a major step forward with the creation of a novel hybrid printer that simplifies the process of creating implantable cartilage. (IOP) (Biofabrication)
    • European Space Agency (ESA) member states agree at their ministerial council to a 10.1-billion-euro programme of activities, including a planned upgrade to the Ariane 5 rocket. (BBC) (ESA)
  • 23 November
  • 25 November
    • A Chinese Shenyang J-15 jet fighter conducts the first landing on the country's first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning. This milestone marks a major step forward in China's efforts to increase its naval power. (BBC)
    • Pathological changes typical of Alzheimer's disease have been significantly reduced in mice by blockade of an immune system transmitter. (Science Daily) (Nat. Med.)
26 November 2012: a liquid natural gas tanker (example pictured) becomes the first large cargo vessel to attempt a winter crossing of the Arctic. As the Arctic sea ice melts in coming years, the sea route may become increasingly viable for large ships.
29 November 2012: NASA reports the discovery of water ice on the surface of Mercury (pictured).

December[edit]

5 December 2012: scientists implant the first deep brain stimulation device (X-ray image pictured) to be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in the United States.
24 December 2012: British medical researchers discover two genes that are thought to greatly increase the risk of bowel cancer (carcinoid pictured).

IISE Top 10 New Species[edit]

The Top 10 New Species 2013 was announced on 22 May 2013 by the International Institute for Species Exploration, commemorating unique species discovered during 2012. The ten selected new species were:[35][36][37]

Prizes[edit]

Abel Prize[edit]

Main article: Abel Prize

Fundamental Physics Prize[edit]

Kyoto Prize[edit]

Main article: Kyoto Prize

Nobel Prize[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Sources: The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph

10 March 2012: Frank Sherwood Rowland, a Nobel Prize-winning American chemist, dies aged 84.
23 July 2012: Sally Ride, the first American woman in space, dies aged 61.
25 August 2012: Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the Moon, dies aged 82.
17 October 2012: Stanford Ovshinsky, a prolific American inventor and physicist, dies aged 89.
9 December 2012: Sir Patrick Moore, a prominent British astronomer and science popularizer, dies aged 89.
30 December 2012: Rita Levi-Montalcini, a Nobel Prize-winning Italian neurologist, dies aged 103.

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  20. ^ "Genetically Engineered Bt Corn and Range Expansion of the Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States: A Response to Greenpeace Germany". Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  29. ^ Hampson, Robert E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Marmarelis, Vasilis; Song, Dong; Opris, Ioan; Santos, Lucas; Berger, Theodore W; Deadwyler, Sam A (1 October 2012). "Facilitation and restoration of cognitive function in primate prefrontal cortex by a neuroprosthesis that utilizes minicolumn-specific neural firing". Journal of Neural Engineering 9 (5): 056012. Bibcode:2012JNEng...9e6012H. doi:10.1088/1741-2560/9/5/056012. PMC 3505670. PMID 22976769. 
  30. ^ "Space Year Review 2012: Launch vehicles - Falcon 9, Delta IV and Soyuz show robustness in mishaps but not so for Safir or Proton". FlightGlobal.com. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  31. ^ "UK's Skynet military satellite launched". BBC. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  32. ^ Cherry, Jonathan D.; Frost, Jeffrey L.; Lemere, Cynthia A.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Olschowka, John A.; O'Banion, M. Kerry. "Galactic Cosmic Radiation Leads to Cognitive Impairment and Increased Aβ Plaque Accumulation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease". PLOS ONE 7 (12): e53275. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...753275C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275. PMID 23300905. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
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  36. ^ Arizona State University College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (22 May 2013). "Top 10 new species of 2012". ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, LLC. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  37. ^ Varma S (23 May 2013). "Amazing top 10 new species include glowing cockroach, tiniest vertebrate and new monkey". The Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  38. ^ a b "The 2012 Kyoto Prize Laureates". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  39. ^ "Roland Moreno obituary". The Guardian. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.

External links[edit]