2013 Pacific hurricane season

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2013 Pacific hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed May 15, 2013
Last system dissipated November 4, 2013
Strongest storm Raymond – 951 mbar (hPa) (28.09 inHg), 125 mph (205 km/h)
Total depressions 21
Total storms 20
Hurricanes 9
Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+) 1
Total fatalities 135 confirmed
Total damage $4.201 billion (2013 USD)
Pacific hurricane seasons
2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, Post-2014
Related article

The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was tied for the most active since 1992, although most of the storms remained weak. It officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.[1]

The second storm of the season, Hurricane Barbara, brought widespread heavy rains to much of Southwestern Mexico and Central America. Damage estimates from the storm range from $750,000 to $1 million (2013 USD); four people were killed and four others are reportedly missing. In addition to Barbara, Hurricane Cosme killed three people despite remaining far offshore the Mexican coast. Hurricane Erick also brought slight effects to the region as well, killing two people. Later that month, Tropical Storm Flossie threatened to become the first storm to make a "direct hit" on Hawaii in 20 years, causing minimal damage. Ivo and Juliette both threatened Baja California Sur, and the former triggered flash floods across the Southwestern United States. In mid-September, Hurricane Manuel killed at least 169 people in Mexico, and was responsible for significant damage to the western coast and the area around Acapulco. In late October, Hurricane Raymond became the strongest storm of the season.

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2013 season
Source Date Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Average (1971–2006) 15.3 8.8 4.2
Record high activity 28 16 (tie) 10
Record low activity 8 (tie) 3 0(tie)
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
NOAA May 23, 2013 11-16 5-8 1-4
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
20 9 1

On May 22, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Central Pacific Hurricane Center announced a below-normal season in the Central Pacific warning zone this year. The outlook calls for a 70 percent chance of a below-normal season, a 25 percent chance of a near-normal season, and a 5 percent chance of an above-normal season. They anticipated 1 to 3 tropical cyclones to affect the central Pacific this season. On average, 4 to 5 tropical cyclones either form in or enter the warning zone. The main reason for below-normal activity was due to a combination of neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation conditions and the fact that the region was in a low phase of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which is known to suppress activity in the region. Despite this, meteorologists advised all residents of the Hawaiian Island group to be prepared for the upcoming hurricane season.[2]

Seasonal summary[edit]

Hurricane Raymond (2013) Hurricane Manuel Tropical Storm Flossie (2013) Hurricane Erick (2013) Hurricane Cosme (2013) Hurricane Barbara (2013) Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

The season's first tropical storm formed on May 15,[3] coinciding with the official start of the Pacific hurricane season.[4] On average, a tropical cyclone develops in May in the eastern Pacific every other year; however, the last Pacific hurricane season to not feature at least one tropical cyclone in May was the 2011 season.[5] The formation of Barbara in late May marked only the fifth time since 1949 that two tropical storms formed during the month, with the other seasons being 1956, 1984, 2007, and 2012.[6][7][8]

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index for the season is 71.81 units for the East Pacific, including 6.33 units for the Central Pacific.[nb 1]

Storms[edit]

Tropical Storm Alvin[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration May 15 – May 17
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

The genesis of Alvin is attributed to a tropical wave first noted over the southeastern Caribbean Sea on May 4. Tracking westward, the wave crossed Central America and entered the eastern Pacific a few days later. A broad area of low pressure formed along the wave axis on May 9 while convection gradually became better defined; by 0600 UTC on May 15, the system had acquired enough organization to be considered a tropical depression. At 7.8°N, the depression tied Hurricane Annette as the second lowest-latitude tropical cyclone to form in the eastern Pacific on record. Following satellite data, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Alvin twelve hours later. Turning west-northwestward around a subtropical ridge over inland Mexico, a marginally favorable environment allowed the system to attain its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1000 mb (hPa; 29.53 inHg) at 0600 UTC on May 16. Thereafter, increasing vertical wind shear and dry air entrainment caused the low-level center of Alvin to become stretched northeast to southwest. By 0600 UTC on May 17, the cyclone no longer sustained a closed circulation, marking the dissipation of Alvin. At this time, the system was located about 775 mi (1245 km) southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico.[9]

Hurricane Barbara[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration May 28 – May 30
Peak intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  983 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged off the western coast of Africa on May 24. Tracking westward, the wave crossed Central America on May 26 and emerged into the East Pacific basin shortly thereafter. A broad area of low pressure formed southwest of the coastline of Nicaragua the following day, likely aided by an eastward-propagating kelvin wave. Shower and thunderstorm activity increased in extent and intensity over subsequent days and by 1200 UTC on May 28, the system had attained enough organized to be considered a tropical depression. Embedded within an environment conducive for intensification, the depression intensified into a tropical storm—acquiring the name Barbara—six hours following formation. A period of rapid deepening began about this time, with the development of an inner core early on May 29. Accelerating northeastward in advance of a mid-latitude trough across the south-central United States, an eye became apparent in visible satellite images around 1800 UTC; on this basis, the system was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane. Approximately two hours later, the center of Barbara came ashore about 15 mi (25 km) west-southwest of Tonalá, Chiapas. Maximum sustained winds at the time of landfall were estimated to be near 80 mph (130 km/h), the highest during the system's lifespan. The mountainous terrain of Mexico caused rapid weakening by May 30; at 0600 UTC, Barbara was downgraded to a tropical depression. Lacking deep convection over the low, Barbara degenerated into a remnant low six hours later while emerging into the Bay of Campeche.[10]

The precursor disturbance to brought rainfall to El Salvador,[11] where one person was killed.[12] In Mexico, rainfall peaked at 470 mm (19 in).[13] Even though Hurricane Barbara struck a largely undeveloped stretch of coastal lagoons, containing small fishing villages,[14] two elderly people were killed in Oaxaca.[15] Furthermore, 14 fishermen were left missing off the coast of Tapanatepec;[16][17] eight of which were found alive.[18] The towns of Tonala and Arriaga were the worst affected by the hurricane.[19] Although damage was minor,[20] 50 people were evacuated and 2,000 homes were damaged.[21] Throughout the region, 57,000 people were homeless and 10,000 hectares of crops were destroyed.[22] Losses to the mango crop were estimated at 10–15 million pesos ($750,000–$1.1 million USD).[23]

Hurricane Cosme[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration June 23 – June 27
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Early on June 20, the NHC began monitoring a tropical disturbance several hundred southeast of Acapulco.[24] after becoming more organized, at 1500 UTC on June 23, the system was designated as Tropical Depression Three-E.[25] Based on data via Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) passes, the cyclone was upgraded to Tropical Storm Cosme.[26] Tracking west-northwestward around the southwestern edge of a ridge over central Mexico,[27] Cosme gradually became better organized with banding features wrapping into deep convection near the storm's center.[28] Following a rapid improvement of the inner core on June 25 and the formation of eye, Cosme attained hurricane status.[29] The system reached peak intensity late on June 25 with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 980 mbar (hPa; 28.97 inHg).[30] Shortly after its peak, Cosme moved over and area of lower sea surface temperatures, causing convection to erode significantly.[31] Cosme weakened below hurricane strength on June 26 as its thunderstorm activity dissipated.[32] Continuing to weaken, the storm's winds soon decreased below tropical storm-force.[33] At 2100 UTC on June 27, the NHC declared Cosme a post-tropical cyclone.[34] The remnants of Cosme continued westwards before degenerating into a surface trough on July 1.[35]

Due to the storm's large size,[36] a "green" alert (low risk) was issued for the states of Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan while a "blue" alert (minimum risk) was placed into effect for the states of Nayarit, Guerrero,[37] and Baja California Sur.[38] As the system passed through the Revillagigedo Islands, wind reached 42 mph (68 km/h) on Socorro Island.[39] The outer rainbands brought moderate rains to Guerrero,[40] causing minor flooding in Acapulco. Across the state, the storm generated 24 landslides,[41] which blocked highways.[40] Two people were killed in the Guerrero, one a tourist that drowned in Zihuatanejo[42] and the other a police officer in an airplane crash that injured 19 others.[43] High seas flooded numerous buildings across coastal towns in Colima,[44][45] damaging 34 tourist facilities and killing one person.[46] Additionally, many restaurants built of wood and coconut were damaged. In Manzanillo, the port was closed to small craft,[47] as was the port of Mazatlan.[48] Overall, 50 homes were damaged by the storm.[49]

Hurricane Dalila[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration June 29 – July 7
Peak intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  984 mbar (hPa)

On June 26, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring a newly formed area of disturbed weather to the south of Acapulco, Mexico.[50] At the time, upper-level winds prevented organization,[51] but as shear slowly lowered, gradual consolidation of the system occurred.[52] Convection decreased in coverage and intensity the following day, but a thunderstorm increase the following morning led to the formation of Tropical Depression Four-E at 0300 UTC on June 30, while situated 375 miles (605 km) south-southeast of Manzanillo, Colima.[53] Though the system did not become better organized, a relocation of the center within the convection prompted the NHC to upgrade Four-E to Tropical Storm Dalila several hours later.[54] Convection improved and a prominent rainband became developed. An eye became visible on both microwave and visible satellite imagery on July 2, prompting the NHC to upgrade Dalila to a Category 1 hurricane.[55] Easterly wind shear and dry air caused the hurricane to lose organization early on July 3,[56] and by later that day, Dalila began to weaken rapidly. At 2100 UTC, the NHC downgraded the system to a tropical storm.[57] The center became displaced from much of the convective activity, and it became exposed early on July 4.[58] Occasional bursts of short-lived convection allowed Dalila to remain a tropical depression through the afternoon of July 6.[citation needed]

When Dalila threatened Western Mexico, the states of Colima, Michoacan, and Jalisco went under a yellow alert; Nayarit was placed on a green alert. Blue alerts were issued for Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, Guerrero, and Oaxaca.[59] The port of Manzanillo was closed as a precaution, where the storm brought rain and storm surge.[60] The outer rainbands of the storm also brought moderate to heavy rainfall along coastal areas of Colima and Jalisco.[61] A total of 49 structures were damaged due to the storm.[62][63]

Hurricane Erick[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 4 – July 9
Peak intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  983 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off the western coast of Africa on June 18 and continued westward across Central America and into the eastern Pacific by June 29. It subsequently interacted with a large cyclonic gyre, leading to an increase in convective activity and the formation of an area of low pressure. Following satellite and microwave data,[64] the disturbance was upgraded to a tropical depression at 1200 UTC on July 4. Initially, moderate easterly shear prevented much organization as the system tracked west-northwest; however, a reprieve in upper-level winds by 0000 UTC on July 5 allowed the depression to intensify into Tropical Storm Erick as convective bands gained more curvature. A period of steady intensification over the next day allowed the system to attain Category 1 hurricane intensity at 0600 UTC and reach its peak with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 983 mb (hPa; 29.03 inHg) six hours later. Decreasing ocean temperatures caused the convective appearance to deteriorate at a steady pace; by 1800 UTC on July 7, Erick weakened to a tropical storm, and by 0600 UTC on July 9, the system no longer sustained enough organization to be considered a tropical cyclone.[65]

The outer rainbands of the storm brought gusty winds just offshore the Mexican coast.[66][67] In Acapulco and Puerto Marques, the storm was responsible for minor flooding.[63] Elsewhere across the state, most of the damage was due to landslides.[68] Along the coast of Colima, 9-foot (2.7 m) waves were recorded.[69] Although some flooding was reported across the state, damage was minor.[70] Further north, in Nayarit, however, damage was extensive. One woman died. One river overflow their banks, which directly affected numerous cities. The Mexican military and officials in Nayarit attempted to rescue hundreds of people affected by Hurricane Erick.[71]

Tropical Storm Flossie[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration July 25 – July 30
Peak intensity 70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Early on July 21, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring a broad area of low pressure south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico.[72] Further organization of the disturbance was slow[73] despite an environment conducive for development.[74] Late on July 24, however, the NHC declared the disturbance a tropical depression.[75] Subsequently, the NHC deemed the depression organized enough to upgrade it to Tropical Storm Flossie.[76] After becoming a tropical storm, Flossie maintained a general west-northwest direction.[76] The convection became better organized on July 26[77] and an mid-level eye developed early on July 27. Based on the improved appearance, the NHC estimated peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h).[78] Subsequently, cooler waters, drier air, and increased wind shear caused Flossie to start weakening. On July 27, Flossie crossed into the central Pacific Ocean, where the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) began issuing advisories.[79] After having weakened, Flossie briefly restrengthened on July 28 when the CPHC and several tropical cyclone prediction models anticipated the storm would move over the Hawaiian islands as a tropical storm.[80] Convection subsequently decreased near the center due to increasing shear.[81] Early on July 30, Flossie weakened to tropical depression status just offshore Maui.[82] Later in the day, the circulation likely degenerated into an open trough; as a result, the CPHC discontinued advisories on Flossie.[83]

Following Flossie's crossing into the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone, a tropical storm watch was issued for Hawaii and Maui counties on July 27.[84] All Maui County parks were closed due to the storm as county authorities activated emergency operations.[85] Upon becoming the first storm to directly hit the state in 20 years,[86] gusty winds downed trees and power lines. More than 9,000 residences were without electricity across the state, with most outages concentrated in Kihei, Maui, and Puna.[87][88][89]

Hurricane Gil[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 30 – August 6
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Early on July 29, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring a broad area of low pressure situated about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.[90] While environmental conditions presumably only favored gradual development, the disturbance quickly became better organized.[91] The system was assessed with a medium chance of tropical cyclone development within a two-day interval late that evening as it tracked generally west-northwest,[92] and at 0900 UTC on July 30, the NHC noted that "a tropical depression could be forming."[93] Following satellite intensity estimates and a timely microwave pass, the disturbance was upgraded to Tropical Depression Seven-E.[94] Curved banding features became apparent in afternoon satellite images and convection near the low-level center became better organized; as a result, the NHC upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Gil.[95] Steady intensification occurred after classification, with the development of a well-defined convective band wrapping nearly all the way around the center.[96] Hooking bands became more prominent on visible satellite imagery,[97] and a ragged eye was observed within the storm's central dense overcast; as a result, the NHC upgraded Gil to a Category 1 hurricane at 2100 UTC on July 31.[98]

Hurricane Henriette[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 3 – August 11
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  976 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather formed approximately 750 miles (1,210 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California on July 30. Moving generally westward, development of this feature was not initially expected due to strong wind shear from nearby Tropical Depression Seven-E.[99] By early on July 31, shower and thunderstorm activity associated with the low-pressure system decreased in coverage,[100] but due to the unexpected weakening of Hurricane Gil to the system's west, wind shear decreased and allowed convection to build once again.[101] Following a series of visible satellite images that on August 3, the NHC upgraded the system to Tropical Depression Eight-E.[102] The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Henriette early on August 4 following satellite intensity estimates supportive of such.[103]

Tropical Storm Pewa[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 16 – August 18 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

On August 16, a low pressure area located roughly 525 miles (840 km) south south-west of Johnston Atoll was upgraded to Tropical Storm Pewa, the 1st named Central Pacific storm since 2010.[104] Pewa continued to strengthen, until the system crossed the International Date Line on August 18.[105]

Tropical Storm Unala[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 19 – August 19 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

On August 10, the CPHC began monitoring a trough located roughly 1,300 mi (2,090 km) east-southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii for potential development.[106] Disorganized convective activity developed in association with the trough as it moved generally westward.[107] By August 13, multiple areas of vorticity formed within the disturbance, hindering its development into a coherent cyclone.[108] Marginally favorable environmental conditions allowed for some organization on August 15.[109] Following an increase strong thunderstorms around the center, the CPHC stated that it was becoming a tropical depression.[110] However, outflow from a nearby disturbance, which would soon become Tropical Storm Pewa, disrupted the system and caused it to become more disorganized.[111] Late on August 19 the depression strengthened into a tropical storm. However, outflow from the nearby Typhoon Pewa caused an increase in wind shear over the system, causing Unala to become disorganized and weaken. By this time the system has crossed into the Western Pacific basin. During the afternoon hours of August 19, the depression had dissipated completely, as it was being absorbed by Pewa.[citation needed]

Tropical Depression Three-C[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration August 19 – August 20 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1008 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance formed east of Tropical Storm Unala late on August 18. It intensified into Tropical Depression Three-C on August 19. Late on August 20, the system crossed the International Date Line, and moved into the Western Pacific basin until it was absorbed by Tropical Storm Pewa the same day.[112]

Tropical Storm Ivo[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 22 – August 25
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance formed in an area of high convection on August 20. It developed further into Tropical Depression Nine-E on August 22.[113] A day later, on August 23, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Ivo.[114] The system weakened into a remnant low on August 25. However, the circulation of the storm continued to persist off the coast of Baja California, even as moisture from the storm triggered flash flooding across the Southwestern United States from August 25–26.[115] While Ivo's moisture was absorbed into an Upper-level low over Utah, Ivo's remnant low slowly drifted to the west-southwest as a convectionless low, before finally dissipating early on August 28.[citation needed]

When the system first posed a threat to the Baja California Peninsula, a "green alert" was declared for Socorro Island and Baja California Sur.[116] At 2100 UTC August 23, a tropical storm warning was issued from Punta Abreojos to Loreto, including Cabo San Lucas. A tropical storm watch was placed for the Baja California Peninsula from Punta Abreojos to Punta Eugenia.[117] Seven ports in Baja California Sur were closed.[118] Along the peninsula, 6,000 people were affected and many highways were damaged. Water supply was cut off to Loreto.[119] In all, 400 people were evacuated and 200 homes were flooded. Six people were injured, including two serious.[120] In the United States, flash flood watches were issued for Piima County,[121] extending westward across western Arizona[122] and into Southern Nevada.[123] Several roads were closed in Yuma County.[122] In East County, many roads were flooded.[124] Elsewhere, Borrego Springs saw 3 inches (76 mm) of rain in less than an hour, resulting in flash flooding, which stranded motorists.[125] Several mudslides were also reported in San Bernardino County. One person drowned in Needles after flood waters overwhelmed her vehicle;[126] 18 swift water rescues were made in the same area. Heavy rains in Nevada, amounting to nearly 4 in (100 mm) at Mount Charleston, caused significant flooding; damage in the Las Vegas Valley reached $300,000.[127] Widespread flooding occurred around Zion National Park.[128]

Tropical Storm Juliette[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 28 – August 29
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

An area of convection occurred on August 25. It was classified as a disturbance the next day. Late on August 27, the disturbance entered warm waters as it became Tropical Depression Ten-E. Due to warm waters and windshear, Ten-E intensified into Tropical Storm Juliette late on August 28.[129] As Juliette races towards northwest, it reached peak intensity and then rapidly weakened to a depression on August 29. The JTWC made its final advisories later that day and its remnants continued to move west, with its circulation dissipating on August 30.

Upon formation, a "green alert" was issued for Sonora, the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Jalisco, Nayarit, and Socorro Island, while a "blue alert" was issued for Baja California Sur and Colima.[130] Six shelters opened for in San Jose del Cabo and Cabo San Lucas[131] and were used by 164 residents,[132] though many refused to go. Much of Baja California Sur briefly lost power, including the communities of Todos Santos and Pescadero, and portions of Cabo San Lucas and San Jose del Cabo. Furthermore, one man was electrocuted and later died. One home was destroyed.[133] A total of 1,600 persons spent the night in a shelter.[134]

Hurricane Kiko[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 30 – September 2
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

Similar with the formation of Tropical Storms Ivo and Juliette, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring a trough of low pressure about 1000 mi (1610 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California on August 27.[135] Despite being situated in a low wind shear environment, convection did not become any better defined until August 30.[136] This trend continued over the subsequent hours and the NHC remarked that "a tropical depression could be forming".[137] At 0300 UTC the following day, the disturbance acquired enough organization to be declared a tropical depression.[138] Following formation, the depression began an unexpected period of rapid intensification: in the span of two advisories, maximum sustained winds increased from 35 mph (55 km/h) to 60 mph (95 km/h).[139][140] An inner core became apparent on microwave imagery and a ragged eye briefly appeared on evening visible satellite; on this basis, winds were operationally increased to 70 mph (110 km/h), the strongest in relation to Kiko.[141] In post-analysis, however, Kiko was determined to have strengthened into a hurricane with 75 mph (120 km/h) winds.[142]

As the system tracked generally northward, it began to cross increasingly cooler sea surface temperatures and enter a stable airmass, causing deep convection to fad quickly.[143] At 0900 UTC on September 2, Kiko was downgraded to a tropical depression,[144] and was downgraded to a post-tropical cyclone after being devoid of significant convection for more than 12 hours.[145] Moisture from the remnants of Kiko later spread across the Western United States,[146] helping to relieve drought conditions in some areas.[147]

Tropical Storm Lorena[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 5 – September 7
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance formed south of Central America late on September 2. It developed into Tropical Depression Twelve-E on September 5.[148] Later that day, it intensified into Tropical Storm Lorena. Same as Tropical Storm Juliette two weeks prior, it reached peak intensity late on September 6 and rapidly weakened in a fastmotion on September 7. Lorena further weakened as its remnants continued to affect the western coast on September 9.[citation needed]

Upon becoming a tropical cyclone, a "yellow alert" was issued for Colima and Nayarit. A "green alert" was issued for Socorro Island, Michoacan, and Jalisco while a "blue alert" was in effect for Baja California Sur and Sinaloa.[130] Classes were suspended for Los Cabos.[149] The ports of Mazatlan, La Paz, Cabo San Lucas, Los Barriles, and San José del Cabo were closed because of high waves.[150][151] Lorena brought moderate rain over the peninsula.[152]

Hurricane Manuel[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 13 – September 19
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  983 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane Manuel

An area of disturbed weather developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen-E on September 13. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Manuel, late the next day. Manuel reached peak intensity as a strong tropical storm early on September 16. Due to strong vertical windshear, Manuel regenerated into a tropical depression on September 17. The remnants of Manuel continued to move northwest but very early on September 18, Manuel degenerated to a tropical storm and reached another peak intensity as a Category 1 hurricane as it later made landfall, before dissipating early on September 20 due to land reaction. Manuel also killed a total of 169 people. The system caused a total of $4.2 billion (2013 USD).

On April 10, 2014, it is said that the name Manuel will be retired and is replaced by the name Mario, due to extensive damages.[153]

Tropical Storm Narda[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration October 6 – October 10
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

Early on October 2, the NHC began monitoring an area of low pressure about 400 miles (645 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo.[154] Tracking generally westward, shower and thunderstorm activity remained limited for several days and development, if any, was expected to be slow.[155] Visible satellite imagery early on October 6 showed increasing shower and thunderstorm activity, a trend that persisted for the subsequent hours.[156] Following the development of a well-organized spiral band west of the center, the disturbance was classified as Tropical Depression Fourteen at 2100 UTC.[157] Satellite intensity estimates began to rise later that evening and deep convection continued to increase near and over the center; on this basis, the NHC upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Narda.[158] While turning towards the west-northwest in advance of an upper-level trough, Narda began a period of rapid deepening. A partial eyewall became apparent on microwave images and a long curved band wrapped around most of the center early on October 7; at this time, the system attained peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h).[159] This intensification phase was short-lived, however, as increased wind shear and dry air caused the system to weaken gradually. At 1500 UTC on October 8, Narda was downgraded to a tropical depression; 48 hours later, following the dissipation of organized convection over the center, the system was declared a post-tropical cyclone.[160][161]

Tropical Storm Octave[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration October 12 – October 15
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began monitoring a large area of disorganized shower and thunderstorm activity several hundred miles south of Puerto Ángel on October 8.[162] Paralleling the coastline of Mexico, environmental conditions were expected to remain favorable for the development of a tropical cyclone over the coming days.[163] Although convective decreased early on October 10,[164] shower and thunderstorm activity began to organize about a well-defined center on October 12.[165] Continuing to organize, the disturbance was upgraded to Tropical Depression Fifteen-E at 0300 UTC the following day.[166] Banding features became more prominent on satellite and ASCAT showed maximum sustained winds above tropical storm-force; for this reason, the NHC upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Octave at 0900 UTC.[167] After classification, the system began to organize quickly, with a 29 mi (47 km) diameter eye visible on satellite.[168] After attaining peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), the associated cloud pattern became to become increasingly disorganized as southwesterly shear rose.[169] Turning north-northeast, the low-level circulation decoupled from the remaining deep convection; based on this, the system was downgraded to a tropical depression at 0900 UTC on October 15.[170] After crossing the Baja California Peninsula, the exposed low-level center accelerated; at 1500 UTC the same day, Octave degenerated into a non-convective remnant low.[171]

Tropical Storm Priscilla[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration October 14 – October 16
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

In the same time Octave was classified as a tropical strom, the National Hurricane Center began monitoring an area of disturbed weather several hundred miles south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California; development was expected to be slow due to its proximity to the newly formed tropical depression.[172] Remaining nearly stationary, shower and thunderstorm activity began to increase the following morning.[173] Despite unfavorable wind shear, the system continued to become better organized, gaining enough organization to be declared Tropical Storm Priscilla at 0900 UTC on October 14.[174] Initially, lower wind shear as nearby Octave moved northward was expected to allow for steady intensification into a moderate tropical storm.[175] Within a few hours, however, it became increasingly apparent that a stable atmosphere and continued wind shear would not allow for substantial, if any, strengthening.[176] After attaining peak winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), the low-level center of Priscilla became decoupled from the deep convection.[177] Though it fired intermittently for the following day, the system ultimately weakened to a tropical depression by 1800 UTC on October 15.[178] Remaining without deep convection over the low-level center for 12 hours by late on October 16, Priscilla was subsequently designated as a remnant low as it tracked westward far from land.[179]

Hurricane Raymond[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration October 20 – October 30
Peak intensity 125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  951 mbar (hPa)

Raymond developed from a tropical wave on October 20 south of Acapulco, Mexico.[180][181] Within favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development, Raymond quickly intensified, attaining tropical storm intensity and later hurricane intensity within a day of tropical cyclogenesis.[182][183] On October 21, the hurricane reached its peak intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h).[184] A blocking ridge forced the hurricane to the southwest,[185] while at the same time Raymond began to quickly weaken due to wind shear.[186] The following day, the tropical cyclone weakened to tropical storm status.[187] After tracking westward, Raymond reentered more favorable conditions, allowing it to intensify back to hurricane strength on October 27 while curving northward.[188] The hurricane reached a secondary peak intensity with winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) several hours later.[189] Deteriorating atmospheric conditions resulted in Raymond weakening for a final time,[190] and on October 30, the NHC declared the tropical cyclone to have degenerated into a remnant low.[191]

Despite remaining offshore, Raymond's close proximity to the Mexican coast was enough to prompt tropical cyclone warnings and watches.[192] Due to the threat of rainfall, residents from 81 municipalities in Mexico were ordered to evacuate out of flood-prone regions.[193][194] Precipitation from Raymond peaked at 7.63 in (194 mm) near Acapulco within a two-day period.[195] Minor flooding resulted from the outer rainbands of the hurricane.[196] Though no deaths were reported, 585 people were rendered homeless. Following the storm, the Mexican government declared a state of emergency for 10 municipalities in Guerrero.[197]

Tropical Storm Sonia[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration November 1 – November 4
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Early on October 26, the National Hurricane Center began to remark on the potential for development from an area of low pressure expected to form south of Mexico several days out.[198] By October 29, a large area of disturbed weather formed well south of the coastline and it was assessed with a low chance of development within a two-day interval accordingly.[199] With upper-level winds forecast to become increasingly favorable, shower and thunderstorm activity increased over a broad area of low pressure; following satellite data, the system was upgraded to Tropical Depression Eighteen-E at 0900 UTC on November 1.[200] Following formation, the depression failed to organize due to moderate easterly shear, though it was still forecast to diminish.[201]

Storm names[edit]

The following names will be used for named storms that form in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2013. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2019 season. This is the same list used in the 2007 season.[202]

  • Ivo
  • Juliette
  • Kiko
  • Lorena
  • Manuel
  • Narda
  • Octave
  • Priscilla
  • Raymond
  • Sonia
  • Tico (unused)
  • Velma (unused)
  • Wallis (unused)
  • Xina (unused)
  • York (unused)
  • Zelda (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists.[203] Two names, Pewa and Unala, were used, marking the first time multiple Central Pacific cyclones were named since three were identified there in 2009.[204][205]

  • Pewa
  • Unala
  • Wali (unused)
  • Ana (unused)

Retirement[edit]

On April 10, 2014, at the 36th session of the RA IV hurricane committee, the name "Manuel" was retired due to the damage and deaths it caused and will not be used for another Pacific hurricane. Manuel will be replaced with "Mario" for the 2019 Pacific hurricane season.[206]

Season effects[edit]

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed in the 2013 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s) (in parenthesis), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect, but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 2013 USD.

2013 Pacific hurricane statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind

mph (km/h)

Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(millions USD)
Deaths


Alvin May 15 – May 17 Tropical storm 60 (95) 1000 None None None
Barbara May 28 – May 30 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 983 El Salvador, Guatemala, Southwestern Mexico (Chiapas), Eastern Mexico 1 5
Cosme June 23 – June 27 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 980 Revillagigedo Islands, Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula Minimal 3
Dalila June 29 – July 7 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 984 Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico Minimal None
Erick July 4 – July 9 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 983 Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula Moderate 2
Flossie July 25 – July 30 Tropical storm 70 (110) 994 Hawaii 0.024 None
Gil July 30 – August 6 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 985 None None None
Henriette August 3 – August 11 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 976 None None None
Pewa August 16 – August 18 Tropical storm 65 (100) 1000 None None None
Unala August 19 – August 19 Tropical storm 40 (65) 998 None None None
Three-C August 19 – August 20 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1008 None None None
Ivo August 22 – August 25 Tropical storm 45 (75) 997 Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United States 0.3 1
Juliette August 28 – August 29 Tropical storm 65 (100) 997 Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula Minimal 1
Kiko August 30 – September 2 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 989 Baja Calforinia Peninsula, Southwestern United States None None
Lorena September 5 – September 7 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1002 Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula None None
Manuel September 13 – September 19 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 983 Southwestern Mexico, Western Mexico (Michoacán), Northwestern Mexico (Sinaloa), Texas 4200 123
Narda October 6 – October 10 Tropical storm 65 (100) 997 None None None
Octave October 12 – October 15 Tropical storm 65 (100) 994 Baja California Peninsula, Northwestern Mexico, Texas Minimal None
Priscilla October 14 – October 16 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1001 Baja California Peninsula None None
Raymond October 20 – October 30 Category 3 hurricane 125 (205) 951 Southwestern Mexico Minimal None
Sonia November 1 – November 4 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1002 Northwestern Mexico (Sinaloa) None None
Season Aggregates
21 cyclones May 15 – November 4   125 (205) 949 4201 135

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The totals represent the sum of the squares for every tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2013 Pacific hurricane season/ACE calcs.

References[edit]

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