2013 Shahbag protests
||It has been suggested that Timeline of the 2013 Shahbag protests be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2013.|
|2013 Shahbag protests|
Demonstrators in Shahbag in February 2013
|Location||Bangladesh (began at Shahbagh Square, Dhaka)
The 2013 Shahbag protests, associated with the Shahbag central neighbourhood of Dhaka, Bangladesh, began on 5 February 2013 and later spread to other parts of Bangladesh, and became known as Gonojagaran Mancha (National Awakening Stage; gono means people, jagoron means awakening, and moncho means platform). The people demanded capital punishment for Abdul Quader Mollah, who had been sentenced to life imprisonment, and for others convicted of war crimes by the International Crimes Tribunal. On that day, the International Crimes Tribunal had sentenced Abdul Quader Mollah to life in prison after he was convicted on five of six counts of war crimes. Later demands included banning the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami party from politics and a boycott of institutions supporting (or affiliated with) the party.
Protesters considered Mollah's sentence too lenient, given his crimes. Bloggers and online activists called for additional protests at Shahbag. Tens of thousands of people joined the demonstration, which gave rise to protests across the country. By mid-April, their numbers had declined, and the original protest site is now clear.
A counter-protest, demanding release of those accused and convicted, was launched by Jamaat-e-Islami as its leaders were the majority of those first identified for trial. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) initially expressed its support for Jamaat-e-Islami, a principal political ally. But, the BNP cautiously welcomed the Shahbag protest, while warning the government not to make political mileage from a movement demanding capital punishment for war criminals.
During the protests, Ahmed Rajib Haider, a pro-Shahbag blogger, was brutally killed outside his house by machete-wielding youth. On 1 March, five students of North South University were arrested who 'confessed' involvement in Rajib's killing, but they were not Jamaat or Shibir, though independent verification and investigation is not possible at this stage. On 27 February 2013, the tribunal convicted Delwar Hossain Sayeedi of war crimes and sentenced him to death. Jamaat followers protested and there were violent clashes with police. About 60 people were killed in the confrontations; most were Jamaat-Shibir activists, and others were police and civilians.
- 1 Historical context
- 2 Protesters' demands
- 3 Development
- 4 Reactions
- 5 Media coverage
- 6 Outcome
- 7 Photos
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In 1971 Bangladesh was the portion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan known as East Pakistan. In the 1971 Liberation War of Bangladesh, East Pakistan fought West Pakistan for nine months. During this period the Indian Army which provided guerrilla training to freedom fighters of Mukti Bahini, joined the war on 3 December 1971 in support of the liberation of East Pakistan. Armed conflict ended on 16 December 1971 through surrender of the Pakistani Armed Forces to India, resulting in the formation of the People's Republic of Bangladesh as a free, secular and independent state.
According to the famous Blood telegram from the United States consulate in Dacca to the State Department, many atrocities had been committed by the Pakistan Army and its supporter Razakars and Al-Badar militia. Time reported a high-ranking US official as saying, "It is the most incredible, calculated killing since the days of the Nazis in Poland." Estimates are that one to three million people were killed, nearly a quarter of a million women were raped and more than ten million people fled to India to escape persecution.
A paramilitary force known as the Razakars was created by the May 1971 Razakar Ordinance promulgated by Tikka Khan, the governor of East Pakistan. The ordinance stipulated the creation of a volunteer force, trained and equipped by the provincial government. Razakar (Bengali: রাজাকার) comes from رضاکار (razākār, the Urdu word for "volunteer"). However, it became a derogatory term in the Bengali language due to the widespread killings of civilians and atrocities committed by the paramilitary during the war. The war criminals, mostly young men, were never brought to trial, since Bangladesh needed to bargain with Pakistan for the return of 200,000 Bengalis stranded in Pakistan at the end of the war.
The majority of East Pakistanis supported the call to create a free and independent Bangladesh during the Liberation War. A small number of Pakistani supporters and members of fundamentalist political parties, particularly Jamaat-e-Islami (JEI) and its student wing Islami Chatra Sangha (ICS, Bengali: ইসলামী ছাত্র সঙ্ঘ Islami Chhatro Shônggho), the Muslim League, the Pakistan Democratic Party (PDP) Council and Nejam-e-Islami, collaborated with the Pakistani army to resist the formation of an independent Bangladesh. The students belonging to Islami Chatra Sangha were known as the Al-Badr force; people belonging to Jamaat-e-Islami, Muslim League, Nizam-e-Islami and similar groups were called Al-Shams, and the Urdu-speaking people (generally known as Bihari) were known as Al-Mujahid.
International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) of 2010
Since 2000, there has been an increasing demand in Bangladesh for justice related to war crimes committed during the 1971 struggle; the issue was central to the 2008 general election. The Awami League-led, 14-party Grand Alliance included this issue in its election manifesto. Its rival, four-party alliance (which included the BNP and Jamaat-e-Islami) had several leaders alleged to have committed war crimes. The former freedom fighters and sector commanders of the liberation war pleaded with the public not to vote for alleged war criminals in the election.
The Grand Alliance won the election (held on 29 December 2008) with a two-thirds majority, based in part on its promise to prosecute alleged war criminals. On 29 January 2009 the new Parliament unanimously passed a resolution to prosecute war criminals. The government intended to use the 1973 law: the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act. The government worked to amend the law, updating it and incorporating other nations' experience. The amendments provided for the trial of individuals and political parties that had worked against the liberation of Bangladesh. The government was empowered to appeal tribunal decisions.
On 25 March 2010, the Awami-led government announced the formation of a three-member tribunal, a seven-member investigation agency, and a twelve-member prosecution team to conduct the trials under the ICT Act 1973. The panel of three judges included Fazle Kabir and Zahir Ahmed, with Mohammed Nizamul Huq as chairman. Abdul Matin, Abdur Rahim, Kutubur Rahman, Shamsul Arefin, Mir Shahidul Islam, Nurul Islam and M. Abdur Razzak Khan were appointed to assist the state prosecutors. Golam Arif Tipu was named Chief Prosecutor. Others prosecutors were Syed Rezaur Rahman, Golam Hasnayen, Rana Das Gupta, Zahirul Huq, Nurul Islam Sujan, Syed Haider Ali, Khandaker Abdul Mannan, Mosharraf Hossain Kajal, Ziad Al-Malum, Sanjida Khanom and Sultan Mahmud Semon.
- The Pallab murder
- Killing pro-liberation poet Meherunnesa, her mother and two brothers
- The Khandoker Abu Taleb killing
- The Ghatar Char and Bhawal Khan Bari killings
- The Alubdi mass killing (344 people)
- The rape and murder of Hazrat Ali and his family
On 5 February 2013, the ICT found Mollah guilty of crimes against humanity. He was sentenced to life imprisonment for the Alubdi and Ali killings and 15 years each for the Pallab, Meherunnesa and Taleb murders. The day before the verdict was announced, Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, the Islamist political party (of which Mollah is a leader), announced a nationwide dawn-to-dusk general strike for 5 February in protest of their leader's conviction.
Many citizens (especially young people) were outraged that, given his crimes, Mollah was sentenced to life imprisonment rather than death. The verdict was criticised in social media, and a peaceful demonstration began at Shahbagh Square in Dhaka.
Over several days, protesters increased their demands, asking for:
- Death penalty for Mollah
- Death sentence for those convicted of war crimes by the International War Crimes Tribunal
- A ban of Jamaat from Bangladeshi politics
- A boycott of Jamaat institutions
Oath of Shahbag Square movement
We swear an oath that the leadership of the mass of people from the Gonojagaran Mancha (National Awakening Stage) will continue the movement from Teknaf to Tetulia until capital punishment is handed down to those Razakar and Al-Badr members who committed crimes against humanity like mass killing and rape in 1971. We take the oath that we will remain vocal, both on the streets and online, until the politics of the war criminals, Jamaat and Shibir, is banned and the citizenship of their members cancelled. We further take the oath that we will continue this demonstration and keep demanding trials, under a special tribunal, of those Razakars and Al-Badr activists who were convicted, and under trial, but freed after 1975. We swear that we will boycott the war criminals' business entities – Islami Bank, Ibn Sina, Focus, Retina and various other coaching centres. We know through these they collect money to continue with their anti-liberation activities. We will also boycott the academic and cultural organisations through which they are spreading anti-liberation sentiments among the children. In brief, we will work for banning all the business, social and cultural organisations belonging to Razakars and Al-Badr activists. We swear that we will continue with our demand for stringent punishment of Jamaat and Shibir, who have committed crimes of sedition by threatening civil war, after making their immediate arrest by recognising them through video footage of news and newspaper pictures. We swear that we will boycott war criminals' mass media like Diganta Television, Daily Naya Diganta, Amar Desh, The Daily Sangram, Sonar Bangla Blog. We will not subscribe to the newspapers of the war criminals at any office or house. At the same time, we request the pro-liberation mass media to boycott the war criminals and their accomplices.
Protest began right after the verdict was announced. Student organisations started the protest immediately after the Judgement in the Shahbag square that was the actual call for people to gather in the Shahbag square within half an hour of the Judgement. It took half an hour to spread out the call for protest through different social media and later the satellite TV channels. BOAN and some other social and cultural organisations called for different programmes in the same venue who later worked together. Demonstrators gathered at Shahbag Circle (or Projonmo Chottor); they painted murals on the road, drew cartoons, hanged effigies of war-crimes suspects and chanted slogans, with a vow to continue demonstrating until their demands were met.
On 7 February, demonstrations began at 8 am. Thousands of people gathered with banners, posters, Bangladeshi flags and placards in Shahbag with their demands. On Friday afternoon, a mass rally was held at Shahbag with an estimated attendance of more than 100,000.
On 12 February, protesters observed three minutes of silence at 4 pm at Shahbag and all across Bangladesh. In Dhaka, traffic was stopped as thousands of people took to the streets, formed human chains and stood in silence. A Bangladesh Premier League game at the Sher-e-Bangla National Stadium halted for three minutes, as players and supporters observed the silence. Parliamentarians and the police also joined the protest. Bengali singer Kabir Suman wrote a song entitled "Tin Minit" ("Three Minutes") in honour of the silent protest.
On 21 February, International Mother Language Day, the number of protesters reached a new high. Its leadership declared 26 March 2013, the Independence Day of Bangladesh, as the deadline for the government to ban Jamaat-e-Islami from politics.
The government did not ban Jamaat-e-Islam from politics after the deadline was over. Seven protesters calling themselves the Shaheed Rumi Squad began a fast until death on 26 March at 10:30 pm in front of the National Museum, protesting "inadequate government action" to ban Jamaat in response to the Shahbagh protesters' ultimatum. The fasters said at a press briefing that they would send an open letter to Prime Minister Hasina during the 100th hour of their protests. More than 100 organisations expressed solidarity with the hunger strikers.
Sentencing of Delwar Hossain Sayeedi
On 28 February the International Crimes Tribunal sentenced Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, Nayeb-e-Ameer (vice-president) of Jamaat-e-Islami, to death for convictions on 8 out of 20 charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. The protesters celebrated the sentence. "This verdict is a victory for the people", declared spokesperson of the organizers Imran H. Sarker. Attorney General Mahbubey Alam said, "It's a victory day, it's a day of joy. Through this verdict, the nation is seeing the resurgence of liberation war spirits." Sayeedi was the most senior official convicted by the tribunal, and the third person overall.
Jamaat followers were enraged by the decision, claiming that the case against Sayeedi was politically motivated. His lawyer, Abdur Razzaq, accused authorities of preventing a key witness from testifying and intentionally slanting the process. "This is a perverse judgment. It is inconceivable that a court of law awarded him a conviction. This prosecution was for a political purpose", Razzaq said. Jamaat quickly called for a nationwide two-day strike, to start on 3 March. By afternoon, violence led by Jamaat-e-Islami supporters had erupted across Bangladesh. "The Jamaat-e-Islami is fighting for its political survival", said a spokesperson. By the end of the day thirty-five people were dead, including three police officers; an additional eight hundred were injured. According to the BBC, it marked "the worst day of political violence in Bangladesh in decades".
Clashes between police and Jamaat-e-Islami workers continued on 1 March, spreading to the northern districts of Gaibandha and Chapai Nawabganj. Opposition leader Khaleda Zia criticised government "brutality" and Jamaat called for a demonstration in the capital, Dhaka. Security measures were increased to prevent the situation from escalating. The death toll rose to forty-four (including six policemen). Former prime minister and BNP member Khaleda Zia declared a nationwide dawn-to-dusk hartal for 5 March, and called for countrywide rallies on 2 March to protest what she called government corruption, misrule, oppression, and "mass killings".
Violent conflict continued on 2 March, with another four deaths and hundreds of injuries. In Chittangong district police opened fire on Jamaat-e-Islami protesters, leading to three deaths. In Nilphamari, a young person died in a clash between protestors and police.
On 3 March, violence continued as the Jamaat-organized strike began. In Bogra Jamaat supporters attacked police outposts with sticks and homemade bombs, leading to at least eight deaths. In Godagari two deaths were reported in a similar incident, and three deaths were reported in the Joypurhat district. Violence continued in Chittangong as well, where Jamaat claimed that police opened fire without provocation. The government denied the charge, saying that violence against citizens and police would not be tolerated; three deaths were reported. "People in the street are very, very afraid of Jamaat-e-Islam. I am scared", reported an eyewitness in Dhaka. Jamaat supporters singled out Hindu citizens, attacked their homes in many parts of the country, and torched Hindu temples. More than 40 temples and many statues were destroyed and scores of houses set ablaze, leaving hundreds of people homeless throughout the country.
Amnesty International has urged the Bangladeshi government to provide better protection for minority Hindus. Abbas Faiz, the organisation's Bangladesh researcher, has noted that the attacks on the Hindu community were predicted and it was shocking that people were attacked because of their religion. Attacks on Hindu communities had been widespread during the 1971 war.
On 5 May, Hefazot-e-Islam protesters, aided by Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its youth wing Chatra Shibir, did violent protest activities in Dhaka that included arson, vandalism and burning of books. The protesters from Hifazat-e-Islam fought with police. Later, the government indicated an official death toll of 11. However, a grave digger said he had counted 14 bodies with beards.
The Shahbag protest has attracted people from all social strata to its cause. The Shahbag intersection at the center of the protests has been referred to as "Generation Circle" (Bengali: প্রজন্ম চত্ত্বর Projônmo Chôttor) or "Shahbag Square", in a nod to the events which unfolded in Tahrir Square, Cairo. The protest spread from Shahbag to other parts of the country, with sit-ins and demonstrations in Chittagong, Sylhet, Barisal, Mymensingh, Khulna, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Comilla, Bogra, Narayanganj, Sunamganj, Noakhali and Narsingdi.
a participant, Amiruddin Ahmed remarked, "After coming here I have realised that the national flag is secure at the hands of our children". Members of the 1971 "Golden Generation" found fresh inspiration in Projônmo Chôttor. Writer Muhammed Zafar Iqbal, noting the large youth participation, said, "I am here to offer my apology to you. I wrote in newspapers that the new generation only hits 'Like' on Facebook and writes on blogs, but does not take to the streets. You have proved me wrong and I thank you all for this". Dhaka University Vice-Chancellor Arefin Siddique said, "Today is a movement to make the country free from razakars. The country needs to be freed from razakars ' hands. Capital punishment of the razakars is a demand of the country's 160 million people". Jahangirnagar University Vice-Chancellor M. Anwar Hossain said, "The people of Bangladesh have rejected the verdict. At Projonmo Chottor, we join our hands to make a clear statement, to give a call to all countrymen to unite and oust the anti-liberation forces from the soil".
State Minister for Law, Quamrul Islam, said that the verdict against Abdul Quader Mollah could have been different if people had taken to the streets sooner. The government is planning to file appeals with the Supreme Court contesting the sentence for Mollah. On 11 February the Cabinet approved proposed amendments to the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973, introducing a provision for plaintiffs to appeal verdicts handed down by the tribunal. This amendment, if passed, would enable the state to appeal Mollah's life sentence.
Jamaat-e-Islami, which was already staging protests against the impending trial of its leaders, called for a general strike. Jamaat continues to demand that the international war crimes tribunal be stopped and its party leaders freed. Jamaat supporters had staged nationwide demonstrations with increasing frequency from November 2012 to February 2013, demanding the release of its leaders. Actions included firing gunshots, smashing and setting fire to vehicles and detonating homemade bombs. Violence was targeted at police stationed in the capital, Dhaka, and major cities such as Rajshahi, Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, Rangpur, Dinajpur and Khulna. Several Jamaat-Shibir activists were arrested during the strikes and confrontations with police.
Reaction from Bangladeshis abroad
Bangladeshis abroad have expressed solidarity with the protestors through social media websites Facebook and Twitter. Demonstrations of solidarity have also taken place in Australia, Malaysia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.
Bangladeshis in New York City joined in a symbolic protest on 9 February at Diversity Plaza in Jackson Heights. A mass sit-in was organised by the Bangladeshi community in Sydney on 10 February at the International Mother Language Monument in Sydney Ashfield Park. At a rally at the Angel Statue in Melbourne, demonstrators signed a petition to Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina demanding death for war criminals. Bangladeshis in Taiwan also expressed their solidarity with the Shahbag protests on 10 February.
On 10 February, Bangladeshi students gathered at Rutgers University in New Jersey to express solidarity with the Shahbag protests. Bangladeshi residents joined the students to express their support. Bangladeshi students at the University of Delaware and nearby residents demonstrated their solidarity with the Shahbag movement on 15 February at a busy intersection in Newark, Delaware. A candlelight vigil was held that evening for Rajib, a blogger and activist who was killed several hours before the demonstration.
On 18 February British Foreign Office minister Sayeeda Warsi hailed the Shahbagh Square protests, describing them as peaceful, productive and non-violent. An article in the Fletcher Forum of World Affairs by Suzannah Linton on 27 February expressed concern about "bloodlust in Bangladesh" and called on the international community to steer the process towards international standards.
While most media outlets followed the protests from the start, some pro-Jamaat-e-Islami news outlets reported them as a "well-orchestrated play made by the government". In Sreemangal, Moulvibazar cable operators in solidarity with the protests have stopped broadcasting the pro-Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami television channel Diganta Television.
The BBC, CNN, Yahoo! News, Reuters, Al Jazeera, The New York Times, The Independent and others have published stories on the protests; BBC Bangla has been closely following the events. Reuters photographer Andrew Biraj published "live" photos of mass demonstrations at Shahbag.
Facebook, the most popular social-networking site in Bangladesh, has played an important role in spreading news worldwide about events at Shahbag. A Facebook event was created calling for a protest at Shahbag; the human chain which went viral on 5 February 2013. Facebook continues to be the main source of information about Shahbag protests.
The demonstration put pressure on the government to amend the International Crimes Tribunal Act so war criminals "can be swiftly executed if convicted". The cabinet also set a 60-day limit for the Supreme Court's Appellate Division to rule on appeals, to keep the cases moving. This means that those who have been convicted and sentenced to death could be executed this year if their verdicts survive appeal. In response to popular protests, Jute and Textiles Minister Abdul Latif Siddiqui said on 12 February that a bill is being drafted to ban Jamaat-e-Islami from Bangladeshi politics.
Finally on 12 December 2013 Bangladesh executed this war criminal
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2013 Shahbag Protest.|
- Timeline of the 2013 Shahbag protests
- Movement demanding trial of war criminals
- 2013 Operation at Motijheel Shapla Chattar
- "Huge Bangladesh rally seeks death penalty for War Crimes". BBC. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Shahbagh grand rally demands ban on Jamaat", The Daily Star, 9 February 2013
- "Cry for Jamaat ban". Bdnews24.com. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Vow to boycott Jamaat institutions", The Daily Star, 9 February 2013
- "THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMES (TRIBUNALS) ACT, 1973". bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- "Protesters demand death for Bangladesh war crimes Islamist". Reuters. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Summary of verdict in Quader Mollah case", The Daily Star, 6 February 2013
- Rabbi, Saimul Islam (16 February 2013). "Bangladesh 1971: War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity". BD News 24.
- Rahman, Mashiur (28 February 2013). "Analysis: Calls grow for banning Jamaat-e-Islami in BD". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- "OUTRAGED", The Daily Star, 6 February 2013
- "Verdict surprises some top jurists", The Daily Star, 7 February 2013
- "Bangladesh's rising voices". Aljazeera. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Compilation of Shahbag Movement: A new Sun Uplifts". Priyo.com. 11 February 2013.
- "Outrage explodes over verdict", The Daily Star, 7 February 2013
- "Violent strikes continue in Bangladesh". Al Jazeera English. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Bangladesh war crimes trial: Key defendants". BBC. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "BNP cautiously welcomes Shahbag protests". BDNews24.com. 13 February 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Shahbagh protest to go relentless". bdnews24.com. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "Four more killed in Bangladesh; 57 dead since January". The Times of India. 2 March 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Shibir man behind blogger killing". The Daily Star. 2 March 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.[dead link]
- "Bangladesh deaths rise as Jamaat protest strike begins". BBC. 3 March 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- Telegram 959 From the US Consulate General in Dacca to the US Department of State, March 28, 1971, 0540Z
- Telegram 978 From the US Consulate General in Dacca to the US Department of State, March 29, 1971, 1130Z
- Telegram 986 From the US Consulate General in Dacca to the US Department of State, March 30, 1971, 0905Z
- "Pakistan: The Ravaging of Golden Bengal", Time, 2 August 1971
- "3 MILLION Slaughtered Sheik MUJIB Charges 'Greatest Massacre'," The Portsmouth Herald, page 6, '17 January 1972, Portsmouth, New Hampshire
- Dummett, Mark (30 June 2008). "Bangladesh war crimes stir tension". BBC News. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- The Dacca Gazette Extraordinary, 2 August 1971. Available at http://www.icsforum.org/library/files/420_GovernmentofEastPakistan1971.pdf
- New Age, Bangladesh, 11 May 2013. Available at http://newagebd.com/detail.php?date=2013-05-11&nid=48788#.Ukp8mT_bUWI
- "Dhaka body lists war criminals of 1971". The Indian. 4 April 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Bangladesh's Unfinished Revolution". Thaindian News (Dhaka). 11 July 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Stage set for war trial", The Daily Star, 26 March 2010
- "No against war criminals won", The Daily Prothom Alo, 31 December 2008, collected from ICSF Media Archive
- "Plead not to cast vote for traitors and war criminals", The Daily Prothom Alo, 27 December 2008
- Julhas Alam, "Bangladesh wrestles with trials from '71 war", The Guardian, 21 December 2011
- "A historic landslide for Hasina". bdnews24.com (Dhaka). 30 December 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Awami League wins Bangladesh election". CNN. 30 December 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "JS passes proposal to try war criminals", The Daily Star, 30 January 2009
- "Bangladesh Genocide Archive". genocidebangladesh.org. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "War criminal trial under int'l crime act", The Daily Star, 26 March 2009
- "Opinion of the Law Commission on the technical aspects of the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act, 1973 (Act No. XIX of 1973" (PDF). Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Law amended for war crime trials". The Daily Star (Dhaka, Bangladesh). 10 July 2009.
- St, Bd (3 May 2012). "Prosecutor begins statement against SQ Chy". BD News 24.
- IANS (26 March 2010). "We will wait, watch: Jamaat on war crimes trial". Thaindian News.
- Connect, UNB (25 March 2010). "War Crimes Tribunal constituted, prosecutors, investigation agency named". UNBconnect.
- "Summary of verdict in Quader Mollah case". The Daily Star. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Bangladesh jails Islamic party leader for life". The Guardian (London). 5 February 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- "66 held during violence-marred Jamaat strike". BDNews24. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Habib, Haroon (16 February 2013). "At Shahbagh, Bangladesh's fourth awakening". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Protest gets social media boost". BDNews24. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Hundreds of thousands rally in Bangladesh to demand executions of 1971 war crimes suspects". The Washington Post. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.[dead link]
- "Protesters continue to demand death penalty for Bangladesh war criminal Abdul Quader Mollah". newstrackindia. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Teeming thousands chant 'Hang them all'". Bdnews24.com. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Bangladesh Protest Calls for Death for War Crimes". ABC News. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Nationwide protests in B'desh; death for war criminals demanded". zeenews. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Vow to boycott Jamaat institutions". Daily Star. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "The oath", The Daily Star, 9 February 2013
- Personal Correspondent (6 February 2013). "মৃত্যুদণ্ড না হওয়ায় হতাশা, ক্ষোভ". Prothom Alo. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Protest gets social media boost", BDNews24, 6 February 2013
- BBC report
- AsiaOne news report
- "A silence stronger than words", The Daily Star, 12 February 2013
- Suman, Kabir. "Tin Minit (Three Minutes)". http://www.kabirsumanonline.com/home/2013/02/13/tin-minit-three-minutes/. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Tin Minute of Suman". Prothom Alo. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Act before March 26", The Daily Star, 22 February 2012
- "Shaheed Rumi Squad begins fast-unto-death for ban on Jamaat". The Daily Star. 28 March 2013.
- "Rumi Squad urges students to hold token hunger strike". The New Edge. 30 March 2013.
- "Rumi Squad continues fast unto death". The Daily Star. 30 March 2013.
- "Sayedee verdict Thursday". The Daily Star. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- Manik, Julfikar Ali (1 March 2013). "Gallows for Sayedee". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- Julfikar Ali Manik; Jim Yardley (1 March 2013). "Death Toll From Bangladesh Unrest Reaches 44". New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Arun Devnath; Andrew MacAskill (1 March 2013). "Clashes Kill 35 in Bangladesh After Islamist Sentenced to Hang". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- "Bangladesh war crimes verdict sparks more violence". BBC. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Naim-Ul-Karim (2 March 2013). "4 dead, hundreds injured as riots continue in Bangladesh". Xinhua. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Jamaat men attack Hindus in Noakhali". bdnews24. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Stop violence against Hindus: Bangladeshi daily". Zee News. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Bangladesh: Khaleda Zia condemns attacks on Hindus, demands probe". Times of India. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- Habib, Haroon (1 March 2013). "44 killed in Bangladesh violence". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Bangladesh: Wave of violent attacks against Hindu minority". Amnesty International. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Amnesty calls for protecting Hindus". 7 March 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Complaint filed at ICC against PM, 24 others". The Daily Star. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "Hifazat burns Quran, Hadith in blind rage". bdnews24. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "Video suggests higher Bangladesh protest toll – Central & South Asia". Al Jazeera English. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Protests rage for third day over Bangladeshi war crimes Islamist". Reuters. 7 February 2013.
- "Thousands join Shahbagh sit-in". 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "A cartoon of Bangladesh's Jamaat-e-Islami senior leader Abdul Quader Mollah". Yahoo News. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "People burst into protests". 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Reaction from freedom fighter". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Shahbagh protesters won't leave, Financial Express
- "A Startling Awakening", The Daily Star
- "The Rise Of The New Horizon", Priyo
- "Verdict could be different if people took to streets earlier: Quamrul", News
- Govt, defence ready to file appeals
- "Provision for appeal endorsed: Cabinet okays change to war crimes trial act", The Daily Star
- Jamaat calls hartal in Ctg for tomorrow
- Haroon, Habib (16 February 2013). "At Shahbagh, Bangladesh's fourth awakening". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Farid, Ahmed (16 February 2013). "Bangladesh war crimes verdict protests turn deadly". CNN. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Jamaat, Shibir attack policemen across country". bdnews24.com. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Jamaat, Shibir attack police in Khulna". bdnews24.com. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Jamaat, Shibir men torch 2 vehicles in Ctg". bdnews24.com. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Jamaat-Shibir men go on rampage". New Age. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Jamaat-Shibir let loose terror in several districts". The Independent. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Three shot dead in Ctg during Jamaat-Shibir hartal". The Independent. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "40 injured in police and Jamaat-Shibir clash in Rangpur". Bangladesh Sangbad Snagstha(BSS).
- "Jamaat turns violent, clash with cops across country; 168 injured". UNBconnect. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Jamaat, Shibir clash with police across country". New Age. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Jamaat rampage continues". The Daily Star. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Daily Star::Sydney students are with Shahbag
- timesworld24.com|last updated news::কাদের মোল্লার ফাঁসি : আন্দোলন মালয়েশিয়াতেও
- The Bangkok Post
- bdnews24.com::"Cologne joins Shahbag in solidarity", BDNews24
- Shahbag uprising protest in NYC – Bangladesh Videos : Firstpost Topic – Page 1
- Bangladesh Sangbad Sangstha (BSS)
- "Bangladeshis in Melbourne express solidarity with Shahbag protests", New Age BD
- "Shahbagh protester killed".
- Cohen, Nick (17 February 2013). "The agonies of Bangladesh come to London". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
The conflict between the Shahbag and Jamaat has already reached London. On 9 February, local supporters of the uprising demonstrated in Altab Ali Park, a rare patch of green space off the Whitechapel Road in London's East End. They were met by Jamaatis. "They attacked our men with stones," one of the protest's organisers told me. "There were old people and women and children there, but they still attacked us."
- "UK minister praises Shahbagh protests". theindependent. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- "UK Minister hails Shahbagh demo". bdnews24.com. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- "Bloodlust in Bangladesh: A Search for Justice Gone Wrong". The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs. 27 February 2013.
- "Srimangal cable operators stop broadcasting Diganta television". The Daily Star. 10 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "Huge Bangladesh rally seeks death penalty for war crimes". BBC News. 8 February 2013.
- "Protests erupt in Bangladesh after war-crimes verdict - CNN.com". CNN. 7 February 2013.
- Bangladeshi war crimes protesters turn anger towards feuding politicians – Yahoo! News
- Thousands in Bangladesh war crimes protest – Central & South Asia – Al Jazeera English
- Manik, Julfikar (12 February 2013). "Politics in Bangladesh Jolted by Daily Demonstrations". The new york times. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Philip Hensher (19 February 2013). "The war Bangladesh can never forget – Asia – World". London: The Independent. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Follow up of the events by BBC Banga". BBC. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Interview with a protester from Shahbagh". BBC. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Ahmed, Anis (8 February 2013). "Bangladeshi war crimes protesters turn anger towards feuding politicians". www.reuters.com. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Shahbagh 'battle' now on cyber space". bdnews24.com. 10 February 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Anam, Tahmima (13 February 2013). "Shahbag protesters versus the Butcher of Mirpur". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "Defiant crowd battles propaganda war", bdnews24, 11 February 2013
- "Shahbag online". The Daily Ittefaq. 9 February 2013.
- "Shahbag outcry". The Daily Ittefaq. 15 February 2013.
- "Bangladesh approves law to swiftly execute war criminals". 12 February 2013.
- "'Bill to ban Jamaat on way'". 12 February 2013.
- Criminal Appeal(A) 24/2013; http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2013/09/17/quader-molla-to-go-to-the-gallows-for-murders