2013 Southeast Asian haze

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A NASA satellite image of the haze on 19 June 2013.
The extent of the haze as of 19 June 2013.[1]
The extent of the haze as of 23 June 2013.[1]

The 2013 Southeast Asian haze was a haze crisis that affected several countries in the Southeast Asian region, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore[2] and Southern Thailand, mainly during June and July 2013. The haze period coincided with large-scale burning in many parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Satellite imagery from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites showed that the haze was mainly due to smoke from fires burning in Riau province, Indonesia.[3]

The 2013 Southeast Asian haze was notable for causing record high levels of pollution in Singapore and several parts of Malaysia. The 3-hour Pollution Standards Index in Singapore reached a record high of 401 on 21 June 2013, surpassing the previous record of 226 set during the 1997 South East Asian Haze. It was more than 100 higher than the previous record as well.[4] On 23 June, the Air Pollution Index (API) in Muar, Johor spiked to 746 at 7 a.m. which was almost 2.5 times above the minimum range of the Hazardous level thus resulting in the declaration of emergency in Muar and Ledang (which was afterwards lifted on 25 June in the morning), leaving the towns in virtual shutdown.[5][6]

Chronology of events[edit]

On 19 June 2013, NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites captured images of smoke from illegal wildfires on the Indonesian island of Sumatra blowing east toward southern Malaysia and Singapore, causing thick clouds of haze in the region.[3] As stated by a local Indonesian official, the source of the haze might be a 3,000 hectare peatland in Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province, which was set ablaze by an unknown party on 9 June.[7] As many as 187 hotspots were picked up by satellites on 18 June,[8] down to 85 on 20 June.

On 21 June 2013, a total of 437 hotspots were detected in Sumatra.[9] Two days later, the number was down to 119. On 24 June 159 hotspots were detected in Riau, out of a total of 227 detected in Sumatra. An air force officer explained that the low number of hotspots detected on some days was due to heavy cloud cover, which prevented the satellite from detecting some of the hotspots.[10] The Malaysia Department of Environment said that 173 hotspots were detected in Malaysia on 24 June, with 1 in Negeri Sembilan, 1 in Terengganu, 3 in Sabah, and 168 in Sarawak.[11] Many of the hotspots were owned by palm oil companies or smallholder farmers who supply palm oil to these companies and use traditional slash-and-burn methods to clear their land for the next planting season.[12] However, Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, said that the fires were most likely started by errant companies, instead of slash-and-burn by smallholders.[13] On 25 June, Indonesia's president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono issued a formal apology to Malaysia and Singapore for the hazardous smog.[14]

On 26 June 2013, 265 hotspots were detected by satellites, but decreased to 54 on 27 June after heavy rain fell overnight between the two days. Newly promoted Premier League team Cardiff City also cancelled a week-long visit to Malaysia, the home of its billionaire owner, Vincent Tan, that was scheduled to begin that week, as a result of the severe haze.[15]

The number of hotspots in Sumatra continued to decrease on 27 June, with 42 hotspots recorded at 4pm. At the same time on 28 June, only 15 hotspots were detected by satellites. Singapore's National Environment Agency said that this could be the reason for the improving haze conditions in Singapore and Malaysia over the past week.[16] The number of hotspots decreased further to just 7 on 29 June.[9]

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) renewed calls for the enaction and enforcement of zero-burn policies. Based on satellite detection of hotspots, the province of Riau in Sumatra was found to contain over 88% of the hotspots that caused the worst haze over Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia since 1997. From 1 to 24 June, NASA satellites have detected a total of more than 9,000 hotspots in Sumatra, and more than 8,000 of them were located in Riau.[17]

By 29 June, a total of 2,800 military personnel, as well as helicopters and aircraft, were being deployed to fight the fires. About 3,000 civilians were also helping with the firefighting. The fires reduced from an area of 16,500ha to 4,081ha.[18]

On 1 July 4 hotspots were detected in Riau, the lowest number so far since the burning started.[19]

On 19 July 43 hotspots were detected in Sumatra.[20]

The next day, the number of hotspots rose sharply as Sumatra was experiencing dry weather. There were 159 hotspots in Sumatra, with 63 of them located in Riau.[21]

On 21 July, the number of hotspots in Sumatra spiked to reach 261 as a result of the continuing dry weather. 173 hotspots were detected in Riau. The remaining hotspots were mainly located in the north of the island, in Aceh and North Sumatra.[22] In Malaysia, a total of 19 hotspots were detected. There were 7 hotspots in Johor, 4 each in Kelantan and Pahang, 2 in Perak, and 1 each in Selangor and Sabah.[23]

The hotspots decreased slightly a day later. 167 hotspots were detected in Riau, out of a total of 252 in Sumatra.[24]

However, the number of hotspots in Riau climbed to 183 on 23 July, the highest number of hotspots detected in Riau since the haze returned.[25]

On 24 July, satellites detected 185 hotspots in Riau.[26] Indonesian authorities said that the number of hotspots is expected to rise in August, when slashing-and-burning activity is very likely to peak, thus causing the haze to possibly thicken and increase.[26]

On 25 July, the number of hotspots in Riau decreased to 56, after 4 helicopters and 100 military personnel helped to fight the fires.[27]

There was a sharp increase in the hotspots in Indonesia on 26 August 2013, with 488 hotspots detected. There were 308 hotspots the day after, on 27 August 2013.

Countries affected[edit]

Brunei[edit]

On 23 June, the Asean Specialised Meteorological Centre (ASMC) in Singapore detected 642 hotspots,[28] which were scattered mostly in parts of central and west Borneo that caused a haze in Brunei and other parts of Borneo.[28] On 20 June, Brunei-Muara District recorded a "good" PSI reading of 44, Belait recorded a "moderate" 75, Temburong recorded a "moderate" 64, and Tutong recorded a "moderate" 66.[29] By 21 June, The Department of Environment, Parks and Recreation of Brunei said the PSI readings were "relatively higher than normal", but air pollution levels are still considered "moderate" as the PSI readings in Brunei are still below 100. Belait recorded the highest PSI reading (98), followed by Temburong (94), Tutong (92), and Brunei-Muara (65), which was the lowest.[30] On 24 June, haze in Brunei remained unchanged with PSI readings in Brunei-Muara at a good 43, Belait at a moderate 75, Temburong at a moderate 72 and Tutong at a moderate 73.[28] On 26 June, the haze was gone from Brunei and PSI levels returned to "good" levels.[31] However, "moderate" levels were still recorded on Tutong (70) and Belait (64).[31] The total number of hotspots also declined from the 231 reported on Saturday to 117 on Tuesday.[31]

Measures taken[edit]

During the hazy periods, the Brunei Ministry of Health released a health advice to the public.[32] The public was also advised to regularly check the PSI (Pollutant Standard Index), follow the health advisory and seek immediate treatment at any nearest hospital or health centre if they feel unwell due to haze.[33]

Pollutant Standard Index readings[edit]

Pollutant Standard Index readings for Brunei Darussalam[34]
Date (Time) Brunei-Muara Belait Temburong Tutong
26 (4pm) 45 48 42 54
27 (12pm) 26 41 37 50
27 (4pm) 38 52 46 45
27 (5pm) 46 41 62 62
28 (9am) 36 43 24 32

  0–50  Good  51–100 Moderate 101–200 Unhealthy

Indonesia[edit]

In Pekanbaru, capital of Riau province, where the majority of fire spots were located, visibility dropped and a number of Pekanbaru residents complained that the haze was affecting their health,[35] and Sultan Syarif Kasim II Airport had to be closed for several hours, causing several flights to be diverted to nearby airports such as Polonia International Airport, Medan or to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[36] Flights to and from Pinang Kampai Airport of Dumai were also suspended by the authorities due to poor visibility.[37]

While much of the press focused on the haze’s impact in Singapore and Malaysia, the local residents of Riau were also affected. Residents fled their homes in Bengkalis, with about 30% experiencing respiratory problems. The fires burned through hectares of local farmland, decimating the season’s crops.[38] The PSI in Dumai hit 492 on the morning of 21 June2013.[39] However, due to the wind patterns, most parts of Indonesia did not get hit by the haze.

Earlier on 22 June, Indonesian government blamed eight companies, including Jakarta-based PT Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology (SMART) and Asia Pacific Resources International (APRIL), for the fires.[40] Later on 22 June, Environment Minister Balthasar Kambuaya revealed the investigation findings that at least 20 domestic and foreign plantation companies operating in Riau were suspected to have caused land and forest fires, of which 8 of them are Malaysian plantation companies: PT Langgam Inti Hiberida, PT Bumi Rakksa Sejati, PT Tunggal Mitra Plantation, PT Udaya Loh Dinawi, PT Adei Plantation, PT Jatim Jaya Perkasa, PT Multi Gambut Industri and PT Mustika Agro Lestari.[41] However, following a meeting in Indonesia between Balthasar and Palanivel, only four of the said companies were from Malaysia and the companies had denied any involvement in the fires.[42] Other local companies detected were PT Siak Seraya, PT Kimia Tirta Utama, PT Inti Indo Sawit Subur, Village Unit Cooperatives (KUD) Dayus Mas, PT Padasa Enam Utama, PT Kartayatam Bhakti Mulia, PT Langgam Inti Hibrindo, PT Riau Sakti Trans, PT Raja Garuda Masa Sejati, PT Sabira Negeri Utama, PT Guntung Hasrat Makmur, PT Panca Surya Agrindo, PT Bumi Reksa Nusa Sejati, PT Surya Bratasena Plantation, PT Adei Crumb Rubber, PT Rokan Adi Raya, Cooperatives 13 Anak Suku Bonai, PT Karyatama Bhakti Muli and PT Agroraya Gematrans.[41]

On the morning of 24 June, the haze shrouded Pekanbaru, the provincial capital of Riau. The PSI in Pekanbaru had been hovering around the moderate reading of 100 the previous week, but it rose to an unhealthy reading of 140 on the night of 23 June 2013. The same morning, several commercial flights at Syarif Kasim II Airport were also delayed, as poor visibility caused by the haze prevented the planes from taking off.[10] In Dumai, one of the worst-affected regencies in Riau, visibility was reduced to less than 500m after the PSI hit a hazardous record of 900. This value was the highest in any haze crisis and was also three times above the minimum "Hazardous" level.[19]

On 25 June, eight Indonesian farmers were accused and arrested for creating fires that set in motion the blazes.[43] The number of farmers arrested was up to 23 on 1 July, after another 6 more farmers were arrested for illegal slashing-and-burning.[19]

Indonesia has said that it will ratify the 2002 ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution as soon as possible. Indonesia's Environment Minister, Balthasar Kambuaya, has emphasised the importance of ratifying the agreement, saying that Indonesia should be concerned about the impact of the haze on its own people, and also the well-being of people in neighbouring countries affected by the haze. As of 6 July 2013, Indonesia has yet to ratify the pact.[44]

On 21 July, thick haze blanketed Dumai again due to the sudden increase in the number of hotspots, with visibility at street level dropping to below 200m.[21]

On 22 July, many parts of Riau recorded hazardous PSI readings. The worst reading, 619, was recorded in Rumbai, which is located north of Pekanbaru, the provincial capital of Riau.[24] Since then, the air quality in Riau has been worsening. Flights to and from Pekanbaru have been delayed due to the detoriating visibility.[26]

Measures taken[edit]

The Indonesian government used weather-changing technology to create artificial rain and extinguish raging fires.[45] It has earmarked around 200 billion rupiah (around US$20M, S$25.6M at the time) to handle the disaster and deployed seven military aircraft for water bombings and cloud-seeding to fight raging forest fires on 21 June 2013.[40]

In June alone, more than 3000 soldiers, marines and air force officers were deployed to help fight the fires.[46]

The Agriculture Minister Suswono stated that an investigation has been launched to find out the firms responsible for the air pollution, and has agreed to publish the names of the firms if they are proven guilty.[47]

Forestry Minister Zulkifli Hasan said the government would not tolerate companies burning land and bushes that caused the haze shrouding Riau and its surroundings. Companies which are proved to have used slash-and-burn to clear land would be acted upon firmly. The government had assigned the National Police to handle the legal process and take sanctions against firms behind forest fires.[41]

At dawn on 23 June, rain fell for 30 minutes in Dumai, the coastal city nearest to many of the hotspots, as a result of cloud-seeding. Rain fell on Dumai again at 5pm on the same day, after a Hercules C-130 jet commenced cloud-seeding in the Bengkalis district as well as Dumai at 2pm.[10] However, not much rain fell, as there were few clouds and to make things worse, the clouds were too thin.[48] First Lieutenant Fajar Gusthana, one of those who did the cloud-seeding, said that it was difficult to do the cloud-seeding, as there were very few clouds, and the clouds were generally quite thin. He also said that there were no clouds directly above the hotspots, which only made it harder for them to carry out the cloud-seeding.[49]

On 27 June, Indonesia said that it will start larger scale water-bombing in 1 week time. Indonesia will do it with the help of rented Russian Kamov helicopters, which have belly tanks that can drop more water than those of the Indonesian helicopters in use now. The helicopters currently being used for water-bombing in Riau can only carry 500 litres of water, compared to the Kamov helicopters, which can carry about 8,000 litres of water.[50]

Indonesia switched into preventive mode on 1 July, after it had successfully put out most of the fires, although fires were still raging underground in the peatland. To enable itself to respond faster and extinguish the fires before they go out of control again, Indonesia has increased night patrols. Water-bombing and cloud-seeding aircraft are also on standby. Indonesia has said that the standby aircraft should be able to respond quickly to the fires and fly out immediately to Jambi, South Sumatra, and Lampung in Sumatra, as well as four provinces in Kalimantan on Borneo. Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency spokesman Dr Agus Wibowo has said that Indonesia expects fires to affect 7 other provinces as well, as the dry season is not at its peak yet and is expected to continue until October.[19]

As of 21 July, there were 4 helicopters and an aeroplane on standby in Riau, so that fires could be put out using cloud seeding and water bombing as soon as possible when they occur.[51] A statement from Indonesia's disaster management agency on 22 July said that there were a total of 6 aeroplanes on standby for cloud seeding, while soldiers have also been placed on standby to help fight any fires that occur.[46]

Indonesia began cloud-seeding and water bombing over Riau on 22 July, to reduce the number of hotspots which had rose sharply over the past weekend and caused the haze to return to Malaysia. More than 370 firefighters were deployed to fight the fires, with 3 helicopters used for water bombing.[24][26][52] In Pekanbaru, the provincial capital of Riau, there were more than 22 water-bombing operations carried out. However, there was only 1 cloud-seeding operation conducted, as there were insufficient clouds over Pekanbaru to make rain.[25]

Willem Rampangilei, a deputy minister at the Coordinating Ministry for People's Welfare, said that the provincial government had already tried its best to fight the fires, although the number of hotspots still remained about the same. He also said that following the failure to decrease the number of hotspots significantly, Jakarta will be sending in more troops to fight the fires.[25]

On 24 July, planes also conducted cloud seeding operations, to reduce the haze which had shrouded Riau and the Straits of Malacca for the past few days.[26]

On 8 January 2014, the Meulaboh district court on Sumatra island ruled that Indonesian company Kallista Alam had illegally burnt vegetation on 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) of peatland in Aceh province to clear it for a palm oil plantation. In the civil case brought by the Ministry of Environment, the court ordered the company to pay 114.3 billion rupiah (S$9.4 million) in losses to the state and 252 billion rupiah to rehabilitate the land it destroyed.[53]

Malaysia[edit]

Peninsular Malaysia[edit]

Centre of Kuala Lumpur looking south on 9 May 2013.
Centre of Kuala Lumpur looking south on 23 June 2013.

The haze affecting Malaysia is the worst since 2005, starting with the Air Pollution Index (API) hitting 172 on 19 June.[54] On 17 June, only two areas of unhealthy API were recorded, a reduction from six areas on 16 June.[55][56] According to the Malaysian Department of Environment, the two areas were Kemaman, Terengganu (118) and Balok Baru, Kuantan, Pahang (110).[55] On 19 June, API readings at 5 p.m. by the Malaysian Department of Environment showed that Johor and Malacca were the two worst affected by the haze. The highest reading in Johor was 172, as of the particular time which was recorded in Muar, while that of Malacca was 161, which was recorded in the state capital, Malacca City.[57]

On 20 June, the haze in Malaysia worsened. Johor and Malacca remained the worst-affected states. In Johor, Muar recorded a hazardous reading (383) at 11 a.m., which was one of the worst among the readings. Kota Tinggi was the second worst, hitting a Very unhealthy reading of 232. In Malacca, an API reading of 137 was recorded in Malacca City exceeding the Unhealthy API. Readings in other parts of Malaysia ranged from Good to Unhealthy.[58]

A day later, the Malaysian Meteorological Department predicted that the haze would not be receded until 26 June, when the tropical storm Bebinca was expected to be blown from the southwest, bringing strong winds and dry weather to carry the smog from Sumatra over to West Malaysia. The Johor State Health Department has also reported the increasing percentage of citizens with upper respiratory tract ailments by at least 21%.[59] There is also a concern that the haze may affect the Jelajah Malaysia cycling tour the following week.[60]

On 23 June, the Air Pollution Index (API) in Muar, Johor spiked to 746 at 7 a.m. which was almost 2.5 times above the minimum range of the Hazardous level thus resulting in the declaration of emergency in Muar and Ledang (which was afterwards lifted on 25 June in the morning), leaving the towns in virtual shutdown. It was also almost 450 more than the minimum range of the Hazardous level.[5][6]

On 24 June, shifting winds blew the haze northwards away from Johor and Singapore, towards Malacca, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Penang. The haze has also blanketed the east coast, especially the states of Pahang, Terengganu, and Kelantan. Air quality in central and northern Peninsula Malaysia was also worsening.[11] Kuala Lumpur recorded an Unhealthy API of 198 at 11 a.m. indicating the first reading in KL to be on the cusp of entering the Very unhealthy range in the haze season. It was also only two points away of the Very unhealthy range. Port Dickson was the worst hit by the haze, with the API entering the Hazardous scale with a reading of 335 at 7 a.m., although the figure decreased to a Very unhealthy reading of 292 at 11 a.m.[61]

Even though the haze has cleared off a bit in the southern parts of the nation, Port Klang had been recording a Very unhealthy series of API values and skyrocketed to the Hazardous range with the scale rising up to 487 in the morning of 25 June. It was just 13 points away from emergency level. The drifting smoke from the south also caused other places in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur to be blanketed by thick smog, very close to entering the Hazardous level. Seri Manjung in Perak which is 200 km away from the port town was also hit hard by the haze.[62] Visibility remained poor in Kuala Lumpur and several other states.

Malaysians were able to breathe easier when the overnight rain in numerous parts of the west coast helped to clear the skies. There was a significant drop in the API values in most areas, including Port Klang since 26 June.[63]

The haze crisis is believed to have claimed its first life, a diabetic woman from Muar who was suffering from asthma.[15] Another casualty was an elderly man, also from the same town. Both deaths were reported early in the week.[64]

On 29 June, the improvement in API readings continued, with the PSI readings hovering in the Good and Moderate ranges. At 5pm, the worst PSI readings were in the Moderate range, recorded in Kota Tinggi and Bukit Rambai, at 81 and 86 respectively.[9]

On 21 July, the haze blanketed certain states of Malaysia yet again. Some parts of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Malacca were hit with API readings in the higher part of the Moderate range. Bukit Rambai, in the state of Malacca, was worst hit. At 12am, a moderate API reading of 94 was recorded. The reading then continued to escalate, hiting right at the very end of the Moderate range (100) at 7am, departed the "Moderate" range and entering the Unhealthy range an hour later. The air in Bukit Rambai continued to worsen, and hit the highest of the day, 118, at 8pm and 9pm. It began to subside at 10pm.[65][66][67][68]

On 22 July, the hazy conditions in Selangor, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan worsened. Johor also got hit by the haze. Bukit Rambai remained the worst hit of all, with an unhealthy API of 135, the worst since the haze returned, recorded there. Muar, Malacca City, Banting, and Kuala Lumpur also recorded unhealthy readings.[69]

On 23 July, the haze conditions changed again. At 8am, API readings in Port Klang was 105, 116 in Bukit Rambai and 115 in Muar.

Visibility at several Malaysian airports was also reduced by the haze, while the haze travels northwards to the northern Malaysian states of Terengganu, Kelantan and Penang. In Terengganu, visibility at the Sultan Mahmud Airport in Kuala Terengganu was reduced to 3 km in the evening, while that of Kerteh Airport was reduced to 6 km. In Penang, the Penang International Airport in Bayan Lepas also had visibility reduced to 6 km. However, in Kelantan, visibility at the Sultan Ismail Petra Airport in Kota Baru was at a safe 10 km. Petaling Jaya and Subang, both in Selangor, were also hit by poor visibility at around noon, but it gradually improved to reach 6 km and 9 km respectively.[70]

The haze may ease over Johor, Pahang, Klang Valley, Muar, Malacca City and Manjung on 25 July, where rain is expected.[70] However, Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Kuala Selangor, Putrajaya, Port Dickson will remain dry.[71]

On 24 July, Ipoh, Tanjung Malim, and Perai recorded unhealthy API levels in the afternoon, at 106 (4pm), 101 (5pm) and 102 (1pm and 2pm) respectively. API readings for the day were mostly moderate in Malaysia, although a few areas recorded good readings.[72]

On 25 July, the haze continued to be blown towards the northern parts of Malaysia. Air quality in most parts of Malaysia were in the Moderate range for the day. The worst hit areas were Ipoh, the state capital of Perak, and Seberang Jaya, in Penang, where unhealthy API levels were recorded in the afternoon. The highest API reading of the day, 106, was recorded in Ipoh at 4pm.[73]

On 26 July, Bukit Rambai (Malacca), Seri Manjung (Perak), Port Klang (Selangor) and Perai (Penang) were worst-affected, with the highest API readings at 82 (11pm), 87 (12am), 84 (12am) and 87 (12am).[74]

On 27 July, air quality in many parts of Malaysia returned to the Good range, although some remained in the Moderate range. From 12am to 5am, most of the API readings were in the lower part of the Moderate range. However, Bukit Rambai, Seri Manjung, Port Klang and Ipoh remained the worst affected areas, with a highest API reading of 83 (multiple times in the morning), 79 (2am and 3am) and 78 (2am and 3am) respectively. Ipoh's API almost entered the Unhealthy range, recording the worst reading of the day, 99, at 3pm. This was only one point away from the "Unhealthy" range, in which even the slightest increase could result in the entering of the "Unhealthy" range.[75]

On 28 July, air quality remained in the Moderate range in many parts of Malaysia during the day, although most areas recorded good readings in the early morning. Bukit Rambai's air quality remained in the Moderate range for the whole day. Its worst reading was 82, recorded at 10pm and 11pm. In Negeri Sembilan, Seremban was worst-affected, recording a moderate 84 at 4pm. Ipoh's worst reading was a moderate 92, also at 4pm. Selangor, which included the capital state of Wilayah Persekutuan, was worst-hit. Petaling Jaya, Putrajaya, and the Cheras area of Kuala Lumpur all recorded unhealthy API levels. Cheras was worst affected, with air quality remaining unhealthy for 4 hours at a go, from 2pm to 6pm. Its highest reading, 139, was recorded at 5pm. That is also the worst reading of the day in Malaysia. Petaling Jaya's air quality was unhealthy from 3–4pm, recording 105 at 3pm. Putrajaya only breached the 100 mark for an hour, recording 101 at 5pm.[76]

On 29 July, Bukit Rambai, Seremban, Banting, Port Klang, Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam were worst hit. Excluding KL, their worst readings were 84 (11pm), 95 (4pm), 82 (10pm), 92 (11pm), 81 (10–11pm) and 80 (11pm). The Batu Muda area of KL recorded its worst reading of 83 from 2pm to 6pm. The Cheras area of KL recorded readings in the lower part of the Moderate range for most part of the day, but was the only place to breach the Unhealthy range, when an API reading of 102 was recorded at 1pm.[77]

On 30 July, Bukit Rambai was worst affected, with the API constantly remaining in the 80s. Its worst reading was 85, recorded at 12am. Tanjung Malim recorded 81 at 3pm, after a sudden spike from a good 48 the previous hour, although it dropped to 52 at 4pm. Port Klang recorded the worst reading of the day, 92, at 12am. However, air quality in the other badly-affected areas of the previous day improved.[78]

On 31 July, Bukit Rambai remained the worst affected area. API readings there hovered in the 80s, although occasionally dropping to the upper 70s, like the past few days. The highest reading was 84, at 10am. That was also the highest reading for the day in Malaysia. Port Klang's API readings rose from the 50s in the early morning to 77 (5–9pm). For most of the day, it was in the 70s. API readings in some other areas like Kemaman in Terrenganu, Banting, Malacca City and Muar were in the 60s for most of the day. Tanjung Malim's air quality was good for most of the day, but spiked suddenly to reach 72 at 3pm, and 75 an hour later. It gradually decreased and returned to the Good range at 8pm.[79]

On 1 August, Bukit Rambai remained the worst-affected. API readings there dropped gradually during the morning, reaching 68 at 11am, the lowest recorded there for many days already. However, it then increased quickly for the rest of the day, breaching the 80 mark at 3pm. At 4pm, API was 90. As of 10pm, the API was 92. The highest API for the day in Bukit Rambai was 93, recorded at 9pm. That was also the highest reading of the day in Malaysia. Port Dickson's air quality remained between 52 and 70 for most of the day. However, it suddenly increased to 78 at 3pm and 83 at 4pm, before dropping an hour later. In Kuala Lumpur, air quality was mainly in the 50s. But in the Cheras area of KL, API readings soared to 71 at 2pm, then to 86 at 3pm, 77 at 4pm, before returning to the 50s. In Seremban, air quality hovered around 60 for most of the day, although at 3pm, a reading of 80 was recorded.[80]

On 2 August, the haze still hit Bukit Rambai the hardest. In the early morning, the API readings continued rising up the 90s, hitting 100 at 5am. That meant it was at the top of the "Moderate" range and even if it were to increase by only 1, that's it and it would enter the "Unhealthy" range. At 6am, the API reading entered the Unhealthy range, hovering between 101 and 105. The highest reading, 105, was recorded at noon. At 3pm, the air quality was back in the Moderate range, and subsided gradually. At 9pm, it was 84. However, instead of Bukit Rambai, it was Tanjung Malim which recorded the worst reading of the day, 114, at 5pm. That was also the highest in Malaysia. Like the past few days, Tanjung Malim's air quality was Good for most of the day, only spiking for a few hours each day. The air quality there entered the Moderate range at 2pm, and returned to the Good range at 8pm. Other than the above two locations, Kemaman, Port Dickson, Seremban, Nilai and Malacca City also recorded air quality in the 70s for a few hours.[81]

Malaysian Borneo[edit]

On 20 June, the API index in Sabah was moderate, with Kota Kinabalu at 74, Keningau, 66 and Sandakan, 42.[82] On 22 June, the hazy condition in Sabah and Labuan became worse when the index in several areas had risen.[83] Keningau registered a reading of 98 at 11 a.m., while Kota Kinabalu with 91 and Labuan 97.[83] Until 25 June, only Sandakan and Tawau enjoyed clean air than other areas, with API readings at 50 and 42 respectively.[84]

In Sarawak, 20 June, the index recorded a Moderate level with 72 in Miri, while Kapit and Sri Aman with 55. In addition, sixteen hot spots were detected on 18 June with Mukah having the most with five and Sarikei, three.[85] Big plantation companies had been accused of being the major cause of haze in the state.[86]

Measures taken[edit]

Both organisers of the Olympic Day Run, McDonald's Malaysia and Olympic Council of Malaysia agreed to postpone the 10th annual Run scheduled for 23 June amid health fears. It was announced on their official website and Facebook page on 20 June.[87][88]

As of 23 June, more than 600 schools in Johor that are located in several areas where the Air Pollution Index (API) readings had exceeded the hazardous point of 300 had to be closed. Schools in areas with the API reaching 150 are advised to avoid outdoor activities.[89] While the 2013 Johor Rugby Carnival had to be deferred until further notice, a directive was given to cancel all outdoor activities in the Malaysian National Service (PLKN) training camps in affected areas with Unhealthy level of API.[90][91]

The Department of Environment has issued a ban against open burning activities in Selangor, Malacca and Johor and those convicted of an open burning offence can face fines of not more than RM500,000 (S$199,400); or a maximum imprisonment of five years; or both according to Section 29AA(2) of the Environmental Quality (Amendment) Act 2001.[92]

Malaysia's Prime Minister Najib Razak also advised the public to reduce outdoor activities while the haze is still present.[93] On 23 June, he declared a state of emergency in two southern districts, Muar and Ledang after the API values increased badly. The emergency status was later lifted on 25 June, Tuesday morning.[6][94]

On 23 June, Malaysia's Natural Resources and Environment Minister, Datuk Seri G. Palanivel had pronounced the closure of all schools in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and Malacca on 24 June, Monday as a precautionary step. A total of 480 government-run kindergartens in Malacca had been told to stop classes. Operators of private kindergartens and pre-schools were urged to follow suit by the state government of Malacca.[95] Schools in Port Dickson and Kuantan were shut down as ordered by the respective state governments. In Johor Bahru, a number of schools remained temporarily closed while 300 schools in other parts of Johor were allowed to operate again as usual.[96]

The next day, Pizza Hut Malaysia has also temporarily halted delivery services for their Muar and Port Klang branches to ensure the riders' safety due to the worsening haze. Nonetheless, they have resumed the delivery services in Muar a day later.[97][98]

On 25 June, Malaysia's Education Minister, Muhyiddin Yassin said that parents had the discretion not to send their children to school in fear of health problems as long as they inform the relevant school authorities, as schools in some states were starting to reopen.[99] On top of that, the Department of Environment (DOE) began updating the API readings on an hourly basis. They were made available for public access on both the Department's official website and portal.[100]

Also, the haze forced the opening ceremony of the 13th Parliament session in Kuala Lumpur to be held indoors for the first time in Malaysian history. Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah did the customary inspection of the guard-of-honour at the banquet hall of the Parliament building.[101]

G. Palanivel was also scheduled to meet his Indonesian counterpart to discuss the situation while the Malaysian and Singaporean officials seek to move forward a meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) haze committee to the following week instead of in August.[102]

The Premier League newcomers, Cardiff City F.C. have also postponed their six-day promotional tour of Malaysia in the week because of the air pollution crisis.[103] Concurrently, all orders to shut schools in the nation were withdrawn by 27 June, though outdoor activities are to remain cancelled in some parts of the country.[104]

On 28 June, the Shell Eco-marathon that was planned to be held in Kuala Lumpur on 4–7 July was also cancelled due to worsening air quality.[105]

Upon the return of the haze in mid-July, the Penang state government has prepared 200,000 face masks, to be distributed to the people, especially school children, pregnant women, motorcyclists and pillion riders.[27]

Air Pollution Index readings[edit]

24-hour API readings in some areas in June 2013[106]
Date (Time) George Town Seremban Kuala Lumpur
(Cheras)
Kuala Terengganu Malacca City Johor Bahru Kuantan
(Indera Mahkota)
Kuching Kota Kinabalu Port Klang Muar Seri Manjung
13 (7am) 46 57 52 49 58 64 47 42 29 N/A 50 49
13 (11am) 50 N/A 54 51 62 65 50 43 30 N/A 67 52
13 (5pm) 50 63 54 52 66 65 53 48 32 N/A 80 57
14 (7am) 38 N/A 55 52 67 61 56 45 35 68 77 52
14 (11am) 38 67 55 50 68 N/A 57 45 33 66 65 51
14 (5pm) 42 69 59 49 73 70 58 48 36 70 65 49
15 (7am) 54 67 62 55 95 90 63 54 36 76 108 65
15 (11am) 56 70 64 58 101 92 67 58 40 78 127 69
15 (5pm) 57 77 71 60 104 93 76 62 40 81 148 72
16 (7am) 64 87 82 76 112 81 86 76 50 102 125 77
16 (11am) 64 96 86 78 129 79 85 66 49 104 110 77
16 (5pm) 64 96 86 81 161 80 89 63 49 103 86 81
17 (7am) 56 84 74 70 129 77 106 59 52 73 71 71
17 (11am) 53 69 66 70 102 74 107 58 55 67 65 67
17 (5pm) 46 65 60 72 62 77 99 56 60 63 62 56
18 (7am) 41 60 59 84 65 116 70 47 61 80 65 39
18 (11am) 46 61 62 84 68 125 67 42 60 85 70 42
18 (5pm) 49 68 65 84 72 122 63 46 59 85 68 52
19 (7am) 55 82 75 77 148 122 67 60 56 96 133 70
19 (11am) 56 84 76 77 160 124 68 65 56 98 157 71
19 (5pm) 57 80 72 75 161 152 70 68 56 96 172 70
20 (7am) 54 76 61 66 134 171 72 79 67 70 337 64
20 (11am) 53 78 61 66 137 181 71 80 74 65 383 65
20 (5pm) 52 86 67 65 150 219 73 85 79 70 N/A 68
21 (7am) 57 105 78 57 192 190 85 84 N/A 91 183 80
21 (11am) 60 109 81 54 205 197 87 83 N/A 94 193 81
21 (5pm) 64 119 80 51 271 158 90 86 N/A 94 273 84
22 (7am) 69 106 77 57 176 175 78 87 90 118 276 86
22 (11am) 70 109 82 60 178 170 78 88 91 139 373 87
22 (5pm) 72 108 92 66 188 167 80 88 89 145 N/A 87
23 (7am) 71 103 102 68 357 117 100 84 87 188 746 94
23 (11am) 71 104 111 72 415 100 107 83 85 192 690 94
23 (5pm) 71 103 134 83 373 89 138 77 83 214 507 106
24 (7am) 70 153 157 95 182 111 171 70 76 296 148 141
24 (11am) 71 169 160 98 141 107 166 72 75 288 132 148
24 (5pm) 81 171 168 100 128 108 138 75 73 319 125 171
25 (7am) 121 165 186 101 135 82 87 80 70 487 165 288
25 (11am) 118 144 174 98 131 81 83 74 71 484 132 333
25 (5pm) 106 141 147 89 121 75 77 68 71 464 127 290
26 (7am) 62 118 98 85 93 66 65 51 67 140 70 137
26 (11am) 60 118 86 82 91 65 62 53 65 117 67 110
26 (5pm) 53 100 74 77 101 60 57 52 61 93 64 82
27 (7am) 46 86 75 64 96 62 60 51 53 73 78 46
27 (11am) 44 80 75 61 89 63 62 51 52 69 76 42
27 (5pm) 45 77 67 56 76 73 63 52 N/A 64 69 42
28 (7am) 46 61 52 54 55 60 60 51 48 54 46 50
28 (11am) 49 57 49 53 55 60 58 50 46 54 48 50
28 (5pm) 50 61 84 55 60 56 57 50 44 56 47 51

  0–50  Good  51–100 Moderate 101–200 Unhealthy 201–300 Very unhealthy >301 Hazardous

Hourly API readings in some areas in July 2013[106]
Date (Time) George Town Seremban Kuala Lumpur
(Cheras)
Kuala Terengganu Malacca City Johor Bahru Kuantan
(Indera Mahkota)
Kuching Kota Kinabalu Port Klang Muar Seri Manjung
21 (7am) 65 72 61 66 76 44 51 47 36 89 67 78
21 (11am) 64 76 61 66 79 44 52 N/A 35 91 67 75
21 (5pm) 64 80 75 68 92 46 53 N/A 36 90 71 73
22 (7am) 59 74 62 67 107 51 58 46 46 80 82 67
22 (11am) 59 75 65 68 116 52 59 48 48 82 91 67
22 (5pm) 59 84 110 70 99 54 68 50 51 94 103 67
23 (7am) 61 85 89 87 86 52 76 58 56 105 116 84
23 (11am) 62 87 93 89 79 50 77 60 57 103 111 87
23 (5pm) 66 71 93 93 78 45 70 59 58 97 94 94
24 (7am) 78 67 82 87 63 32 57 56 57 91 58 118
24 (11am) 77 63 78 86 59 31 54 54 57 89 51 123
24 (5pm) 79 61 64 84 59 35 51 55 55 81 49 120
25 (7am) N/A 53 59 80 58 38 52 52 51 81 42 96
25 (11am) 87 51 59 79 58 42 52 53 50 86 45 94
25 (5pm) 87 53 63 75 57 46 53 53 50 88 46 91
26 (7am) 73 53 63 56 52 47 46 52 54 69 51 76
26 (11am) 69 54 63 51 53 47 42 51 55 63 48 73
26 (5pm) 60 54 56 45 54 51 40 52 54 73 47 72
27 (7am) 54 56 56 40 54 54 40 49 56 75 38 77
27 (11am) 54 55 52 41 52 53 41 43 55 72 37 74
27 (5pm) 54 60 53 42 50 50 44 36 54 57 40 69

  0–50  Good  51–100 Moderate 101–200 Unhealthy 201–300 Very unhealthy >301 Hazardous

Singapore[edit]

Bedok South Ave 1, looking west towards Marine Parade at 12:04 PM on 24 June 2013.
Same vantage point on 21 June 2013 at 10:35 AM, when the haze was at hazardous levels.
Comparison of the effects of the haze on Singapore.
Left: Before the haze (Taken 4 May, PSI "Good")
Middle: During the haze (Taken 19 June, PSI "Unhealthy")
Right: After the haze (Taken 23 June, PSI "Moderate")
The effects of the haze on Singapore. Normally, the hills in the background can be clearly seen.
The graph plots the PSI readings released by NEA from 20 to 21 June 2013. At 12 p.m. on 21 June 2013, the readings reached a record-breaking level of 401, in the highest possible Hazardous range.

Mild haze began to affect Singapore on 13 June,[107] before air quality worsened and remained in the Unhealthy range for a few days.[108] Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) first hit levels unseen in 16 years when a PSI of 155 was recorded at 10 p.m. on 17 June 2013. The highest in the 16 years of the haze was finally broken.[54] At 10 p.m. on 19 June 2013, the 3-hour PSI reading of 321 breached the Hazardous zone for the first time in the nation's history, surpassing its previous record of 226 (Very unhealthy) during the 1997 haze.[109] However, the 10 p.m. reading was released 57 minutes late at 10:57 p.m. and the reading soon decreased to 282 at 11 p.m., and 218 at 12 a.m., both of which are in the Very unhealthy range. At 1 p.m. on 20 June 2013, the 3-hour PSI reading reached record levels once again with a reading of 371 in the Hazardous range a jump from 299 an hour ago, which was only one point shy of the "Hazardous" level. The PM2.5 concentration also reached 300 for the first time in the nation's history.[110]

At 11 a.m. on 21 June 2013, a new all-time high was recorded, with a PSI of 400 in the Hazardous range. It was 100 more than the minimum "Hazardous" level Shortly after that, the new record was broken again at 12 p.m., with the PSI remaining in the Hazardous range with a reading of 101 times more than the minimum "Hazardous" level which meant that the new PSI was 401.[111]

As with the other haze events that preceded this, the haze strained ties between Indonesia and Singapore, with Indonesia swiftly pushing the blame for the haze to Singapore and Malaysia, which have invested in palm oil firms at the area of the burning.[112] The Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Hsien Loong, as well as Vivian Balakrishnan, the Singaporean Minister of Environment and Water Resources, have expressed concern over the haze, calling on Indonesia to do more to resolve the issue.[113] However, Indonesian officials have become irate at the demands, and on Thursday Indonesia's Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare Agung Laksono accused Singapore of acting "like a child", to emphasise its view that Singapore was being immature.[114] In response, Singapore's Emeritus Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong responded that "the Singapore Child is being suffocated", borrowing the same descriptor to highlight the nation's innocence yet vulnerability in the haze crisis.[115]

While cloud seeding was suggested to get rid of the haze, Singapore's meteorological service found it to be not possible at the moment due to insufficient cloud cover.[116]

Initially, face masks were sold out early in major drugstores and other retailers due to strong demand,[117] although the Ministry of Health subsequently reassured the public that restocks were being distributed, from its adequate armoury of close to 9 million N95 masks.[118] More than 4 million masks have been pushed out since with 1 million masks to constituencies and the remaining 3 million to retailers.[119]

The Manpower Ministry has refrained from issuing a stop-work order, saying that the Government will do so only if the haze worsens severely.[120]

At around 3pm on 22 June 2013, the haze started giving way to clear skies while visibility improved as the PSI dropped from 326 at 10am in the Hazardous range to 73 at 5pm in the Moderate range.[121] On 23 June 2013, the improvement has been sustained in the morning, with the PSI in the Moderate range as of 10am. The improvement in the air quality was due to a change in the direction of the low level winds over Singapore, from south-westerly to southerly, since the previous night.[122] As dry conditions and winds blowing from the southwest or west persist, the 24-hour PSI reading for the rest of the day is expected to be in the Moderate range.[123] However, at 8pm on 23 June 2013, the PSI reached 102, which is in the Unhealthy range, in the west. The readings were seen increasing as the night passed. This may be caused by the wind coming from the south-west, affecting Malaysia and the western region of Singapore.

The skies are expected to remain clear on 24 June (Monday), with the PSI predicted to remain in the Moderate range (51–100). However, at 8pm on 23 June, PM2.5 concentration was still relatively high, at 70–102 μg/m3, which is above the safe limit of 40 μg/m3.[124] At 6am, the 3-hour PSI hits the Good range, the first in weeks, since the haze started on 13 June 2013.

In the late afternoon of 25 June 2013, heavy thunderstorms accompanied by strong, gusty winds drenched many parts of Singapore, including a rare hailstorm in the western towns of Jurong East, Bukit Batok and Choa Chu Kang. Some of the hail were as large as 50-cent coins. The winds were so strong that many trees were uprooted, causing massive traffic jams along the affected roads during and after the downpour. Even plastic chairs at coffee shops, rubbish bins, bamboo poles, as well as a lot of weird debris went sent flying around wildly. Some roads were completely blocked by fallen trees. A few roads affected by uprooted trees include the exit to Jurong Town Hall Road on the PIE, Bukit Batok Road, Toh Guan Road, Old Jurong Road and Clementi Road. Falling trees and branches damaged at least three cars. The Singapore Civil Defence Force said that no one was injured by falling trees. However, Wildlife Reserves Singapore said that two visitors to the Singapore Zoo suffered ankle pain as well as abrasions when a falling tree branch hit them. The National Environment Agency has assured the public that the hail was not caused by cloud-seeding in Indonesia, and that the rain was not acidic or toxic. It said that the clouds from Indonesia do not travel that far, and that the wind was currently blowing the haze away from Singapore, so it was not possible for the clouds to reach Singapore. However, NEA also said that it was possible that the hail was related to the haze. Singapore's Minister for Environment and Water Resources Vivian Balakrishnan added that Singapore did not carry out any cloud-seeding. The storms were a welcome respite, after Singapore had endured a week of record-breaking haze and no rain. The last recorded hailstorm in Singapore was on 12 September 2009. The result: there was a huge decrease in the PSI.[125][126][127][128][129][130]

Singapore's Minister for the Environment and Water Resources Dr Vivian Balakrishnan has assured Singaporeans that Singapore's water quality has not been affected by the severe haze. He said that water will continue to flow from Singapore's taps, as Singapore's water remains as good as before and is safe to drink.[131]

On 30 June 2013, a morning shower caused a significant decrease in the 3-hour PSI readings. Since 12pm, the PSI had dropped into the Good range. However, PM2.5 concentrations for the past few days remained unhealthy, and it is predicted to be as such as well in the coming days.[132][133]

The good air remained on 1 July, with the 3-hour PSI readings, 24-hour PSI readings, as well as the PM2.5 readings remaining in the Good range for most of the day. The highest 24-hour PSI, 3-hour PSI and PM2.5 concentration were recorded at 12am (49–53 Moderate), 1pm and 2pm (52 Moderate) and 12am (33–44) respectively. The lowest 24-hour PSI, 3-hour PSI as well as PM2.5 readings were recorded at 10am (26–36 Good), 5am, 9pm and 10pm (28 Good), and 10am (16–25) respectively. PSI readings on 2 and 3 July were also in the Good range.

At 3am on 5 July 2013, a PSI reading of 6 was recorded – the lowest reading since the haze started blowing towards Singapore. It was also the lowest anyone would have ever remembered.

On 22 July, the haze entered the Moderate range for the first time since the haze subsided. Although air quality remained good for most of the day, it breached the moderate mark with a reading of 50 at 8pm, rising to 52 at 9pm. However, it soon fell back into the Good range at 10pm.

Despite Malaysia getting hit by the haze on 21 and 22 July, Singapore remained relatively unaffected, as the winds were mainly blowing from the south or southeast. However, Singapore would have been affected, if the wind had blown from the west instead.[21]

On 26 July, the PSI reached the 40s for the first time in weeks. Although PSI levels during the day kept rising and falling, all of them were in the Good range. The highest PSI reading, 46, was recorded at 10pm, following a steady increase. An hour later, the PSI dropped to 42.[134]

On 27 July, a PSI of 36 was recorded at 12am. The PSI gradually decreased during the early morning, all in the 30s. As of 6am, the PSI reading was a good 30. After that, the PSI rose a little and reached 43 at 10am, before gradually subsiding to 22 at 5pm. After that, the PSI increased a little and hit 28 at 8pm and 10pm. An hour later, a PSI of 32 was recorded.[134]

On 28 July, the PSI was 39 at 12am. At 1am, the PSI was back in the 40s, and has remained there since then. As at 11am, the PSI was 46, the highest of the day. At 2pm, the PSI was back into the 20s. The lowest reading of 19 was recorded at 7pm.[134]

On 30 July, PSI in the early morning hovered around 36 and 37, before dropping to the 20s. However, a slight haze returned to Singapore at night, rising from 26 at 5pm to 42 at 10pm. The PSI remained at 42 at 11pm.[134]

On 31 July, the highest PSI was 44 at 6am, before it dropped to 16 at 3pm and 4pm. It then rose to 36 at 8pm, but decreased to 15 at 11pm, the lowest reading of the day.[134]

On 1 August, the lowest reading was 11, from 12am–2am. The highest was just 30, at 11am. For most of the day, air quality was between 10 and 20. This may be partially because of the early morning thunderstorm, as well as the showers and drizzles during the day.[134]

On 20 August, the haze briefly returned to Singapore during the afternoon, rising to 55 at 1pm. The PSI dropped to 27 at 7pm.[135]

Measures taken[edit]

Over the first four days of the haze, the government and other institutions implemented a series of safety precautions meant to reduce exposure to the haze. Most were focused on restricting outdoor activities. Schools and childcare centres began restricting outdoor activities.[136][137][138][139] It was announced that should the haze situation worsen, schools would be closed and the Ministry of Manpower Singapore might issue a stop-work order;[140] the Ministry of Education declared all school activities in June cancelled on 21 June 2013.[141] In addition, talks with Indonesia were initiated.[142][143] The Singapore Government distributed a few hundred thousand respirators to households without the means to purchase their own,[144] while the country's top Islam board gave the green light for Muslims to not attend Friday prayer at mosques should they deem fit.[145]

Pollutant Standard Index readings[edit]

3-hour PSI readings in June 2013
Based on PM10 concentration only.[134]
Date/Time 12am 1am 2am 3am 4am 5am 6am 7am 8am 9am 10am 11am 12pm 1pm 2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm 11pm
17 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 56 56 55 57 64 80 95 100 105 111 110 111 117 140 152 155 150
18 145 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 109 106 108 115 121 123 114 104 95 90 85 81 82 88 97 108 122 133
19 134 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 77 78 80 84 91 103 124 152 170 172 158 146 144 161 190 290 321 282
20 218 195 N/A N/A N/A N/A 137 128 122 131 153 198 299 371 355 312 253 268 310 292 231 197 231 250
21 210 173 143 119 104 96 94 111 158 256 367 400 401 360 245 168 145 143 139 135 137 142 153 168
22 180 183 180 179 177 180 190 231 292 323 326 322 319 263 178 122 85 73 73 77 82 87 90 91
23 91 90 88 89 93 99 104 106 105 101 96 90 83 80 78 78 77 77 76 75 75 76 79 80
24 76 70 64 59 54 51 48 47 47 47 49 52 54 59 65 72 79 82 79 75 72 68 65 61

0–50 Good 51–100 Moderate 101–200 Unhealthy 201–300 Very unhealthy >301 Hazardous


Southern Thailand[edit]

As of 25 June, the haze has affected the southern parts of Thailand according to the Thai News Agency.[146] The haze affected the Yala Province first, causing irritation to the locals but did not affect visibility on the road yet.[147] A day later, the haze in Pattani, Yala and Satun thickened and caused poor visibility on the road.[148] Among the seven Southern Thailand provinces affected by the haze, Narathiwat had been hit the worst, with particulate matter levels there reaching 129 micrograms/cubic metre, a level which is considered adverse to health.[149]

Measures taken[edit]

The provincial public health offices have advised the public to wear a face mask and avoid any outdoor activities.[148][149]

Reactions[edit]

  •  Indonesia – Indonesian officials have said that farmers are being educated by the government on alternatives to clearing land, instead of the traditional slash-and-burn method.[137] A foreign ministry official said that the government plans to use cloud-seeding to extinguish fires that have been causing the haze.[92] Agung Laksono, the Indonesian Minister for People's Welfare, called for Singapore to cease "making all this noise" and "behaving like a child", insisting that Singapore companies that own plantations on Sumatra must share the blame.[150] On 21 June 2013, Indonesia's Forestry Ministry general secretary Hadi Daryanto said that Indonesia's efforts to fight the fires may not be effective without help in the form of a heavy downpour, which Indonesia's meteorological service has predicted to occur on 28 June. The fire had engulfed more than 3,000 hectares (7,400 acres) of plantations and forests, and it was no longer possible to put out the widespread fire. Hadi also mentioned that it would take them 2 weeks to create artificial rain if they were to use cloud-seeding to put out the fires, and that the haze could last for weeks, or even months, if there is no downpour. Other than deploying many firefighters to the scene, Indonesia has also turned to water bombing to extinguish the fires. It was also mentioned that they would rather set a block around settlements to prevent the fire from burning homes.[37] On 24 June 2013, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono apologised to Singapore and Malaysia about the haze situation and hope to seek the neighbours' understanding.[151] He has promised to try his best to tackle the haze problem and emphasised that the Indonesian authorities would find out the culprits behind the fire, bringing them to justice.[152] Aside from that, Indonesia agreed to hasten a sub-regional meeting of five ASEAN countries on the transboundary haze till July after a meeting between Environment Minister, Balthasar Kambuaya and his Malaysian counterpart, G. Palanivel.[153] On 27 June 2013, Indonesian hacking group Indonesia J.A.M.5 Team hacked the website of Eu Yan Sang, a Singapore company that sells traditional Chinese medicine, in protest against the outrage in Singapore over the haze caused by Indonesia. The website was hacked at 12:43am but was restored by Eu Yan Sang's IT team at 8:30am. The hacker went by the nickname Bambu, and the message in Bahasa Indonesia read "Bambu pernah bersepada di sini. Jangan menghina negara Indonesia cuma karna udara di negara kalian tercemar. Salahkanlah pada angin yang bertiup. :v Siapa suruh anginnya kertiup ke negara kalian." In English, it reads "Bambu was here. Don't insult our country (Indonesia) for the haze in your country (Singapore). Don't blame Indonesia just because the air in your country is polluted. Blame the wind. Who told the wind to blow towards your country?".[154][155]
  •  Malaysia – Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak said on his official Twitter that four ministers from four countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand) would meet in Malaysia to discuss the issue on 20 August 2013.[156][157] Malaysia is also willing to send help to Sumatra and help Indonesia with cloud-seeding.[158][159] Malaysian Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Datuk Seri G. Palanivel was scheduled to meet his Indonesian counterpart to discuss ways to resolve the crisis.[160] Additionally, he asked Indonesia to prove the involvement of Malaysian agricultural companies in the open burning in Sumatra, in response to their allegation claiming that many Malaysian companies were involved.[161] Meanwhile, Malaysian Health Minister, Datuk Seri S. Subramaniam said that Malaysia would support any Indonesia's action against errant Malaysian companies involved in the slash-and-burn activities.[161] Prime Minister Najib Razak will send an official letter to the Indonesian President seeking co-operation to punish those responsible.[162]
  •  Singapore – On 21 June 2013, Emeritus Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong stated on his Facebook page that "the Singapore Child is being suffocated, how can he not scream?". This was in response to Agung Laksono's comments on Singaporeans "behaving like a child" over the haze issue, made the day before. Using an example of Malaysian and Singaporeans being neighbours, he stressed that one should be considerate for another and co-operate with one another in fighting the haze instead of blaming one another. He then quoted an act of "burning our garden refuse openly if the smoke will enter our neighbour's house" for instance.[163] On 22 June 2013, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Law K. Shanmugam has urged the Indonesia government to take "decisive action" towards the haze situation. In response to provocative remarks made by several Indonesian ministers, he stressed that the attitude by those ministers will not improve the problem any further, instead the main concern now should be dedicated in solving the haze situation. He has added that Indonesia has not been carrying "the same tone of cooperation" that both countries once had over the years.[164] On 25 June 2013, Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong accepted Indonesia President Susilo Bambang's apology wholeheartedly, and said that the apology was a very gracious act. He also welcomed Susilo's promise to try his best to tackle the haze problem. PM Lee also said that Singapore is ready to work closely with Indonesia, Malaysia and other ASEAN countries to find a permanent solution to prevent the haze problem from recurring annually.[152] When the number of hotspots spiked in mid-July, Singapore also offered to assist Indonesia in putting out the fires, to prevent the haze from affecting Singapore again. An aircraft was also offered to help with cloud-seeding over the hotspots.[52]
  •  Thailand – Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra has expressed her concern about the haze that has spread to Southern Thailand; she also has assigned related agencies to monitor the problem and provide a timely updates for the public.[165] While, Thailand Minister of Foreign Affairs Surapong Tovichakchaikul has said that he would bring up the issue at the upcoming ASEAN meeting and discuss with others bloc members about how to help Indonesia to tackle the problem.[165] He also said that Malaysia and Singapore had proposed to hold the ASEAN meeting sooner than scheduled, so the bloc members could help tackle it.[165]

International reactions[edit]

  • Greenpeace International – The environmental organisation thought of the situation as an "international problem", stating that "nothing could be more illustrative of forest destruction than the polluting haze that is coming from Sumatra". It urged the parties responsible for the haze to take preventive actions.[166] Greenpeace also called on big palm oil companies such as Malaysia-based Sime Darby and Singapore-based Wilmar International to check whether their suppliers are involved in the burning.[167]

Comparison with previous haze events in Southeast Asia[edit]

Forest and land fires have been an annual occurrence in Sumatra in recent history. In the period from 2006 to 2013, the cumulative hotspot count in 2013 was the 5th highest. There were more hotspots in 2012, 2006, 2007 and 2009.[168]

The record-breaking pollution levels in Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia in June 2013 were caused by a combination of a spike in hotspots in Sumatra and wind patterns which directed the smoke towards Singapore and Malaysia during that month.[169]

There were more than 8000 fire alerts in Sumatra in June 2013. Over the past 12 years, there have only been three other months with more than 8,000 fire alerts – all of which occurred in 2006.[170]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Data from: Singapore National Environment Agency
  2. ^ "Haze in Singapore hits PSI all-time record high of 371". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Smoke Engulfs Singapore". NASA Earth Observatory. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "Singapore haze hits record high from Indonesia fires". BBC News. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Malaysia declares state of emergency in Muar and Ledang". Channel News Asia. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Haze: State of emergency lifted in Muar and Ledang, schools reopen", The Star, Malaysia. 25 June 2013.
  7. ^ "Haze source 'may be' fire on Riau land parcel 4 times size of Ang Mo Kio". The Straits Times. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Four times as many hotspots in Sumatra now". The Star. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "Air clears in Malaysia as Indonesian fires die out". The Sunday Times. 30 June 2013. p. 4. 
  10. ^ a b c "Haze update: Haze covers Pekanbaru despite efforts to douse fires". The Straits Times. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Dreaded haze heading north now". The Star. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  12. ^ Cheam, Jessica (20 June 2013). "Haze hits hazardous levels, Singapore and Indonesia at war of words". Eco Business. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  13. ^ "Smog at Hazardous as Singapore, Jakarta Spar Over Fires". Bloomberg. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  14. ^ Maierbrugger, Arno (25 June 2013). "Indonesian president apologises for haze disaster". Inside Investor. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Southeast Asia haze crisis eases as rain douses fires". 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  16. ^ "Haze may have eased due to fewer fires: NEA". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 29 June 2013. p. A6. 
  17. ^ "WWF renews calls for zero-burn policies to be enacted". Channel NewsAsia. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  18. ^ "Hot spot situation 'more under control': Jakarta". The Sunday Times. 30 June 2013. p. 1. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Indonesia's haze battle enters 'preventive mode'". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 2 July 2013. p. A6. 
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External links[edit]