2013 in paleontology

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2013.

Plants[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Gnetophyta[edit]

Medullosales[edit]

Arthropods[edit]

Bryozoans[edit]

Brachiopods[edit]

Molluscs[edit]

Echinoderms[edit]

Conodonts[edit]

Fishes[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Newly named temnospondyls[edit]

Newly named lepospondyls[edit]

Newly named lissamphibians[edit]

Anapsids[edit]

Newly named procolophonoids[edit]

Newly named turtles[edit]

Thalattosaurs[edit]

Ichthyopterygians[edit]

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]




Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ankylosuchus[116]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lucas, Spielmann & Hunt

Late Triassic

Colorado City Formation

 United States

A doswelliid. The type species is Ankylosuchus chinlegroupensis.

Asperoris[117]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Nesbitt, Butler & Gower

Middle Triassic (probably late Anisian)

Manda beds

 Tanzania

A non-archosaurian archosauriform of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Asperoris mnyama.

Fuyuansaurus[118]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Fraser, Rieppel & Chun

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Falang Formation

 China

A protorosaur. The type species is Fuyuansaurus acutirostris.

Jaxtasuchus[119]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[120]

Schoch & Sues

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Erfurt Formation

 Germany

A doswelliid. The type species is Jaxtasuchus salomoni.

Machaeroprosopus lottorum[121]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hungerbühler et al.

Late Triassic

Cooper Canyon Formation

 United States

A phytosaur, a species of Machaeroprosopus.

Macrocnemus obristi[122]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fraser & Furrer

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Prosanto Formation

  Switzerland

A protorosaur, a species of Macrocnemus.

Wannia[123]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Stocker

Late Triassic

 United States

A phytosaur; a new genus for "Paleorhinus" scurriensis Langston (1949).

Archosaurs[edit]

Other diapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Dolerosaurus[124]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Butler

Late Triassic (late Carnian)

Lunz Formation

 Austria

A diapsid of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a new genus for "Francosuchus" trauthi Huene (1939).

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian synapsids[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Other animals[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anomalocaris kunmingensis[131]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wang, Huang & Hu

Cambrian

Wulongqing Formation

 China

A member of Anomalocarididae (a group of animals with uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly stem-arthropods), a species of Anomalocaris.

Conularia porcella[132]

Sp. nov

Valid

Robson & Young

Late Ordovician (middle Katian)

Red River Formation

 Canada

A conulariid, a species of Conularia.

Gracilitheca astronauta[133]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valent & Fatka

Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs), a species of Gracilitheca.

Gracilitheca mirabilis[134]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valent, Fatka & Marek

Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs), a species of Gracilitheca.

Gracilitheca triangularis[134]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valent, Fatka & Marek

Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha, a species of Gracilitheca.

Microconchus utahensis[135]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zatoń, Taylor & Vinn

Early Triassic

Virgin Formation

 United States

A member of Microconchida (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs), a species of Microconchus.

Nephrotheca betula[134]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valent, Fatka & Marek

Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha, a species of Nephrotheca.

Nephrotheca sophia[133]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valent & Fatka

Cambrian

Buchava Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Hyolitha, a species of Nephrotheca.

Paraconularia bachmanni[136]

Sp. nov

Valid

Barth et al.

Late Triassic

 Germany

A conulariid, a species of Paraconularia.

Paranomalocaris[131]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang, Huang & Hu

Cambrian

Wulongqing Formation

 China

A member of Anomalocarididae (a group of animals with uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly stem-arthropods). The type species is Paranomalocaris multisegmentalis.

Quasiaulacera[137]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Copper, Stock & Jin

Late Ordovician (Hirnantian)

Ellis Bay Formation

 Canada

A stromatoporoid. Genus contains two species: Quasiaulacera stellata and Q. occidua.

Spinitheca[138]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Novozhilova

Early Cambrian (Atdabanian)

 Russia

A member of Hyolitha (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs). The type species is Spinitheca sysoievi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Selena Y. Smith, Stefan A. Little, Ranessa L. Cooper, Robyn J. Burnham, and Ruth A. Stockey (2013). "A Ranunculalean Liana Stem from the Cretaceous of British Columbia, Canada: Atli morinii gen. et sp. nov.". International Journal of Plant Sciences 174 (5): 818–831. doi:10.1086/669925. 
  3. ^ Abel Barral, Bernard Gomez, Taylor S. Feild, Clément Coiffard and Véronique Daviero-Gomez (2013). "Leaf architecture and ecophysiology of an early basal eudicot from the Early Cretaceous of Spain". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (4): 594–605. doi:10.1111/boj.12095. 
  4. ^ Coiffard, C.; Mohr, B.A.R.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C. (2013). "Jaguariba wiersemana gen. nov. et sp. nov., an Early Cretaceous member of crown group Nymphaeales (Nymphaeaceae) from northern Gondwana". Taxon 62 (1): 141–151. 
  5. ^ Gaurav Srivastava and R C Mehrotra (2013). "Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron Bedd. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India". Journal of Earth System Science 122 (2): 283–288. doi:10.1007/s12040-013-0277-z. 
  6. ^ Nathan A. Jud and Leo J. Hickey (2013). "Potomacapnos apeleutheron gen. et sp. nov., a new Early Cretaceous angiosperm from the Potomac Group and its implications for the evolution of eudicot leaf architecture". American Journal of Botany 100 (12): 2437–2449. doi:10.3732/ajb.1300250. 
  7. ^ Coiffard, C.; Mohr, B.A.R.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C. (2013). "The Early Cretaceous Aroid, Spixiarum kipea gen. et sp nov. and implications on early dispersal and ecology of basal monocots". Taxon 62 (5): 997–1008. doi:10.12705/625.21. 
  8. ^ Löwe, S.; Mohr, B.A.R.; Coiffard, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C. (2013). "Friedsellowia gracilifolia gen. nov. et sp. nov., a new gnetophyte from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil)". Palaeontographica Abteilung B 289 (4-6): 139–177. 
  9. ^ Alan R.T. Spencer, Shi-Jun Wang, Michael T. Dunn and Jason Hilton (2013). "Species of the medullosan ovule Stephanospermum from the Lopingian (late Permian) floras of China". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 76: 59–69. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.07.030. 
  10. ^ T. Gary Gautier, Patrick N. Wyse Jackson and Frank K. McKinney (2013). "Adlatipora, A Distinctive New Acanthocladiid Bryozoan from the Permian of the Glass Mountains, Texas, U.S.A., and its Bearing on Fenestrate Astogeny and Growth". Journal of Paleontology 87 (3): 444–455. doi:10.1666/12-128.1. 
  11. ^ a b Kamil Zágoršek and Dennis P. Gordon (2013). "Late Tortonian bryozoans from Mut Basin, Central Anatolian Plateau, southern Turkey". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (3): 595–607. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0100. 
  12. ^ a b Matthew H. Dick, Toshifumi Komatsu, Reishi Takashima and Andrew N. Ostrovsky (2014). "A mid-Cretaceous (Albian–Cenomanian) shell-rubble bryozoan fauna from the Goshoura Group, Kyushu, Japan". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 12 (4): 401–425. doi:10.1080/14772019.2013.765926. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F1B0D7FC-5E0B-4E9E-8098-CD1E6DBE47B8
  14. ^ a b c d Emanuela Di Martino and Paul D. Taylor (2013). "First bryozoan fauna from a tropical Cretaceous carbonate: Simsima Formation, United Arab Emirates–Oman border region". Cretaceous Research 43: 80–96. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2013.02.004. 
  15. ^ a b Z. A. Tolokonnikova (2013). "Early Carboniferous bryozoans from the Kodinka section, Middle Urals". Paleontological Journal 47 (2): 147–153. doi:10.1134/S0031030113020159. 
  16. ^ a b Juan L. Benedetto, Karen Halpern, Julio C. Galeano Inchausti (2013). "High-latitude Hirnantian (latest Ordovician) brachiopods from the Eusebio Ayala Formation of Paraguay, Paraná Basin". Palaeontology 56 (1): 61–78. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01158.x. 
  17. ^ Timothy P. Topper, Lars E. Holmer, Christian B. Skovsted, Glenn A. Brock, Uwe Balthasar, Cecilia M. Larsson, Sandra Pettersson Stolk and David A.T. Harper (2013). "The oldest brachiopods from the lower Cambrian of South Australia". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (1): 93–109. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0146. 
  18. ^ A. A. Madison (2013). "New brachiopod subfamily Anechophragmiinae (Strophomenida) from the Ordovician of the Leningrad Region". Paleontological Journal 47 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1134/S0031030113010061. 
  19. ^ Howard R. Feldman (2013). "Menathyris wilsoni (Brachiopoda), new genus and species from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of southern Israel". Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 83 (2): 81–85. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Yang Zhang, Wei-Hong He, G.R. Shi and Ke-Xin Zhang (2013). "A new Changhsingian (Late Permian) Rugosochonetidae (Brachiopoda) fauna from the Zhongzhai section, southwestern Guizhou Province, South China". Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 37 (2): 223–247. doi:10.1080/03115518.2013.738381. 
  21. ^ Jorge Colmenar, Enrique Villas and Daniel Vizcaïno (2013). "Upper Ordovician brachiopods from the Montagne Noire (France): endemic Gondwanan predecessors of Prehirnantian low-latitude immigrants". Bulletin of Geosciences 88 (1): 153–174. doi:10.3140/bull.geosci.1352. 
  22. ^ Michael G. Bassett, Mansoureh Ghobadi Pour, Leonid E. Popov and Mohammad-Reza Kebria-ee Zadeh (2013). "First report of craniide brachiopods in the Palaeozoic of Iran (Pseudocrania, Ordovician), and Early to Mid-Ordovician biogeography of the Craniida". Palaeontology 56 (1): 209–216. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01186.x. 
  23. ^ Andreas Kroh, Rich Mooi, Claudia Del Río and Christian Neumann (2013). "A new late Cenozoic species of Abertella (Echinoidea: Clypeasteroida) from Patagonia". Zootaxa 3608 (5): 369–378. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3608.5.5. 
  24. ^ a b c Ben Thuy and Christian A. Meyer (2013). "The pitfalls of extrapolating modern depth ranges to fossil assemblages: new insights from Middle Jurassic brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Switzerland". Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 132 (1): 5–21. doi:10.1007/s13358-012-0048-5. 
  25. ^ Samuel Zamora (2013). "Morphology and phylogenetic interpretation of a new Cambrian edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) from Spain". Palaeontology 56 (2): 421–431. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01209.x. 
  26. ^ Andrew B. Smith (2013). "Geological history of bathyal echinoid faunas, with a new genus from the late Cretaceous of Italy". Geological Magazine 150 (1): 177–182. doi:10.1017/S0016756812000738. 
  27. ^ Peter Müller, Gerhard Hahn and Jan Bohatý (2013). "Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroidea (Echinodermata) from the Middle Devonian of the Eifel (Rhenish Massif, Germany)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 87 (4): 455–472. doi:10.1007/s12542-013-0170-8. 
  28. ^ a b c Jeffrey R. Thompson, William I. Ausich and Legrand Smith (2013). "Echinoderms from the Lower Devonian (Emsian) of Bolivia (Malvinokaffric Realm)". Journal of Paleontology 87 (1): 166–175. doi:10.1666/12-068R.1. 
  29. ^ Thomas Saucede, Alain Bonnot, Didier Marchand and Philippe Courville (2013). "A Revision of the Rare Genus Cyclolampas (Echinoidea) Using Morphometrics with Description of a New Species from the Upper Callovian of Burgundy (France)". Journal of Paleontology 87 (1): 105–122. doi:10.1666/12-015R.1. 
  30. ^ a b Ben Thuy, Daniel Marty and Gaël Comment (2013). "A remarkable example of a Late Jurassic shallow-water ophiuroid assemblage from the Swiss Jura Mountains". Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106 (2): 409–426. doi:10.1007/s00015-013-0133-9. 
  31. ^ Samuel Zamora, Imran A. Rahman & Andrew B. Smith (2013). "The ontogeny of cinctans (stem-group Echinodermata) as revealed by a new genus, Graciacystis, from the middle Cambrian of Spain". Palaeontology 56 (2): 399–410. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01207.x. 
  32. ^ S. V. Rozhnov (2013). "A new genus of Parablastoidea (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician of Ladoga glint on the Volkhov river (Ladoga region)". Paleontological Journal 47 (2): 154–161. doi:10.1134/S003103011302010X. 
  33. ^ Colin D. Sumrall, Susana Heredia, Cecilia M. Rodríguez and Ana I. Mestre (2013). "The first report of South American edrioasteroids and the paleoecology and ontogeny of rhenopyrgid echinoderms". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (4): 763–776. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0108. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fernando J. Zeballo and Guillermo L. Albanesi (2013). "New conodont species and biostratigraphy of the Santa Rosita Formation (upper Furongian–Tremadocian) in the Tilcara Range, Cordillera Oriental of Jujuy, Argentina". Geological Journal 48 (2–3): 170–193. doi:10.1002/gj.2425. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g Michael J. Orchard (2013). "Five new genera of conodonts from the Carnian-Norian boundary beds of Black Bear Ridge, northeast British Columbia, Canada". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 61: 445–457. 
  36. ^ I. A. Bardashev and N. P. Bardasheva (2013). "Muellerilepis, a new replacement generic name for Muellerina Bardashev et Bardasheva, 2012 (Conodonta)". Paleontological Journal 47 (5): 554. doi:10.1134/S0031030113050055. 
  37. ^ T. Yu. Tolmacheva (2013). "A new Middle Ordovician conodont from central Kazakhstan, northern Kyrgyzstan, and Altai". Paleontological Journal 47 (2): 185–189. doi:10.1134/S0031030113020147. 
  38. ^ Gilbert Klapper and Stanislava Vodrážková (2013). "Ontogenetic and intraspecific variation in the late Emsian – Eifelian (Devonian) conodonts Polygnathus serotinus and P. bultyncki in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic) and Nevada (western U.S.)". Acta Geologica Polonica 63 (2): 153–174. doi:10.2478/agp-2013-0006. 
  39. ^ Robert Holmes, David S. Berman and Jason S. Anderson (2013). "A new dissorophid (Temnospondyli, Dissorophoidea) from the Early Permian of New Mexico (United States)". Comptes Rendus Palevol 12 (7–8): 419–435. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2013.07.002. 
  40. ^ Tomasz Sulej and Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki (2013). "A new large capitosaur temnospondyl amphibian from the Early Triassic of Poland". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (1): 65–75. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0025. 
  41. ^ Hillary C. Maddin, Nadia B. Fröbisch, David C. Evans and Andrew R. Milner (2013). "Reappraisal of the Early Permian amphibamid Tersomius texensis and some referred material". Comptes Rendus Palevol 12 (7–8): 447–461. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2013.06.007. 
  42. ^ Rainer R. Schoch and Hans-Dieter Sues (2013). "A new dissorophid temnospondyl from the Lower Permian of north-central Texas". Comptes Rendus Palevol 12 (7–8): 437–445. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2013.04.002. 
  43. ^ Jason S. Anderson and John R. Bolt (2013). "New information on amphibamids (Tetrapoda, Temnospondyli) from Richards Spur (Fort Sill), Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (3): 553–567. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.726676. 
  44. ^ Andrew R. Milner and Rainer R. Schoch (2013). "Trimerorhachis (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Lower Permian of Texas and New Mexico: cranial osteology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 270 (1): 91–128. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2013/0360. 
  45. ^ Sabine Glienke (2013). "A taxonomic revision of Batropetes (Amphibia, Microsauria) from the Rotliegend (basal Permian) of Germany". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 269 (1): 73–96. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2013/0336. 
  46. ^ a b Adam K. Huttenlocker, Jason D. Pardo, Bryan J. Small and Jason S. Anderson (2013). "Cranial morphology of recumbirostrans (Lepospondyli) from the Permian of Kansas and Nebraska, and early morphological evolution inferred by micro-computed tomography". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (3): 540–552. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.728998. 
  47. ^ Amy C. Henrici, Ana M. Báez and Lance Grande (2013). "Aerugoamnis paulus, New Genus and New Species (Anura: Anomocoela): First Reported Anuran from the Early Eocene (Wasatchian) Fossil Butte Member of the Green River Formation, Wyoming". Annals of Carnegie Museum 81 (4): 295–309. doi:10.2992/007.081.0402. 
  48. ^ a b Annelise Folie, Rajendra S. Rana, Kenneth D. Rose, Ashok Sahni, Kishor Kumar, Lachham Singh, and Thierry Smith (2013). "Early Eocene frogs from Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (3): 511–524. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0063. 
  49. ^ a b Ana María Báez (2013). "Anurans from the Early Cretaceous Lagerstätte of Las Hoyas, Spain: New evidence on the Mesozoic diversification of crown-clade Anura". Cretaceous Research 41: 90–106. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2012.11.002. 
  50. ^ Rainer R. Schoch and Michael W. Rasser (2013). "A new salamandrid from the Miocene Randeck Maar, Germany". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (1): 58–66. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.716113. 
  51. ^ a b TH Worthy, AJD Tennyson, RP Scofield and SJ Hand (2013). "Early Miocene fossil frogs (Anura: Leiopelmatidae) from New Zealand". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 43 (4): 211–230. doi:10.1080/03036758.2013.825300. 
  52. ^ Liping Dong, Zbyněk Roček, Yuan Wang and Marc E H. Jones (2013). "Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Western Liaoning, China". PLoS ONE 8 (7): e69723. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069723. 
  53. ^ David G. Demar Jr. (2013). "A new fossil salamander (Caudata, Proteidae) from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Hell Creek Formation, Montana, U.S.A.". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (3): 588–598. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.734887. 
  54. ^ Davit Vasilyan, Madelaine Böhme, Viacheslav M. Chkhikvadze, Yuriy A. Semenov and Walter G. Joyce (2013). "A new giant salamander (Urodela, Pancryptobrancha) from the Miocene of Eastern Europe (Grytsiv, Ukraine)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (2): 301–318. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.722151. 
  55. ^ Steven C. Sweetman and James D. Gardner (2013). "A new albanerpetontid amphibian from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian) Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight, southern England". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (2): 295–324. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0109. 
  56. ^ Linda Akiko Tsuji, Gabriela Sobral and Johannes Müller (2013). "Ruhuhuaria reiszi, a new procolophonoid reptile from the Triassic Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania". Comptes Rendus Palevol 12 (7–8): 487–494. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2013.08.002. 
  57. ^ Igor G. Danilov, Elena V. Syromyatnikova, Pavel P. Skutschas, Tatyana M. Kodrul and Jianhua Jin (2013). "The first ‘true’ Adocus (Testudines, Adocidae) from the Paleogene of Asia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (5): 1071–1080. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.768254. 
  58. ^ a b c d e J. Howard Hutchison (2013). "New turtles from the Paleogene of North America". In Donald B. Brinkman, Patricia A. Holroyd and James D. Gardner (eds). Morphology and Evolution of Turtles. Springer. pp. 477–497. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4309-0_26. ISBN 978-94-007-4308-3. 
  59. ^ Robert E. Weems and James L. Knight (2013). "A new species of Bairdemys (Pelomedusoides: Podocnemididae) from the Oligocene (Early Chattian) Chandler Bridge Formation of South Carolina, USA, and its paleobiogeographic implications for the genus". In Donald B. Brinkman, Patricia A. Holroyd and James D. Gardner (eds). Morphology and Evolution of Turtles. Springer. pp. 289–303. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4309-0_18. ISBN 978-94-007-4308-3. 
  60. ^ a b Robert M. Sullivan, Steven E. Jasinski and Spencer G. Lucas (2013). "Re-assessment of Late Campanian (Kirtlandian) turtles from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA". In Donald B. Brinkman, Patricia A. Holroyd and James D. Gardner (eds). Morphology and Evolution of Turtles. Springer. pp. 337–387. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4309-0_20. ISBN 978-94-007-4308-3. 
  61. ^ Haiyan Tong and Peter Meylan (2013). "Morphology and relationships of Brachyopsemys tingitana gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Paleocene of Morocco and recognition of the new eucryptodiran turtle family: Sandownidae". In Donald B. Brinkman, Patricia A. Holroyd and James D. Gardner (eds). Morphology and Evolution of Turtles. Springer. pp. 187–212. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4309-0_13. ISBN 978-94-007-4308-3. 
  62. ^ A. Pérez-García and X. Murelaga (2013). "Camerochelys vilanovai gen. et sp. nov., a new pan-cryptodiran turtle in the Early Cretaceous of the Iberian Range (Spain)". Cretaceous Research 41: 143–149. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2012.12.002. 
  63. ^ a b Saloua Gmira, France de Lapparent de Broin, Denis Geraads, David Lefèvre, Abderrahim Mohib and Jean-Paul Raynal (2013). "Les tortues du Pliocène d’Ahl al Oughlam (Casablanca, Maroc) et de localités mio-pliocènes avoisinantes". Geodiversitas 35 (3): 691–733. doi:10.5252/g2013n3a9. 
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