Global surveillance disclosure
Logo of the Information Awareness Office
The global surveillance disclosure refers to an ongoing series of news reports in the international media which revealed operational details regarding the US National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' mass surveillance of foreign nationals as well as US citizens. The vast majority of reports emanated from a cache of top secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden. On June 6, 2013, the first of Snowden's documents were published simultaneously by The Washington Post and The Guardian, attracting considerable public attention.
The disclosures provided impetus for the creation of social movements against mass surveillance, such as Restore the Fourth. Domestic spying programs in countries such as France, the UK, and India have also been exposed. On the legal front, the Electronic Frontier Foundation joined a coalition of diverse groups filing suit against the NSA. Several human rights organizations have urged the Obama administration not to prosecute, but protect, "whistleblower Snowden": Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Transparency International, and the Index on Censorship, inter alia.
On June 14, 2013, United States prosecutors charged Edward Snowden with espionage and theft of government property. In late July 2013, he was granted asylum by the Russian government, contributing to a deterioration of Russia–United States relations. On August 6, 2013, President Obama made a public appearance on national television where he reassured Americans that "We don't have a domestic spying program" and "There is no spying on Americans". Towards the end of October 2013, the British Prime Minister David Cameron warned The Guardian not to publish any more leaks, or it will receive a DA-Notice. Currently, a criminal investigation of these disclosures is being undertaken by Britain's Metropolitan Police Service.
James Bamford's book The Puzzle Palace was published.
The ECHELON network was revealed by Margaret Newsham, a Lockheed employee. Newsham told a member of the US Congress that the telephone calls of Strom Thurmond, a Republican US senator, were being collected by the NSA. Congressional investigators determined that "targeting of US political figures would not occur by accident. but was designed into the system from the start."
James Bamford's book Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency was published in 2001.
In September 2002, William Binney, along with J. Kirke Wiebe and Edward Loomis, asked the U.S. Defense Department to investigate the NSA for allegedly wasting "millions and millions of dollars" on Trailblazer, a system intended to analyze data carried on communications networks such as the Internet. Binney was also publicly critical of the NSA for spying on U.S. citizens after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Binney claimed that the NSA had failed to uncover the 9/11 plot despite its massive interception of data.
On December 16, 2005, The New York Times published a report under the headline "Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts", which was co-written by Eric Lichtblau and the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist James Risen. According to The Times, the article's date of publication was delayed for a year because of national security concerns.
In 2006, further evidence of the NSA's domestic surveillance of U.S. citizens was provided by USA Today. The newspaper released a report on May 11, 2006 regarding the NSA's "massive database" of phone records collected from "tens of millions" of U.S. citizens. According to USA Today, these phone records were provided by several telecom companies such as AT&T, Verizon and BellSouth.
In 2008, the security analyst Babak Pasdar revealed the existence of the so-called "Quantico circuit" that he and his team had set up in 2003. The circuit provided the U.S. federal government with a backdoor into the network of an unnamed wireless provider, which was later independently identified as Verizon.
In April 2012, Edward Snowden began downloading sensitive NSA material while working for the American computer corporation Dell Inc. By the end of the year, Snowden had made his first contact with journalist Glenn Greenwald of The Guardian.
- January—May 2013
In January 2013, Snowden contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras. In March 2013, Snowden took up a new job at Booz Allen Hamilton in Hawaii, specifically to gain access to additional top-secret documents that could be leaked. In April 2013, Poitras asked Greenwald to meet her in New York City. In May 2013, Snowden was permitted temporary leave from his position at the NSA in Hawaii, on the pretext of receiving treatment for his epilepsy. Towards the end of May, Snowden flew to Hong Kong.
After the editor of The Guardian held several meetings in New York City, it was decided that Greenwald, Poitras and Ewen MacAskill would fly to Hong Kong to meet Snowden. On June 6, 2013, the first media disclosure was published simultaneously by Greenwald (The Guardian) and Poitras (The Washington Post).
During the 2009 G-20 London Summit, the British intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) had intercepted the communications of foreign diplomats. The GCHQ has been intercepting and storing mass quantities of fiber-optic traffic via Tempora.
The Guardian revealed that XKeyscore allows analysts to search with no prior authorization through vast databases containing emails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals. Microsoft "developed a surveillance capability to deal" with the interception of encrypted chats on Outlook.com, within five months after the service went into testing. NSA had access to Outlook.com emails because “Prism collects this data prior to encryption.”
During specific episodes within a four-year period, the NSA hacked several Chinese mobile-phone companies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Tsinghua University in Beijing, and the Asian fiber-optic network operator Pacnet. Documents provided by Edward Snowden and seen by Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA spied on various diplomatic missions of the European Union (EU), including the EU's delegation to the United States in Washington D.C., the EU's delegation to the United Nations in New York, the Council of the European Union in Brussels, and the United Nations Headquarters in New York. Only Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK are explicitly exempted from NSA attacks, whose main target in the EU is Germany.
The NSA collected, from 2001 to 2011 via Stellar Wind, vast amounts of records detailing the email and internet usage of Americans, and after the program end of Stellar Wind due to operational and resource reasons other programs such as ShellTrumpet. A method of bugging encrypted fax machines used at an EU embassy is codenamed Dropmire.
The NSA's Office of Tailored Access Operations (TAO) collects intelligence on foreign targets by "hacking into their computers and telecommunications systems, cracking passwords, compromising the computer security systems protecting the targeted computer, stealing the data stored on computer hard drives, and then copying all the messages and data traffic passing within the targeted email and text-messaging systems", in a process known as 'computer network exploitation' (CNE).
According to the Brazilian newspaper O Globo, the NSA spied on millions of emails and calls of Brazilian citizens, while Australia and New Zealand have been aiding the United States in their surveillance program.
The NSA gave the German intelligence agencies BND and BfV access to X-Keyscore. In return, the BND turned over copies of two systems named Mira4 and Veras, reported to exceed the NSA's SIGINT capabilities in certain areas. The NSA also provided the BND with analysis tools so that the BND can monitor foreign data streams flowing through Germany.
Even if there is no reason to suspect U.S. citizens the CIA's National Counterterrorism Center is allowed to examine the government files of for possible criminal behavior. Previously the NTC was barred to do so, unless a person was a terror suspect or related to an investigation.
Snowden also confirmed that Stuxnet was cooperatively developed by the United States and Israel. In a report unrelated to Edward Snowden, the French newspaper Le Monde revealed thet France's DGSE was also undertaking mass surveillance, which it described as "illegal and outside any serious control".
Documents leaked by Edward Snowden and jointly disclosed by Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) and Norddeutscher Rundfunk revealed that several telecom operators have played a key role in helping the British intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) tap onto worldwide fiber-optic communications. The telecom operators are:
- Verizon Business (codenamed "Dacron")
- British Telecommunications (codenamed "Remedy")
- Vodafone Cable (codenamed "Gerontic")
- Global Crossing (codenamed "Pinnage")
- Level 3 (codenamed "Little")
- Viatel (codenamed "Vitreous")
- Interoute (codenamed "Streetcar")
Each of them were assigned a particular area of the international fiber-optic network for which they were individually responsible. The following networks have been infiltrated by the GCHQ: TAT-14 (Europe-USA), Atlantic Crossing 1 (Europe-USA), Circe South (France-UK), Circe North (The Netherlands-UK), Flag Atlantic-1, Flag Europa-Asia, SEA-ME-WE 3 (Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe), SEA-ME-WE 4 (Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe), Solas (Ireland-UK), UK-France 3, UK-Netherlands 14, ULYSSES (Europe-UK), Yellow (UK-USA) and Pan European Crossing.
Telecommunication companies who participated were "forced" to do so and had "no choice in the matter". Some of the companies were subsequently paid by GCHQ for their participation in the infiltration of the cables. According to the SZ the GCHQ has access to the majority of internet and telephone communications flowing throughout Europe, can listen to phone calls, read emails and text messages, see which websites internet users from all around the world are visiting. It can also retain and analyse nearly the entire European internet traffic.
The GCHQ is collecting all data transmitted to and from the United Kingdom and Northern Europe via the undersea fibre optic telecommunications cable SEA-ME-WE 3. Singaporean intelligence co-operates with Australia in accessing and sharing communications carried by the SEA-ME-WE-3 cable. The Australian Signals Directorate, is also in a partnership with British, American and Singaporean intelligence agencies to tap undersea fibre optic telecommunications cables that link Asia, the Middle East and Europe and carry much of Australia's international phone and internet traffic.
The US runs a top-secret surveillance program, code named Special Collection Service, based in over 80 consulates and embassies worldwide, including Frankfurt Germany and Vienna, Austria. The NSA hacked the United Nations' video conferencing system in Summer 2012 in violation of a UN agreement. The Bundesnachrichtendienst is providing the NSA with metadata collected from German systems. In December 2012 alone, Germany provided the NSA with 500 million metadata records. The N.S.A. is not just intercepting the communications of Americans who are in direct contact with foreigners targeted overseas, but also searching the contents of vast amounts of e-mail and text communications into and out of the country by Americans who mention information about foreigners under surveillance. It also spied on the Al Jazeera and gained access to its internal communications systems.
The NSA has built a surveillance network that has the capacity to reach roughly 75% of all U.S. Internet traffic. U.S. Law-enforcement agencies use tools used by computer hackers to gather information on suspects. An internal NSA audit from May 2012 identified 2776 incidents i.e. violations of the rules or court orders for surveillance of Americans and foreign targets in the U.S. in the period from April 2011 through March 2012, while U.S. officials stressed that any mistakes are not intentional.
The FISA Court that is supposed to provide critical oversight of the U.S. government's vast spying programs has limited ability to do and it must trust the government to report when it improperly spies on Americans. A legal opinion declassified on August 21, 2013 revealed that the NSA intercepted for three years as many as 56,000 electronic communications a year of Americans who weren’t suspected of having links to terrorism, before FISC court that oversees surveillance found the operation unconstitutional in 2011. By the Corporate Partner Access Project for major U.S. telecommunications providers these providers receive hundreds of millions of dollars a year from the NSA for clandestine access to their communications networks and filtering vast traffic flows for foreign targets.
A letter drafted by the Obama administration specifically to inform Congress of the government's mass collection of Americans’ telephone communications data was withheld from lawmakers by leaders of the House Intelligence Committee in the months before a key vote affecting the future of the program.
The NSA paid GCHQ over £100 Million between 2009 and 2012, in exchange for these funds GCHQ "must pull its weight and be seen to pull its weight." Documents referenced in the article explain that weaker laws regarding spying are "a selling point". GCHQ is also developing the technology to "exploit any mobile phone at any time." The NSA has under a legal authority a secret backdoor into its databases gathered from large Internet companies enabling it to search for US citizens' email and phone calls without a warrant.
The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board urged the U.S. intelligence chiefs to draft stronger US surveillance guidelines on domestic spying after finding that several of those guidelines have not been updated up to 30 years. US intelligence analysts have deliberately broken rules designed to prevent them from spying on Americans by choosing to ignore so-called "minimisation procedures" aimed at protecting privacy
After the Foreign Secret Intelligence Court ruled in October 2011 that some of the NSA's activities were unconstitutional paid millions of dollars to cover the costs of major internet companies involved in the Prism surveillance program
"Mastering the Internet" (MTI) is part of the Interception Modernisation Programme (IMP) of the British government that involves the insertion of thousands of DPI (deep packet inspection) "black boxes" at various internet service providers, as revealed by the British media in 2009.
In 2013, it was further revealed that the NSA had made a £17.2 million financial contribution to the project, which is capable of vacuuming signals from up to 200 fibre-optic cables at all physical points of entry into Great Britain.
The Guardian and the New York Times reported on secret documents leaked by Snowden showing that the NSA has been in "collaboration with technology companies" as part of "an aggressive, multipronged effort" to weaken the encryption used in commercial software, that the GCHQ has a team dedicated to cracking "Hotmail, Google, Yahoo and Facebook" traffic, and other revelations.
French intelligence agencies are cooperating under the codename "Lustre" with the Five Eyes alliance by systematically providing them with information after France signed a cooperation treaty with the alliance. Israel, Sweden and Italy are also cooperating with American and British intelligence agencies. Germany's domestic security agency Bundesverfassungsschutz transmitted regularly informations of persons monitored in Germany to the NSA, CIA and seven other members of the US Intelligence community in exchange for information and espionage software.
A special branch of the NSA called "Follow the Money" (FTM) widely monitors international payments, banking and credit card transactions and later stores the collected data in the NSA's own financial databank "Tracfin". The National Security Agency directly targeted the communications of president Dilma Rousseff and her top aides. It also spied on Brazil's oil firm Petrobras as well as French diplomats and gained access to the private network of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France and the SWIFT network.
The N.S.A. uses the analysis of phone call and e-mail logs of American citizens to create sophisticated graphs of their social connections that can identify their associates, their locations at certain times, their traveling companions and other personal information. The NSA routinely shares raw intelligence data with Israel without first sifting it to remove information about US citizens.
In an effort codenamed GENIE, computer specialists can control foreign computer networks using "covert implants,” a form of remotely transmitted malware on tens of thousands of devices annually. As worldwide sales of smartphones began exceeding those of feature phones, the NSA decided to take advantage of the smartphone boom. This is particularly advantageous because the smartphone combines a myriad of data that would interest an intelligence agency, such as social contacts, user behavior, interests, location, photos and credit card numbers and passwords.
An internal NSA report from 2010 stated that the spread of the smartphone has been occurring "extremely rapidly"—developments that "certainly complicate traditional target analysis." According to the document, the NSA has set up task forces assigned to several smartphone manufacturers and operating systems, including Apple Inc.'s iPhone and iOS operating system, as well as Google's Android mobile operating system. Similarly, Britain's GCHQ assigned a team to study and crack the BlackBerry.
Under the heading "iPhone capability," the document notes that there are smaller NSA programs, known as "scripts," that can perform surveillance on 38 different features of the iOS 3 and iOS 4 operating systems. These include the mapping feature, voicemail and photos, as well as Google Earth, Facebook and Yahoo! Messenger.
Who knew in 1984...
...that this would be big brother...
...and the Zombies would be paying customers?
On October 4, 2013, the Washington Post and the Guardian jointly reported that the NSA and the GCHQ have made repeated attempts to spy on anonymous Internet users who have been communicating in secret via the anonymity network Tor. Several of these surveillance operations involve the implantation of malicious code into the computers of Tor users who visit particular websites. In some cases, the NSA and GCHQ have succeeded in blocking access to the anonymous network, diverting Tor users to insecure channels. In other cases, the government agencies were able to uncover the identity of these anonymous users.
Canada's Communications Security Establishment used a software program called Olympia to map the Brazil's Mines and Energy Ministry communications by targeting "metadata" of phone calls and emails from and to the Brazilian ministry. The Australian Federal Government knew about the internet spying program PRISM months before Edward Snowden made details public.
The NSA monitored the president's public email account of former Mexican president Felipe Calderón (thus gaining access to the communications of high ranking cabinet members), the E-Mails of several high-ranking members of Mexico's security forces and text and the mobile phone communication of current Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto. The NSA tries to gather cellular and landline phone numbers — often obtained from American diplomats — for as many foreign officials as possible. The contents of the phone calls are stored in computer databases that can regularly be searched using keywords.
The NSA has been monitoring telephone conversations of 35 world leaders. The U.S. government's first public acknowledgment that it tapped the phones of world leaders was reported on October 28, 2013 by the Wall Street Journal after an internal U.S. government internal review turned up NSA monitoring of some 35 world leaders. The GCHQ has tried to keep its mass surveillance program a secret because it feared a "damaging public debate" on the scale of its activities which could lead to legal challenges against them.
The Guardian revealed that the NSA had been monitoring telephone conversations of 35 world leaders after being given the numbers by an official in another US government department. A confidential memo revealed that the NSA encouraged senior officials in such Departments as the White House, State and The Pentagon, to share their "Rolodexes" so the agency could add the telephone numbers of leading foreign politicians to their surveillance systems. Reacting to the news, German leader Angela Merkel, arriving in Brussels for an EU summit, accused the US of a breach of trust, saying: "We need to have trust in our allies and partners, and this must now be established once again. I repeat that spying among friends is not at all acceptable against anyone, and that goes for every citizen in Germany." The NSA collected in 2010 data on ordinary Americans’ cellphone locations, but later discontinued it because it had no “operational value.”
Under a programm known as MUSCULAR the National Security Agency, working with its British counterpart, the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), has secretly broken into the main communications links that connect Yahoo and Google data centers around the world and thereby gained the abilitiy to collect metadata and content at will from hundreds of millions of user accounts.
The mobile phone of German Chancellor Angela Merkel might have been tapped by US intelligence. According to the Spiegel this monitoring goes back to 2002 and ended in the summer of 2013, while the New York Times reported that Germany has evidence that the NSA's surveillance of Merkel began during George W. Bush's tenure.
On October 31, 2013, Hans-Christian Ströbele, a member of the German Bundestag, met Snowden in Moscow and revealed the former intelligence contractor's readiness to brief the German government on NSA spying.
A highly sensitive signals intelligence collection program named Stateroom involing the interception of radio, telecommunications and internet traffic is conducted from sites at US embassies and consulates and from the diplomatic missions of other "Five eyes" intelligence partners including Australia, Britain and Canada in 80 locations around the world. The program conducted at US diplomatic missions is run in concert by the US intelligence agencies NSA and CIA in a joint venture group called "Special Collection Service" (SCS), whose members work undercover in shielded areas of the American Embassies and Consulates, where they are officially accredited as diplomats and as such enjoy special privileges. Under diplomatic protection, they are able to look and listen unhindered. The SCS for example used the American Embassy near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin to monitor communications in Germany's government district with its parliament and the seat of the government.
As part of a NSA program called Stateroom Australia's used Australian diplomatic embassies Australia's Defence Signals Directorate operates the clandestine surveillance facilities to intercept phone calls and data across Asia.
The NSA targeted in France both people suspected of association with terrorist activities as well as people belonging to the worlds of business, politics or French state administration. The NSA monitored and recorded the content of telephone communications and the history of the connections of each target i.e. the metadata. According to the Wall Street Journal data allegedly collected by the NSA in France was actually collected by French intelligence agencies outside France and then shared with the United States. This was confirmed by National Security Agency director Keith Alexander on October 29, 2013, when he said foreign intelligence services collected phone records in war zones and other areas outside their borders and provided them to the NSA. The French newspaper Le Monde also disclosed new PRISM and Upstream slides (See Page 4, 7 and 8) coming from the "PRISM/US-984XN Overview" presentation.
The New York Times reported that the NSA carries out an eavesdropping effort, dubbed Operation Dreadnought, against the Iranian leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. During his 2009 visit to Iranian Kurdistan, the agency collaborated with the GCHQ and the US' National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, collecting radio transmissions between aircraft and airports, examining Khamenei's convoy with satellite imagery, and enumerating military radar stations. According to the story, an objective of the operation is "communications fingerprinting": the ability to distinguish Khamenei's communications from those of other people in Iran.
The same story revealed an operation code-named Ironavenger, in which the NSA intercepted e-mails sent between a country allied with the United States and the government of "an adversary". The ally was conducting a spear-phishing attack: its e-mails contained malware. The NSA gathered documents and login credentials belonging to the enemy country, along with knowledge of the ally's capabilities for attacking computers.
According to the British newspaper The Independent, the British intelligence agency GCHQ maintains a listening post on the roof of the British Embassy in Berlin that is capable of intercepting mobile phone calls, wi-fi data and long-distance communications all over the German capital, including adjacent government buildings such as the Reichstag (seat of the Germany's parliament) and the Chancellery (seat of Germany's government) clustered around the Brandenburg Gate.
Operating under the code-name "Quantum Insert", the GCHQ set up a fake website masquerading as LinkedIn, a social website used for professional networking, as part of its efforts to install surveillance software on the comptuters of the telecommunications operator Belgacom. In addition, the headquarters of the oil cartel OPEC were infiltrated by the GCHQ as well as the NSA, which bugged the computers of nine OPEC employees and monitored the General Secretary of OPEC.
For more than three years the GCHQ has been using an automated monitoring system code-named "Royal Concierge" to infiltrate the reservation systems of at least 350 upscale hotels in many different parts of the world in order to target, search and analyze reservations to detect diplomats and government officials. First tested in 2010, the aim of the "Royal Concierge" is to track down the travel plans of diplomats, and it is often supplemented with surveillance methods related to human intelligence (HUMINT). Other covert operations include the wiretapping of room telephones and fax machines used in targeted hotels as well as the monitoring of computers hooked up to the hotel network.
In November 2013 The Guardian referred to the claim that the Australian spy agencies attempted to listen to the private phone calls of the president of Indonesia and his wife. The Indonesian foreign minister, Marty Natalegawa, confirmed that he and the president had contacted the ambassador in Canberra. Natalegawa said any tapping of Indonesian politicians’ personal phones “violates every single decent and legal instrument I can think of – national in Indonesia, national in Australia, international as well”.
Under a secret deal approved by British intelligence officials the NSA stored and analyzed since 2007 phone, internet and email records of UK citizens not suspected of any wrongdoing. The NSA has also in 2005 proposed a procedure for spying on the citizens of the UK and other Five-Eyes nations alliance, even where the partner government has explicitly denied the US permission to do so. Under the proposal, partner countries must not be informed about this surveillance, or even the procedure itself.
Towards the end of November, The New York Times released an internal NSA report outlining the agency's efforts to expand its surveillance abilities. The five-page document asserts that the law of the United States has not kept up with the needs of the NSA to conduct mass surveillance in the "golden age" of signals intelligence, but there are grounds for optimism because, in the NSA's own words:
"The culture of compliance, which has allowed the American people to entrust NSA with extraordinary authorities, will not be compromised in the face of so many demands, even as we aggressively pursue legal authorities..."
The report, titled "SIGNT Strategy 2012-2016", also said that the U.S. will try to influence the "global commercial encryption market" through "commercial relationships", and emphasized the need to "revolutionize" the analysis of its vast data collection to "radically increase operational impact".
On November 23, 2013, the Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad reported that the Netherlands was targeted by U.S. intelligence agencies in the immediate aftermath of World War II. This period of surveillance lasted from 1946 to 1968, and also included the interception of the communications of other European countries including Belgium, France, West Germany and Norway.
According to the classified documents leaked by Snowden, the Australian Signals Directorate, formerly known as the Defence Signals Directorate, had offered to share information about ordinary Australian citizens with the other intelligence agencies of the UKUSA Agreement. Data shared with foreign countries include "bulk, unselected, unminimised metadata" such as "medical, legal or religious information".
The Washington Post revealed that the NSA has been tracking the locations of mobile phones from all over the world and collecting more than 5 billion records of phone location in the process of doing so. This enables NSA analysts to map cellphone owners’ relationships by correlating their patterns of movement over time with thousands or millions of other phone users who cross their paths.
On 5 December, Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) reported that the National Defence Radio Establishment of Sweden (FRA) has been conducting a clandestine surveillance operation targeting the internal politics of Russia. The operation was conducted on behalf of the NSA, which receives data handed over to it by the FRA.
Comparison with previous leaks
|Year||Disclosure||Size||Main Source(s)||Major publisher(s)|
|2013||Global surveillance disclosure||>200,000 documents||Edward Snowden||The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Der Spiegel, Le Monde,|
|2010||United States diplomatic cables leak||251,287 diplomatic cables||Chelsea Manning||The Guardian, The New York Times. Der Spiegel, Le Monde, El Pais, Wikileaks|
|1971||Pentagon Papers||4,100 pages||Daniel Ellsberg||The New York Times|
Presidential Policy Directive – PPD 20 Signed By Barack Obama Relating to Cyberwarfare
A 2008 Presentation of the XKeyscore program. (PDF, 27.26 MB)
Spying against Enrique Peña Nieto and his associates.
Spying effort against Dilma Rousseff and her advisers.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily". The Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2013. "Exclusive: Top secret court order requiring Verizon to hand over all call data shows scale of domestic surveillance under Obama"
- "USA must not persecute whistleblower Edward Snowden". Amnesty International. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- "US: Statement on Protection of Whistleblowers in Security Sector". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- Transparency International Germany. "Transparency International Germany: Whistleblower Prize 2013 for Edward Snowden". Transparency International. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- "US needs to protect whistleblowers and journalists". Index on Censorship. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- U.S. vs. Edward J. Snowden criminal complaint. The Washington Post.
- Snowden Asylum Hits U.S.-Russia Relations
- U.S. 'Extremely Disappointed' At Russia's Asylum For Snowden
- Henderson. "Obama To Leno: 'There Is No Spying On Americans'". NPR. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- Francis Elliott. "Cameron hints at action to stop security leaks". The Times. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- RAPHAEL SATTER. "UK Pursuing Criminal Investigation Into NSA Leaks". ABC News. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- Andrew Bomford (3 November 1999). "Echelon spy network revealed". BBC.
- Risen, James; Lichtblau, Eric. "Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2013. "The White House asked The New York Times not to publish this article"
- "President Visits Troops at Brooke Army Medical Center". White House. January 1, 2006. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Leslie Cauley (5/11/2006). "NSA has massive database of Americans' phone calls". USA Today.
- JOHN O'NEIL (May 11, 2006). "Bush Says U.S. Spying Is Not Widespread". The New York Times.
- Glenn Greenwald (June 6, 2013). "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily". The Guardian. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "U.S. Electronic Espionage: A Memoir". Ramparts. August 1972. pp. 35–50. "The SIGINT community was defined by a TOP SECRET treaty signed in 1947. It was called the UKUSA treaty. The National Security Agency signed for the U.S. and became what's called First Party to the Treaty."
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (2013-08-21). "Surveillance secrecy: the legacy of GCHQ's years under cover". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-30. "GCHQ's cover was first blown in 1976 by an article, The Eavesdroppers, published by the London magazine, Time Out."
- Campbell, Duncan (1988-08-12), "Somebody's Listening", New Statesman, archived from the original on 2013-04-20, "The Congressional officials were first told of the Thurmond interception by a former employee of the Lockheed Space and Missiles Corporation, Margaret Newsham, who now lives in Sunnyvale, California."
- Shorrock, Tim (April 15, 2013). "The Untold Story: Obama's Crackdown on Whistleblowers: The NSA Four reveal how a toxic mix of cronyism and fraud blinded the agency before 9/11". The Nation.
- Mayer, Jane (May 23, 2011). "The Secret Sharer: Is Thomas Drake an enemy of the state?". The New Yorker.
- JAMES RISEN and ERIC LICHTBLAU (December 16, 2005). "Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts". The New York Times.
- Poulsen, Kevin. "Whistle-Blower: Feds Have a Backdoor Into Wireless Carrier — Congress Reacts". Wired. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Mark Hosenball (August 15, 2013), Snowden downloaded NSA secrets while working for Dell, sources say Reuters
- Peter Maass (August 18, 2013), How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets The New York Times
- Carmon, Irin (June 10, 2013). "How we broke the NSA story". Salon. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 9, 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Smith, Matt; Pearson, Michael (June 10, 2013). "NSA leaker holed up in Hong Kong hotel, running low on cash". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- "How Edward Snowden led journalist and film-maker to reveal NSA secrets". The Guardian. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "U.S., British intelligence mining data from nine U.S. Internet companies in broad secret program". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- MacAskill, Ewen; Davies, Nick; Hopkins, Nick; Borger, Julian; Ball, James (June 17, 2013). "GCHQ intercepted foreign politicians' communications at G20 summits". The Guardian (London).
- MacAskill, Ewen; Borger, Julian; Hopkins, Nick; Davies, Nick; Ball, James (June 21, 2013). "GCHQ taps fiber-optic cables for secret access to world's communications". The Guardian.
- Greenwald, Glenn (July 31, 2013)."XKeyscore: NSA tool collects 'nearly everything a user does on the internet' – XKeyscore Gives 'Widest-Reaching' Collection of Online Data – NSA Analysts Require No Prior Authorization for Searches – Sweeps Up Emails, Social Media Activity and Browsing History". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (July 31, 2013). "Newly declassified documents on phone records program released". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Charlie Savage and David E. Sanger (July 31, 2013). "Senate Panel Presses N.S.A. on Phone Logs". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, Laura Poitras, Spencer Ackerman and Dominic Rushe (July 11, 2013). "Revealed: how Microsoft handed the NSA access to encrypted messages". The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
- EXCLUSIVE: US hacks Chinese mobile phone companies, South China Morning Post
- NSA targeted China's Tsinghua University in hacking attacks, South China Morning Post
- Lam, Lana (June 23, 2013). "US hacked Pacnet, Asia Pacific fibre-optic network operator, in 2009". South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Fidelius Schmid und Holger Stark. "Geheimdokumente: NSA horcht EU-Vertretungen mit Wanzen aus". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "US-Geheimdienst hörte Zentrale der Vereinten Nationen ab". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach und Holger Stark. "Geheimdokumente: NSA überwacht 500 Millionen Verbindungen in Deutschland". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved June 30, 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald and Spencer Ackerman (June 27, 2013). "NSA collected US email records in bulk for more than two years under Obama". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald and Spencer Ackerman (June 27, 2013). "How the NSA is still harvesting your online data". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- MacAskill, Ewen; Borger, Julian (June 30, 2013). "New NSA leaks show how US is bugging its European allies". The Guardian (London).
- Aid, Matthew M. (June 10, 2013). "Inside the NSA's Ultra-Secret China Hacking Group". Foreign Policy. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- EUA espionaram milhões de e-mails e ligações de brasileiros, O Globo, July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- The NSA's mass and indiscriminate spying on Brazilians, Glenn Greenwald, The Guardian, July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- EUA expandem o aparato de vigilância continuamente, O Globo, July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Philip Dorling (July 8, 2013). "Snowden reveals Australia's links to US spy web". The Age World. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- 'Prolific Partner': German Intelligence Used NSA Spy Program, Der Spiegel. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- unlisted (August 3, 2013). "Überwachung: BND leitet massenhaft Metadaten an die NSA weiter". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- "Interview mit Edward Snowden: NSA liefert BND Werkzeuge für Lauschangriff". Der Spiegel (in German). July 7, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "Snowden: NSA steckte "unter einer Decke mit den Deutschen" Zusammenarbeit zwischen US-Geheimdienst und BND offenbar enger als bekannt" (in German). Deutschlandradio. July 7, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Angwin, Julia (December 13, 2012). "U.S. Terrorism Agency to Tap a Vast Database of Citizens". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Iain Thomson (July 8, 2013). "Snowden: US and Israel did create Stuxnet attack code". The Register. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Révélations sur le Big Brother français(2), Le Monde, July 4, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- France 'runs vast electronic spying operation using NSA-style methods', The Guardian, July 4, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- "NDR/SZ: Neue Dokumente belasten britischen Geheimdienst – Deutsche Telekom verlangt Auskünfte". NDR Presse und Information (in German). NDR. August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- John Goetz, Hans Leyendecker and Frederik Obermaier (August 28, 2013). "Britischer Geheimdienst zapft Daten aus Deutschland ab". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- John Goetz and Frederik Obermaier. "Snowden enthüllt Namen der spähenden Telekomfirmen". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved August 2, 2013. "In den internen Papieren des GCHQ aus dem Jahr 2009 stehen sie nun aufgelistet: Verizon Business, Codename: Dacron, British Telecommunications (codenamed "Remedy"), Vodafone Cable ("Gerontic"), Global Crossing ("Pinnage"), Level 3 (codenamed "Little"), Viatel ("Vitreous") und Interoute ("Streetcar")."
- John Goetz, Hans Leyendecker and Frederik Obermaier (August 28, 2013). "British Officials Have Far-Reaching Access To Internet And Telephone Communications". Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "Snowden enthüllt Namen der spähenden Telekomfirmen". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- Dorling, Philip. "Australian spies in global deal to tap undersea cables". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- unlisted (August 3, 2013). "Überwachung: BND leitet massenhaft Metadaten an die NSA weiter". Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- Geiger, Friedrich (August 3, 2013). "German Intelligence Agency Providing NSA With Metadata – Report". Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- Mass Data: Transfers from Germany Aid US Surveillance August 5, 2013
- Savage, Charlie (August 8, 2013). "N.S.A. Said to Search Content of Messages to and From U.S.". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Snowden-Enthüllungen: NSA spionierte al-Dschasira aus". Der SPIEGEL (in German). August 31, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Siobhan Gorman and Jennifer Valentiono-Devries (August 20, 2013). "New Details Show Broader NSA Surveillance Reach – Programs Cover 75% of Nation's Traffic, Can Snare Emails". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Graphic: How the NSA Scours Internet Traffic in the U.S.". The Wall Street Journal. August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Jennifer Valentiono-Devries and Siobhan Gorman (August 20, 2013). "What You Need to Know on New Details of NSA Spying". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Jennifer Valentino-Devries and Danny Yadron (August 1, 2013). "FBI Taps Hacker Tactics to Spy on Suspects". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Jennifer Valentino-DeVries and Danny Yadron (August 1, 2013). "How the FBI Hacks Criminal Suspects". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "NSA report on privacy violations in the first quarter of 2012". The Washington Post. August 16, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). "What to say, and not to say, to 'our overseers'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). "First direct evidence of illegal surveillance found by the FISA court". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Gellmann, Barton (August 16, 2013). "NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (August 16, 2013). "Lawmakers, privacy advocates call for reforms at NSA". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Gellmann, Barton (August 16, 2013). "NSA statements to The Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). "What's a 'violation'?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Leonnig, Carol D. (August 16, 2013). "Court: Ability to police U.S. spying program limited". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (August 21, 2013). "NSA gathered thousands of Americans’ e-mails before court ordered it to revise its tactics". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "FISA court ruling on illegal NSA e-mail collection program". The Washington Post. August 21, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). "First direct evidence of illegal surveillance found by the FISA court". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Charlie Savage and Scott Shane (August 21, 2013). "Secret Court Rebuked N.S.A. on Surveillance". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Mark Hosenball and Tabassum Zakaria (August 22, 2013). "NSA collected 56,000 emails by Americans a year: documents". Reuters. NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Craig Timberg and Barton Gellman (August 30, 2013). "NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Wallsten, Peter (August 17, 2013). "House panel withheld document on NSA surveillance program from members". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Weich, Ronald. "Report of the National Security Agency's Bulk Collection Programs for USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization". Office of the Assistant Attorney General. Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- James Ball, Luke Harding and Juliette Garside (August 1, 2013). "Exclusive: NSA pays £100m in secret funding for GCHQ". Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- James Ball and Spencer Ackerman (August 9, 2013). "NSA loophole allows warrantless search for US citizens' emails and phone calls – Exclusive: Spy agency has secret backdoor permission to search databases for individual Americans' communications". The Guardian. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Farivar, Cyrus (August 10, 2013). "New leak: NSA can search US e-mail data but theoretically won’t". Ars Technica. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Roberts, Dan (August 23, 2013). "US surveillance guidelines not updated for 30 years, privacy board finds – Privacy watchdog points out in letter to intelligence chiefs that rules designed to protect Americans are severely outdated". The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Medine, David (August 22, 2013). "2013-08-22 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board letter to US Attorney General Eric Holder and Directer of National Intelligence James Clapper". amazonnews.com. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Strohm, Chris (August 24, 2013). "Lawmakers Probe Willful Abuses of Power by NSA Analysts". Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Roberts, Dan (August 23, 2013). "NSA analysts deliberately broke rules to spy on Americans, agency reveals – Inspector general's admission undermines fresh insistences from president that breaches of privacy rules were inadvertent". The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Gorman, Siobhan (August 23, 2013). "NSA Officers Spy on Love Interests". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- MacAskill, Ewen (August 23, 2013). "NSA paid millions to cover Prism compliance costs for tech companies • Top-secret files show first evidence of financial relationship • Prism companies include Google and Yahoo, says NSA • Costs were incurred after 2011 Fisa court ruling". The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- David Leppard and Chris Williams (May 3, 2009). "Jacqui Smith's secret plan to carry on snooping". The Sunday Times. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
- Henry Porter. "GCHQ revelations: mastery of the internet will mean mastery of everyone". The Guardian. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- James Ball, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald (September 5, 2013). "US and UK spy agencies defeat privacy and security on the internet". The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- Nicole Perlroth, Jeff Larson and Scott Shane (September 5, 2013). "N.S.A. Foils Much Internet Encryption". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- "Secret Documents Reveal N.S.A. Campaign Against Encryption". The New York Times. September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- "Unlocking Private Communications". The New York Times. September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- Perlroth, Nicole, Larson, Jeff, and Shane, Scott (September 5, 2013). "The NSA’s Secret Campaign to Crack, Undermine Internet Security". ProPublica.
- Nakashima, Ellen (September 6, 2013). "NSA has made strides in thwarting encryption used to protect Internet communication". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- "Frankreich liefert Informationen an britische und US-Geheimdienste". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). October 26, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "Verfassungsschutz spionierte für Geheimdienste - Bundesamt-Chef Maaßen stimmte zu". Norddeutscher Rundfunk (in German). Norddeutscher Rundfunk. September 13, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "Verfassungsschutz beliefert NSA". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). September 13, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "Auch Verfassungsschutz liefert Daten an NSA "Süddeutsche Zeitung" und NDR berichten über intensiven Datenaustausch". Deutschland Radio (in German). Deutschland Radio. September 13, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "'Follow the Money': NSA Spies on International Payments". Der Spiegel. September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "Brazil Angered Over Report N.S.A. Spied on President". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "NSA Documents Show United States Spied Brazilian Oil Giant". Jornal da Globo Fantástico. September 8, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- James Risen and Laura Poitras (September 28, 2013). "N.S.A. Gathers Data on Social Connections of U.S. Citizens". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill (September 11, 2013). "NSA shares raw intelligence including Americans' data with Israel". The Guardian. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "NSA and Israeli intelligence: memorandum of understanding – full document". The Guardian. September 11, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Barton Gellman. "Secret documents detail U.S. war in cyberspace". The Washington Post (via The Japan Times). Retrieved September 2, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Ellen Nakashima (August 31, 2013). "U.S. spy agencies mounted 231 offensive cyber-operations in 2011, documents show". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Konrad Lischka und Julia Stanek (August 31, 2013). "Cyber-Angriffe: USA infizieren Zehntausende Computer mit NSA-Trojanern". Der SPIEGEL (in German). Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Zetter, Kim (September 4, 2013). "NSA Laughs at PCs, Prefers Hacking Routers and Switches". Wired.com. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark. "iSpy: How the NSA Accesses Smartphone Data". Der Spiegel. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, and Holger Stark. "Photo Gallery: Spying on Smartphones". Der Spiegel. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Barton Gellman, Craig Timberg and Steven Rich (4 October 2013). "Secret NSA documents show campaign against Tor encrypted network". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Steven Rich and Matt DeLong (4 October 2013). "NSA slideshow on 'The TOR problem'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Lee, Timothy B. (4 October 2013). "Everything you need to know about the NSA and Tor in one FAQ". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "NSA report on the Tor encrypted network". The Washington Post. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "GCHQ report on 'MULLENIZE' program to 'stain' anonymous electronic traffic". The Washington Post. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- James Ball, Bruce Schneier and Glenn Greenwald (4 October 2013). "NSA and GCHQ target Tor network that protects anonymity of web users". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Schneier, Bruce (4 October 2013). "Attacking Tor: how the NSA targets users' online anonymity". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "'Tor Stinks' presentation – read the full document". The Guardian. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Tor: 'The king of high-secure, low-latency anonymity'". The Guardian. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Ministério de Minas e Energia está na mira de espiões americanos e canadenses". O Globo. October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Report: Canada spies targeted Brazil mine ministry". Associated Press (The Associated Press). October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- Ockenden, Will (October 8, 2013). "Australia prepared briefing on US global internet spying program PRISM before Snowden revelations". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "AG Department Prism FOI PDF". ABC News Online. June 27, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- Jens Glüsing, Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark (October 20, 2013). "Fresh Leak on US Spying: NSA Accessed Mexican President's Email". Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- "NSA-Spionage: Mexiko fordert Aufklärung über US-Bespitzelungen". Der Spiegel (in German). October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Mark Mazzetti and David E. Sanger (October 30, 2013). "Tap on Merkel Provides Peek at Vast Spy Net". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Mark Landler and Michael S. Schmidt (October 30, 2013). "Spying Known at Top Levels, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Ball, James (October 24, 2013). "NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts". The Guardian. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Siobhan Gorhan and Adam Entous (October 28, 2013). "Obama Unaware as U.S. Spied on World Leaders: Officials". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Ball, James (October 25, 2013). "Leaked memos reveal GCHQ efforts to keep mass surveillance secret". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (October 2, 2013). "NSA had test project to collect data on Americans’ cellphone locations, director says". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani (October 30, 2013). "NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Barton Gellman, Todd Lindeman and Ashkan Soltani (October 30, 2013). "How the NSA is infiltrating private networks". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (October 30, 2013). "How the NSA's MUSCULAR program collects too much data from Yahoo and Google". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Peterson, Andrea (October 30, 2013). "PRISM already gave the NSA access to tech giants. Here’s why it wanted more.". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Washington Post Staff (October 30, 2013). "NSA statement on Washington Post report on infiltration of Google, Yahoo data center links". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Jacob Appelbaum, Holger Stark, Marcel Rosenbach and Jörg Schindler (October 23, 2013). "Berlin Complains: Did US Tap Chancellor Merkel's Mobile Phone?". Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Fischer, Sebastian (October 24, 2013). "Merkel's Phone: Spying Suspicions Put Obama in a Tight Spot". Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Charly Wilder and Rupert Neat (October 24). "'Out of Hand': Europe Furious Over US Spying Allegations". Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Ian Traynor in Brussels, Philip Oltermann in Berlin, and Paul Lewis in Washington (October 24). "Angela Merkel's call to Obama: are you bugging my mobile phone?". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Ball, James (October 25, 2013). "NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Traynor, Ian (October 25, 2013). "Germany and France warn NSA spying fallout jeopardises fight against terror". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Jacob Appelbaum, Nikolaus Blome, Hubert Gude, Ralf Neukirch, René Pfister, Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Jörg Schindler, Gregor Peter Schmitz and Holger Stark. Translated from the German by Kristen Allen and Charly Wilder. (October 27, 2013). "Der Spiegel Cover Story: How NSA Spied on Merkel Cell Phone from Berlin Embassy - Embassy Espionage: The NSA's Secret Spy Hub in Berlin". Der Spiegel. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "NSA-Überwachung: Merkels Handy steht seit 2002 auf US-Abhörliste". Der Spiegel (in German). October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "U.S. monitored German Chancellor Angela Merkel's phone since 2002". Reuters. The Daily Mail. October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Ofer Aderet (October 26, 2015). "Obama: Had I known NSA tapped Merkel's cell, I would have stopped it, German media reports". Haaretz. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- David E. Sanger and Mark Mazzetti (October 24, 2013). "Allegation of U.S. Spying on Merkel Puts Obama at Crossroads". The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "Germany hopes for details from Snowden on US spying". bbc.co.uk. November 1, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "Photo Gallery: Spies in the Embassy 10/27/2013". Der Spiegel. October 27, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Dorling, Philipp (October 31, 2013). "Exposed: Australia's Asia spy network". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Konrad Lischka and Matthias Kremp (October 28, 2013). "NSA-Spähskandal: So funktionieren die Abhöranlagen in US-Botschaften". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Perlez, Jane (October 31, 2013). "Australia Said to Play Part in N.S.A. Effort". The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Jacques Follorou and Glenn Greenwald (October 21, 2013). "France in the NSA's crosshair : phone networks under surveillance". Le Monde. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Gearan, Anna (October 22, 2013). "Report that NSA collected French phone records causing diplomatic headache for U.S.". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Adam Entous and Siobhan Gorman (October 29, 2013). "U.S. Says France, Spain Aided NSA Spying". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Ellen Nakashima and Karen DeYoung (October 29, 2013). "NSA chief says NATO allies shared phone records with the U.S. spy agency". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- "Espionnage de la NSA : tous les documents publiés par "Le Monde"". Le Monde. October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Shane, Scott (2013-11-02). "No Morsel Too Minuscule for All-Consuming N.S.A.". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-11-25. "This "communications fingerprinting," as a document called it, is the key to what the N.S.A. does. It allows the agency's computers to scan the stream of international communications and pluck out messages tied to the supreme leader."
- Campbell, Duncan (November 5, 2013). "Revealed: Britain's 'secret listening post in the heart of Berlin'". The Independent. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark (November 17, 2013). "'Royal Concierge': GCHQ Monitors Hotel Reservations to Track Diplomats". Der Spiegel. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- ndonesia recalls Canberra ambassador over Yudhoyono phone tapping attempt, Foreign minister demands explanation after documents reveal Australian agencies targeted phones of president and his wife The Guardian 18 November 2013
- Ball, James (20 November 2013). "US and UK struck secret deal to allow NSA to 'unmask' Britons' personal data". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- JAMES RISEN and LAURA POITRAS (November 22, 2013). "N.S.A. Report Outlined Goals for More Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "A Strategy for Surveillance Powers". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Floor Boon, Steven Derix and Huib Modderkolk. "Document Snowden: Nederland al sinds 1946 doelwit van NSA" (in Dutch). NRC Handelsblad. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Floor Boon, Steven Derix and Huib Modderkolk. "NSA infected 50,000 computer networks with malicious software". NRC Handelsblad. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Ewen MacAskill, James Ball and Katharine Murphy. "Revealed: Australian spy agency offered to share data about ordinary citizens". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani. "NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher, Filip Struwe and Anna H Svensson. "SVT avslöjar: FRA spionerar på Ryssland åt USA" (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Filip Struwe, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher, Sven Bergman, Joachim Dyfvermark and Fredrik Laurin. "Snowden files reveal Swedish-American surveillance of Russia" (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. Retrieved 5 December 2013.