2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season

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2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season
Season summary map
First system formed November 21, 2014
Last system dissipated April 16, 2015
Strongest storm Pam – 896 hPa (mbar), 250 km/h (155 mph) (10-minute sustained)
Total disturbances 15
Total depressions 10
Tropical cyclones 5
Severe tropical cyclones 2
Total fatalities 16
Total damage $250 million (2014 USD)
South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons
2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17
Related articles

The 2014–15 South Pacific cyclone season is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015, however a tropical cyclone could form at any time between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones will be officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) will also monitor the basin and issue unofficial warnings for American interests. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the basin while the JTWC designates significant tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC estimated sustained winds over a 1-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Source/Record Tropical
Cyclone
Severe
Tropical Cyclone
Ref
Record high: 1997–98: 16 1982–83:10 [1]
Record low: 2003–04:  3 2008–09:  0 [1]
Averages: 8.5  — [2]
NIWA October 8-12 4 [3][4]
RSMC Nadi 6-10 2-4
NIWA February 8-10
Region Chance of
above average
Average
number
Actual
activity
Southern Pacific 48% 15 1
Western South Pacific 56% 8 0
Eastern South Pacific 47% 11 1
Source:BOM's Seasonal Outlooks for Tropical Cyclones.[5]

Ahead of the cyclone season, RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and various other Pacific Meteorological services, all contributed towards the Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook that was released during October 2014.[3] The outlook took into account the ENSO neutral conditions that had been observed across the Pacific and analogue seasons that had ENSO neutral and weak El Nino conditions occurring during the season.[3] The outlook called for a near average number of tropical cyclones for the 2014–15 season, with eight to twelve named tropical cyclones, to occur between 135°E and 120°W compared to an average of 10.[3] At least four of the tropical cyclones were expected to become category 3 severe tropical cyclones, while three could become category 4 severe tropical cyclones, they also noted that a Category 5 severe tropical cyclone was unlikely to occur.[3] In addition to contributing towards the Island Climate Update outlook, RSMC Nadi and the BoM issued their own seasonal forecasts for the South Pacific region.[2][5]

The BoM issued 3 seasonal forecasts for the Southern Pacific between 142.5°E and 120°W, one for the Western Southern Pacific region between 142.5°E and 165°E and one for the Eastern Southern Pacific region between 165°E and 120°W.[5] They predicted that the region as a whole, would experience near average tropical cyclone activity during the coming season with a 55% chance of it being above average.[5] The Western region was predicted to have 39% chance of being above average while the Eastern region had a 55% chance of being above average.[5] Within their outlook RSMC Nadi predicted that between six and ten tropical cyclones, would occur within the basin compared to an average of around 8.5 cyclones.[2] At least two of the tropical cyclones were expected to become category 3 severe tropical cyclones, while 1-2 might intensify into a category 4 or 5 severe tropical cyclones.[2] They also reported that the tropical cyclone genesis trough was expected to be located near to and to the east of the International Dateline.[2] This was based on the expected and predicted ENSO conditions, and the existence of the Pacific warm pool of sub-surface temperature anomalies in this region.[2] An updated Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook was issued during February 2015, which suggested that near normal activity was still possible.[4] The outlook took into account Tropical Cyclones Niko and Ola as well as the weak El Nino conditions, that were predicted to persist over the region.[4] As a result the update predicted that an additional six to eight named tropical cyclones would develop over the basin, which would bring the overall total to between eight and ten tropical cyclones.[4] The update also predicted that at least four tropical cyclones would intensify into category three severe tropical cyclones, of which three could intensify and become either a category four or five severe tropical cyclone.[4]

Risk forecasts[edit]

Both the Island Climate Update and RSMC Nadi's tropical cyclone outlooks assessed the risk of a tropical cyclone affecting a certain island or territory.[2][3] As the tropical cyclone genesis trough of low pressure was expected to be located near to and to the east of the International Dateline, normal or slightly above normal activity was expected for areas near the dateline.[2][3] The Island Climate Update Outlook predicted that Vanuatu and New Caledonia had a reduced chance of being affected by multiple tropical cyclones.[3] The Northern Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, the Solomon Islands, Northern New Zealand and French Polynesia's Austral and Society Islands were all predicted to have a normal chance of being affected by a tropical cyclone or ex tropical cyclone.[3] They also predicted that Niue, Samoa, Tokelau, Tuvalu and the Southern Cook Islands had an elevated chance while French Polynesia's Tuamotu Archipelago and Marquesas Islands, Kiribati and the Pitcairn Islands, had an unlikely chance of being affected by a tropical cyclone.[3] RSMC Nadi's outlook predicted that Wallis and Futuna, Tuvalu, Samoa, Niue, Tonga, Vanuatu, the Southern Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands had a high chance of being affected by a tropical cyclone.[2] Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia and the Northern Cook Islands and had a moderate chance of being affected by a tropical cyclone while Kiribati had a low chance.[2] Because of its proximity to the warm pool and genesis area, RSMC Nadi noted that Tokelau had a low to moderate risk of being affected by a tropical cyclone.[2] RSMC Nadi also predicted that there was an increased risk of severe tropical cyclones, affecting the region this year when compared to the previous season.[6] There was a high chance of Tuvalu, Samoa, Niue, Tonga, the Southern Cook Islands, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands being affected by a severe tropical cyclone.[6] The chances of Fiji, New Caledonia, the Northern Cook Islands and French Polynesia being affected by a severe tropical cyclone were moderate while Kiribati, Tokelau and Wallis and Futuna had a low risk.[6] The updated Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook reported that there was still a chance that two or more systems could interact with New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, and Tonga.[4] However, it was noted that activity might be slightly reduced to the north of Vanuatu and that an elevated amount of activity might occur in the Coral Sea to the east of Queensland.[4]

Seasonal summary[edit]

Cyclone Pam Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Storms[edit]

Tropical Depression 01F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration November 21 – November 26
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1003 mbar (hPa)

During November 21, RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical disturbance had developed about 375 km (235 mi) to the north-west of Mata-Utu, on the French territory of Wallis and Futuna.[7] Over the next couple of days atmospheric convection surrounding the system gradually became better organised as it moved south-westwards before it was classified as a tropical depression during November 23.

Tropical Depression 03F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration December 20 – December 26
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

Late on December 20, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 03F, had developed within an area of low vertical windshear to the north-northeast of Pago Pago, American Samoa.[8]

Tropical Depression 04F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration December 21 – December 24
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1000 mbar (hPa)

During December 21, RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical disturbance had developed about 275 km (170 mi) northeast of Aitutaki in the Cook Islands. It moved globally Southeast as a tropical depression. It triggered heavy rain in French Polynesia's Society Islands and in the Northern Cook Islands. It dissipated to the south-east of Tahiti on December 24.

Tropical Depression 05F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration December 23 – December 29
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1000 mbar (hPa)

During December 23, RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical disturbance had developed about 290 km (180 mi) northwest of Niuafo'ou, the most northerly island in the kingdom of Tonga.

Tropical Cyclone Niko[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration January 19 – January 25
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  982 mbar (hPa)

During January 19, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 06F had developed, to the northeast of Papeete on the French Polynesian island of Tahiti.[9] The system lay under an upper level ridge of high pressure in an environment, which was favorable for further development with low to moderate vertical windshear.[9][10] As a result the organisation of the atmospheric convection surrounding the system significantly improved, while the systems low level circulation centre rapidly consolidated over the next day. As a result late on January 20, the JTWC initiated advisories on the system an assigned it the designation 07P. RSMC Nadi subsequently reported that the system had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it Niko. Over the next two days the system gradually intensified further and became a category 2 tropical cyclone early on January 22. On January 25, Niko completed its extratropical transition.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Ola[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 29 – February 3
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 mbar (hPa)

During January 29, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 09F had moved into the basin, from the Australian region to the northwest of New Caledonia.[11] The system was moving towards the east-northeast and lay within an area of low vertical wind shear underneath an upper level ridge of high pressure.[11] During January 30 the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and assigned it the designation Tropical Cyclone 10P. RSMC Nadi subsequently reported that the system had become a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it Ola. Over the next two days the system gradually intensified further and became a category 3 severe tropical cyclone early on February 1. On February 3, Ola completed its extratropical transition.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Pam[edit]

Main article: Cyclone Pam
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 5 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration March 6 – March 15
Peak intensity 250 km/h (155 mph) (10-min)  896 mbar (hPa)

During March 6, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 11F had developed about 1,140 km (710 mi) to the northwest of Nadi, Fiji.[12] The disturbance continued on its southwestward track until two days later, when the RSMC had upgraded it to a tropical depression.[13] The JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert (TCFA).[14] Cyclone Pam developed out of this system on March 9, when RSMC Nadi started tracking it as a Category 1 tropical cyclone. Being located in an area of favourable conditions, Pam gradually intensified into a powerful, category 5 severe tropical cyclone by March 12. Pam's ten-minute maximum sustained winds peaked at 250 km/h (155 mph), along with a minimum pressure of 896 hPa, making Pam the most intense tropical cyclone of the basin since Zoe in 2002.[15] Several hours later, the cyclone began to curve towards the south-southeast, allowing Pam to pass just east of Efate,[16] becoming the single worst natural disaster in the history of Vanuatu.[17] The cyclone crippled Vanuatu's infrastructure: an estimated 90 percent of the nation's buildings were impacted by the storm's effects, telecommunications were paralyzed, and water shortages took place.

The FMS estimated Pam as having record-breaking 250 km/h (155 mph) ten-minute sustained winds.[18] The storm's winds gradually slowed afterwards as Pam tracked west of Tafea. However, the FMS indicated that the cyclone's pressure dropped further to a minimum of 896 mbar (hPa; 26.46 inHg) on March 14.[19] Pam left the FMS area of responsibility as it progressed along its path, the storm's eye faded away and Pam's low level circulation became displaced from its associated thunderstorms, signalling a rapid weakening phase.[20] Later on March 15, both agencies discontinued issuing advisories as Pam entered a phase of extratropical transition while affecting northeastern New Zealand.

Tropical Cyclone Reuben[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration March 19 – March 23
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

On March 19, RSMC Nadi had reported that Tropical Disturbance 12F had developed about 375 km (235 mi) to the southwest of Apia on the Samoan island of Upolu.[21] The system moved southwards as it was classified as a tropical depression. On March 21, the JTWC classified 12F as a tropical storm, giving the designation 20P. Early on March 22, RSMC Nadi reported that the system had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it Reuben, while it was located about 220 km (135 mi) to the south of Nuku’alofa, Tonga.[22] Early on March 23, both agencies discontinued issuing advisories as Reuben entered a phase of extratropical transition.

Tropical Depression 14F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Subtropical cyclone
Duration March 28 – March 31
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Solo[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration April 9 – April 12
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

On April 9, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 15F had developed about 465 km (290 mi) to the south of Honiara in the Solomon Islands.[23] Due to favorable environments for the storm, it was upgraded to a Category 1 tropical cyclone and was named Solo, as it was located just east of the border of the Australian region basin on April 11. Late on April 12, Tropical Cyclone Solo, which had weakened into a tropical disturbance, was predicted to dissipate after moving into a high wind sheared environment to the southeast of the system. As a result, RSMC Nadi issued its final advisory on the storm.[24]

Other systems[edit]

During December 16, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 02F had developed about 360 km (225 mi) northeast of Niue.[25] The system was last noted by RSMC Nadi during the following day, as it was suspected to have become an extratropical cyclone.[26]

Late on January 27, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 08F had developed about 275 km (170 mi) to the southeast of Apia, Samoa.[27] On February 2, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 10F had developed about 680 km (425 mi) to the northeast of Suva, Fiji.[28] Over the next day the system moved south-eastwards in an area of low to moderate vertical windshear, before it was last noted during February 4, after the low level circulation centre had become exposed.[29] Tropical Disturbance 13F developed within an area of low vertical windshear, to the north of the island of Papeete on the French Polynesian island of Tahiti during March 19.[21] Over the next few days the system the system moved westwards and remained poorly organised, with atmospheric convection persistent over the systems supposed low level circulation centre.[21][30] The system was subsequently last noted during March 21, while it was located to the north of Rarotonga in the Southern Cook Islands.[30] During April 15, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 16F, had developed about 450 km (280 mi) to the northwest of Port Vila, Vanuatu.[31] During that day the system moved westwards and was last noted as it moved into the Australian region during April 16.[32] On May 12, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology reported that a westwards moving tropical low had developed near the Solomon Islands before it moved out of the basin during May 13.[33][34]

Season effects[edit]

This table lists all the storms that developed in the South Pacific to the east of 160th meridian east|longitude 160°E during the 2014–15 season. It includes their intensity on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, duration, name, landfalls, deaths, and damages. All data is taken from RSMC Nadi and/or TCWC Wellington, and all of the damage figures are in 2014 USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
windspeeds
Pressure Land areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
01F November 21 – 26 Tropical depression Not Specified 1003 hPa (29.62 inHg) Tokelau, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna
Samoa, American Samoa
Minimal None
02F December 16 – 17 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 1007 hPa (29.74 inHg) None None None
03F December 20 – 26 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Northern Cook Islands None None
04F December 21 – 24 Tropical depression Not Specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Northern Cook Islands, French Polynesia None None
05F December 23 – 29 Tropical depression Not Specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Samoa, American Samoa None None
Niko January 19 – 25 Category 2 tropical cyclone 100 km/h (65 mph) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) French Polynesia Minimal None
08F January 27 – 30 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Samoa, American Samoa None None
Ola January 29 – February 3 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) New Caledonia, New Zealand None None
10F February 2 – 4 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 1001 hPa (29.56 inHg) Fiji None None
Pam March 6 – 15 Category 5 severe tropical cyclone 250 km/h (155 mph) 896 hPa (26.46 inHg) Fiji, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu
Vanuatu, New Caledonia, New Zealand
$250 million 16
Reuben March 19 – 23 Category 1 tropical cyclone 75 km/h (45 mph) 990 hPa (29.23 inHg) Fiji, Tonga None None
13F March 19 – 21 Tropical disturbance Not Specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) French Polynesia, Southern Cook Islands None None
14F March 28 – 31 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Northern Cook Islands None None
Solo April 9 – 12 Category 2 tropical cyclone 100 km/h (65 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu Minimal None
16F April 15 – 16 Tropical depression Not Specified 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) None None None
Season Aggregates
15 systems November 21 – April 16 250 km/h (155 mph) 896 hPa (26.46 inHg) $250 million 16


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Climate Services Division; RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 26, 2010). Tropical Cyclone Guidance for Season 2010/11 for the Fiji and the Southwest Pacific (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 15, 2014). "2014/15 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre Area of Responsibility" (PDF). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 2. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook: Near average tropical cyclone numbers for the region is likely, with increased activity from February onward". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook Update". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. February 9, 2015. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e National Climate Centre (October 15, 2014). "2014–2015 South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c Kean, Francis (October 24, 2014). "Moderate Chances For Tropical Cyclones This Season In Fiji" (PDF) (Press release). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014. 
  7. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 21, 2014). "Tropical Disturbance Summary November 21, 2014 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on November 21, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2014. 
  8. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (December 20, 2014). "Tropical Disturbance Summary December 20, 2014 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 19, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 19, 2015 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 
  10. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (January 20, 2015). "Significant Tropical Weather Outlook for the Western and South Pacific Ocean January 20, 2015 12z". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on January 21, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015. 
  11. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 29, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory January 29, 2015 12z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 31, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  12. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 6, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 6, 2015 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Tropical Depression 11F from RSMC". RSMC Nadi. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  14. ^ "TCFA from WTPS21". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Cyclone Pam hits New Zealand". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  16. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (March 13, 2015). "Tropical Cyclone 17P (Pam) Warning NR 016". Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: United States Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  17. ^ Joshua Robertson (March 15, 2015). "Cyclone Pam: Vanuatu awaits first wave of relief and news from worst-hit islands". The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  18. ^ Nadi Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (March 13, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory Number A25". Nadi, Fiji: Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  19. ^ Nadi Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (March 14, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory Number A27". Nadi, Fiji: Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  20. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (March 15, 2015). "Tropical Cyclone 17P (Pam) Warning NR 021". Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: United States Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 19, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 19, 2015 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 22, 2015. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  22. ^ Noble, Chris (March 19, 2015). "Tropical Cyclone Reuben". Meteorological Service of New Zealand. Archived from the original on March 22, 2015Z. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  23. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (April 9, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary April 9, 2015 18z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 
  24. ^ http://www.met.gov.fj/aifs_prods/20036.txt
  25. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (December 16, 2014). "Tropical Disturbance Summary December 17, 2014 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2014. 
  26. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (December 17, 2014). "Tropical Disturbance Summary December 17, 2014 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved December 17, 2014. 
  27. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 27, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 27, 2015 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  28. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 2, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 2, 2015 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  29. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 4, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 4, 2015 00z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  30. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 21, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 21, 2015 22z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 22, 2015. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  31. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (April 15, 2015). "Tropical Disturbance Summary April 15, 2015 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2015. 
  32. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (April 16, 2015). "Tropical Weather Outlook April 16, 2015 03z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 16, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Coral Sea, May 12, 2015". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. May 12, 2015. Archived from the original on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015. 
  34. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Coral Sea, May 13, 2015". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. May 13, 2015. Archived from the original on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015. 

External links[edit]