2014 Formula One season
FIA Formula One World Championship season
The 2014 Formula One season is the 65th season of the Formula One World Championship, a motor racing championship for Formula One cars which is recognised by the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. The season started in Australia on 16 March and will conclude in Abu Dhabi on 23 November. Eleven teams and twenty-two drivers will compete in nineteen Grands Prix for the World Drivers' and World Constructors' Championships.
In 2014, the championship saw the introduction of a revised engine formula, in which the 2.4 litre V8 engine configuration—previously used between 2006 and 2013—has been replaced with a new formula specifying a 1.6 litre turbocharged V6 engine that incorporates an energy recovery system into its build. The 2014 calendar features substantial revisions from the 2013 season; the Russian Grand Prix will be held for the first time in a century at the Sochi International Street Circuit in Sochi, and the Austrian Grand Prix will be revived, with the race to be held at the Red Bull Ring in Spielberg. The Indian Grand Prix will be discontinued for an indeterminate period, whilst the Korean Grand Prix has been removed from the schedule entirely.
Sebastian Vettel started the season as the defending Drivers' Champion after securing his fourth consecutive title at the 2013 Indian Grand Prix. His team, Red Bull Racing, began the season as the defending Constructors' Champions, having also won their fourth consecutive championship in India.
- 1 Teams and drivers
- 2 Season calendar
- 3 Regulation changes
- 4 Season report
- 5 Results and standings
- 6 References
Teams and drivers
The following teams and drivers are taking part in the 2014 season.
|Teams and drivers who will compete in Grands Prix||Free Practice driver(s)|
|Caterham F1 Team||Caterham-Renault||CT05||Renault Energy F1-2014||P||9
|Scuderia Ferrari||Ferrari||F14 T||Ferrari 059/3||P||7
|Sahara Force India F1 Team||Force India-Mercedes||VJM07||Mercedes PU106A Hybrid||P||11
|Lotus F1 Team||Lotus-Renault||E22||Renault Energy F1-2014||P||8
|Marussia F1 Team||Marussia-Ferrari||MR03||Ferrari 059/3||P||4
|McLaren Mercedes||McLaren-Mercedes||MP4-29||Mercedes PU106A Hybrid||P||20
|Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Team||Mercedes||F1 W05||Mercedes PU106A Hybrid||P||6
|Infiniti Red Bull Racing||Red Bull-Renault||RB10||Renault Energy F1-2014||P||1
|Sauber F1 Team||Sauber-Ferrari||C33||Ferrari 059/3||P||21
|36||Giedo van der Garde||3–4|
|Scuderia Toro Rosso||Toro Rosso-Renault||STR9||Renault Energy F1-2014||P||25
|Williams Martini Racing||Williams-Mercedes||FW36||Mercedes PU106A Hybrid||P||19
- Cosworth elected not to build an engine to fit the 2014 generation of regulations. This decision prompted Marussia, the only team using Cosworth engines during the 2013 season, to seek out a new engine supplier. They later joined Ferrari's customer programme with Ferrari providing the team with both engine and powertrain for 2014 and beyond.
- Scuderia Toro Rosso secured an agreement with Renault for engines in 2014, ending their seven-year arrangement with Ferrari.
- Williams parted ways with Renault after two seasons, switching to Mercedes power in what the team described as a "long-term deal". The deal came after Renault publicised their intentions to reduce their engine supply to three teams in 2014, before the French manufacturer ultimately settled on supplying four.
- In 2011, former British American Racing team principal Craig Pollock announced the formation of Propulsion Universelle et Recuperation d'Energie–commonly known by its acronym, PURE–and signalled his intentions to enter the sport in 2014 as a customer engine supplier, with the full support of the FIA. However, the engine programme was eventually suspended in July 2012 due to problems regarding funding, and was ultimately unable to secure any clients for the 2014 season.
- Felipe Massa left Ferrari at the end of the 2013 season after eight years racing for the team. He moved to Williams, alongside Valtteri Bottas. Pastor Maldonado, having been replaced at Williams by Massa, moved to Lotus F1, taking the seat vacated by 2007 World Champion Kimi Räikkönen. Räikkönen returned to Ferrari, the team he raced for from 2007 to 2009. The partnership of Räikkönen and Fernando Alonso marks the first time since 1954 that Ferrari have contested a season with two World Drivers' Champions in the team.
- Mark Webber retired from Formula One after twelve seasons, the last seven with Red Bull Racing. He moved to the FIA World Endurance Championship, driving for Porsche AG in their brand-new Le Mans Prototype, the Porsche 919 Hybrid. Daniel Ricciardo left Scuderia Toro Rosso to fill his seat, becoming the second driver to graduate from the team's young driver programme to their premier racing team. Scuderia Toro Rosso chose 2013 GP3 Series champion Daniil Kvyat as Ricciardo's replacement.
- Sergio Pérez left McLaren after a single season with the team. He was replaced by 2013 Formula Renault 3.5 Series champion and McLaren Young Driver Programme member Kevin Magnussen. Pérez moved to Force India, where he was joined by Nico Hülkenberg, who returned to the team after one year with Sauber. As a result of the Hülkenberg and Pérez deals, Paul di Resta and Adrian Sutil lost their seats with the team. Sutil went on to secure a seat with Sauber, while di Resta left Formula One entirely, returning to the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters series.
- Kamui Kobayashi returned to Formula One with Caterham, after spending the 2013 season competing in the World Endurance Championship. He was partnered with GP2 Series regular Marcus Ericsson, who became the first Swedish driver in Formula One since Stefan Johansson retired from the sport in 1991. The decision left both Giedo van der Garde and Charles Pic without a drive, and both went on to take reserve driver roles with other teams; van der Garde joined Sauber, while Pic moved to Lotus.
- Susie Wolff joined Williams as a test and reserve driver, with a programme that will include participation in selected Free Practice 1 sessions. In doing so, she will become the first female driver to take part in a Grand Prix weekend since Giovanna Amati failed to qualify for the 1992 Brazilian Grand Prix.
- Red Bull reached an agreement with Bernie Ecclestone to revive the Austrian Grand Prix after a ten-year absence from the calendar. The race will be held at the Red Bull Ring, which previously hosted the Austrian Grand Prix in 2003, when the circuit was known as the A1-Ring.
- The Bahrain Grand Prix will be held as a night event under lights, similar to the Singapore Grand Prix. The decision to hold the race under lights was taken as a means of marking the tenth anniversary of the event.
- In March 2014, Bernie Ecclestone revealed that he had come to an agreement to return the French Grand Prix to the calendar after a six-year absence, with the Circuit de Nevers in Magny-Cours the intended venue, but the deal collapsed shortly after it had been reached.
- The Hockenheimring is scheduled to return to the calendar to host the German Grand Prix, in keeping with the event-sharing agreement first established in 2008 with the Nürburgring for the two circuits to host the Grand Prix in alternating years. The Hockenheimring last hosted a Formula One Grand Prix in 2012.
- The Indian Grand Prix will not be held in 2014 following the devaluation of the Indian rupee and ongoing complications arising from Indian taxation laws, which had dogged the event since its inaugural race, with authorities classifying the Grand Prix as "entertainment", which under Indian law would have entitled the authorities to claim a portion of the teams' revenue as tax for competing in India, something they would have been unable to do if the race had been classified as a "sport". The race promoters initially came to an agreement with Bernie Ecclestone to skip the 2014 event and return to the calendar early in 2015; however, in March 2014, Ecclestone stated that the race will likely be pushed back to 2016 while the sport tries to resolve the taxation issue.
- The Korean Grand Prix, Mexican Grand Prix, and the Grand Prix of America were included in the provisional calendar published in September 2013, but were later removed from the final calendar released in December.
- The calendar will see the addition of the Russian Grand Prix with the race to be held at the Sochi International Street Circuit at the end of the season. The race will take place on a street circuit to be constructed around the Sochi Olympic Park. It will be the first Russian Grand Prix in a century, and the first time the country has ever hosted a round of the Formula One World Championship. The International Olympic Committee had cautioned that it would use its power to delay the race until 2015 if it felt that construction of the circuit and facilities were disrupting preparations for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games, but the Olympic venues were completed and competition started without interruption.
- The United States Grand Prix had been provisionally scheduled for 9 November. However, the date coincided with a University of Texas American football team home game, which would have strained Austin's tourism infrastructure. The final calendar rescheduled the race for 2 November to eliminate this conflict.
- The 2014 season saw the introduction of a new engine formula, with turbocharged engines returning to the sport for the first time since 1988. The new engines are a 1.6 litre V6 format with an 8-speed semi automatic gearbox. The rules dictate the use of a ninety-degree engine bank, with fixed crankshaft and mounting points for the chassis, while the engines are limited to 15,000rpm. Individual engine units under the 2014 specifications must last for at least 4,000 km (2,500 mi) before being replaced, in comparison to the pre-2014 engines, which were required to last for just 2,000 km (1,200 mi).
- The Kinetic Energy Recovery System—known from 2009 to 2013 as KERS, and renamed from 2014 as ERS-K—is incorporated into the design of the engine and its usage increased; its function as a supplementary power source has been taken by the introduction of the heat-based Energy Recovery System (ERS). The ERS unit captures waste heat as it is dispelled from the exhaust turbocharger, using an electrical device known as a Heat Motor Generator Unit. This waste heat is stored as an electrical charge until it is used by a complementary system called the Kinetic Motor Generator Unit. This device is connected directly to the drive train to deliver the additional power in the most direct and efficient way. In combination with the ERS-K it gives drivers an additional 161 bhp (120 kW) for thirty-three seconds per lap, compared to the KERS units used prior to 2014, which gave drivers 80 bhp (60 kW) for six seconds per lap. This energy is released into the powertrain by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to promote the most efficient and effective application of the power, but the driver has the ability to manually override the ECU and use the remaining available power instantly.
- Teams are permitted to use electronic braking devices to manage the braking of the rear wheels as the increased power output from the ERS-K units makes regulating the brake bias much harder than it had been previously.
- Teams may no longer change their gear ratios from race to race to suit the individual demands of a circuit. Instead, they must nominate eight gear ratios ahead of the first race of the season, and these eight ratios are used at every Grand Prix. They were given one opportunity to change their ratios once the season had started, but any subsequent changes will incur a grid penalty.
- The 2014 regulations require the use of lower noses than in previous years, in the interests of safety. The tip of the nose has to be no more than 185mm above the ground, in comparison to the 550mm allowed in 2012. These regulations were amended in June 2013 so as to completely outlaw the use of the "stepped noses" used in 2012 and 2013, thereby forcing teams to design a car with a genuinely lower nose rather than using the temporary solution.
- The original rules—first published in August 2011—also called for a variety of bodywork changes aimed at cutting downforce, most notably through the use of narrower front wings, and a shallower angle to the main plane of rear wings. These additional changes were formally abandoned in December 2012, but the requirement that cars be built with a nose no more than 185mm above the ground was retained. The planned reduction in front wing width from 1,800mm to 1,650mm was subsequently reintroduced.
- Teams are no longer able to use a beam wing at the rear of the car, a small carbon fibre wing mounted above the diffuser designed to generate low pressure as air passed over it, allowing them greater control over the air that was being deliberately directed over the diffuser.
- In order to promote fuel efficiency, fuel flow is restricted to 100 kg/h above 10,500rpm; below 10,500rpm a formula for the maximum flow must be applied based on the rpm in use.
- Following Daniel Ricciardo's disqualification from the Australian Grand Prix for exceeding the fuel-flow limit, the FIA issued a Technical Directive preventing teams from making modifications to their fuel sensors after an investigation into the problem found that compounds in the bespoke fuel used by some teams were corroding a rubber seal in the sensor, leading to anomalous readings.
- The position of the exhaust outlet changed so that it is now angled upwards toward the rear wing instead of downwards to face the rear diffuser so as to make the practice of using exhaust blown diffusers—passing exhaust gasses over the rear diffuser to improve the car's downforce—extremely difficult to achieve.
- The minimum weight of the cars has been increased from 642 kg (1,415 lb) to 691 kg (1,523 lb) to account for the increased weight of the engine, energy recovery units, and 2014 specification of tyres.
- The use of false camera mountings has been banned. Teams had previously exploited a loophole in the regulations that allowed them to add additional pieces of bodywork to the car in the place of camera mountings and take advantage of the aerodynamic benefits. From 2014, this loophole is closed, with the regulations rewritten to only allow camera mountings to be used for cameras.
- Mid-season testing returned in 2014. Three European venues will each host a two-day test in the week following the Grand Prix held at the circuit with one test being held in the week after the final round in Abu Dhabi. In addition to this, teams must dedicate one of these days to aiding tyre supplier Pirelli in the development of their tyres. These rules were later adjusted to allow teams to choose which venues they tested at during the season. Additionally, cars are also classified as "current", "previous" and "historic", with the FIA introducing limits on which cars may be used and the conditions under which they are tested. The end-of-season Young Driver Tests, which were held to give teams the opportunity to assess rookie drivers, are discontinued.
- The penalty system has been overhauled in 2014 so as to improve driving standards, with the introduction of a "penalty points" system for driving offences. Under the system, driving offences carry a pre-determined points value based on their severity. These points are tallied up over the course of a season, with a driver receiving a race ban after accumulating twelve penalty points. Any driver who receives a race ban would also receive an additional five penalty points upon their return, as a form of probation to discourage further driving offences. Penalty points remain on a driver's licence for twelve months, at which point they will be removed.
- Stewards have the power to hand out five-second penalties in addition to the existing range of penalties within their power. The five-second penalties were introduced for situations where a penalty was justified, but the existing penalties—such as a drive-through or a stop/go penalty—were considered too severe, or where such a penalty would radically alter the outcome of a race if applied retroactively, with penalised drivers facing the loss of championship points for otherwise minor violations of the rules. Drivers are permitted to serve these penalties before a regular pit stop, with the driver stopping in their pit bay for five seconds before any work is carried out on the car. Drivers serving drive-through or stop/go penalties are still not permitted to serve a penalty ahead of their pit stop, and are instead required to enter the pit lane separately to serve the penalty.
- The rules regarding unsafe pit releases—when a car is released from its pit bay to the lane directly into the path of an oncoming car—have been rewritten, with the driver who is released in an unsafe fashion given a grid penalty for the next race.
- The pit lane speed limit has been reduced from 100 km/h (62 mph) to 80 km/h (50 mph).
- Drivers are only able to use five engines over the course of a season in 2014, down from eight in 2013. Drivers who use a sixth engine start the race from the pit lane, as opposed to the ten-place grid penalty handed down for going over the engine quota in previous season. The engine unit has been further divided up into individual elements, including the turbocharger, ERS unit and KERS battery, with drivers allocated five of each component. Should a driver go over this quota for any individual element, they incur a ten-place grid penalty. They receive a further five-place penalty for going over the five-unit allocation of any other element after the original ten-place penalty is applied in a bid to stop teams changing multiple elements of the engine unit after receiving a grid penalty.
- In the event that such a penalty relegates a driver past the back row of the grid, the remaining penalty will carry over to the next race. For example, if a driver qualifies in nineteenth position and receives a five-place grid penalty, they will drop to twenty-second and last place for that race, and then receive an additional two-place penalty in the next Grand Prix. These penalties can only be carried over to the next race, rather than accumulate.
- The procedure for issuing penalties for speeding under yellow flag conditions in qualifying has been changed for 2014. Previously, drivers had been forced to slow down in the timing sector of the circuit where a yellow flag was being waved. However, after a series of penalties were issued to drivers for speeding in a sector with yellow flags when the incident that triggered the yellow flag took place behind them, the FIA introduced a change to the procedure. Starting in 2014, the circuits are divided into two hundred metre intervals. In the event of a yellow flag, drivers must demonstrate that they slowed down in the two hundred metres immediately before and after the yellow flags while they are being displayed, or else face a penalty.
- Following a series of high-profile incidents involving tyres throughout the 2013 season that culminated in a string of explosive blow-outs at the 2013 British Grand Prix, the FIA passed a resolution granting them the power to change the specifications of the tyres used by competitors with immediate effect should the need arise.
- Drivers have been assigned permanent numbers for the duration of their careers, with the championship adopting a system similar to the one used in MotoGP. The number 1 will be the champion's right, with drivers free to choose any number from 2 to 99; the champion's "regular" number is reserved while they are using the number 1. The regulations further stipulate that a driver's number must be clearly visible, both on their car and on their helmet. Previously, the numbering system had been partially based on the World Constructors' Championship finishing positions from the previous year.
- Drivers who do not take part in a qualifying period are assigned grid positions based on the qualifying bracket they were in at the time and their Free Practice 3 lap times. For example, if two drivers qualify for but do not take part in Q3, they start the race from ninth and tenth places, with the positions they take decided by their FP3 times. The rule was rewritten as grid positions for drivers who had not set lap times or left the pits had previously been decided by car numbers.
- The FIA have introduced the "Pole Trophy", a non-championship award presented to the driver who qualifies on pole for the most races.
- The qualifying format has been adjusted to allow drivers more time to complete flying laps in Q3. The final qualifying period is extended to twelve minutes in length, with Q1 scaled back to eighteen minutes to keep the entire session within one hour.
- The 107% rule has been relaxed at the start of the season to account for teams dealing with the challenges arising from the new engine regulations. FIA Race Director Charlie Whiting was quoted as saying that the enforcement of the rule would be taken on a case-by-case basis, but that the stewards would consider a driver able to qualify provided they set consistent lap times in Free Practice.
- The FIA introduced a curfew system in 2011 that prohibited team personnel from accessing the circuit in the six hours before the first session of the day, with teams given four "jokers"—exceptions to the rule that allowed them to stay within the circuit boundaries past the curfew hours without penalty so as to complete work on cars—to use throughout the season. The rule has been revised for 2014, with teams given six exceptions over the course of the year as a response to the introduction of the new engine formula.
- Drivers must be able to return to the pits under their own power after the chequered flag has fallen in a bid to stop drivers from pulling over in order to preserve the mandatory one-litre fuel sample required to pass post-race scrutineering.
- Teams are now allowed to run up to four drivers during both Friday (Thursday in Monaco) practice sessions, though they are still limited to entering two cars during the sessions. If one of the team's nominated drivers is unable to take part, any replacement driver must use the engine, gearbox and tyres which were allocated to the original driver.
- The final race of the season offers double points to teams and drivers in a bid to keep the championship fight alive for longer.
Nico Rosberg currently leads the World Drivers' Championship after four races, having won the Australian Grand Prix. His team, Mercedes, are leading the World Constructors' Championship after Lewis Hamilton won the Malaysian, Bahrain and Chinese Grands Prix.
Scoring their first podium finish since the 2009 Belgian Grand Prix, Force India hold second place by a single point, ahead of McLaren. Following their first season without a podium finish in 2013, the team saw Kevin Magnussen and Jenson Button finish second and third in Australia. Both drivers recorded points finishes in Malaysia, but were forced out of the Bahrain Grand Prix with clutch issues.
Red Bull Racing have recovered to fourth overall, after suffering a difficult start to the season when Sebastian Vettel retired and Daniel Ricciardo was disqualified from the Australian Grand Prix. Red Bull appealed the disqualification, but the result was upheld by the International Court of Appeal. Vettel went on to finish third in Malaysia, while Ricciardo retired, and both drivers scored points in Bahrain.
Ferrari sit fifth overall, with Fernando Alonso and Kimi Räikkönen scoring a mixed run of results in the opening three races. Williams are sixth in the constructors' standings after Valtteri Bottas scored more points in the opening race than the team did during the 2013 season. Bottas and team-mate Felipe Massa went on to record points finishes in Malaysia and Bahrain.
In seventh place, Scuderia Toro Rosso are the final classified team to have scored points. Russian rookie Daniil Kvyat became the youngest driver to score points in Formula One, finishing ninth in Australia. After missing the first test of the pre-season, Lotus are eighth overall, having scored no points to date. Sauber are ninth, having endured a similar run of non point-scoring finishes, all the while admitting that they were struggling with an over-weight car. A fourteenth place for Pastor Maldonado in Bahrain was enough to place Lotus ahead of Sauber.
Marussia and Caterham round out the standings in tenth and eleventh overall. Thirteenth in Australia gave Marussia an early lead despite Jules Bianchi failing to complete enough laps to be classified. Caterham scored a thirteenth and fourteenth in Malaysia to take the position from them before Marussia reclaimed tenth place in Bahrain, courtesy of another thirteenth-place finish.
Results and standings
Points are awarded to the top ten classified finishers using the following structure:
Bold - Pole position
- † — Drivers did not finish the Grand Prix, but were classified as they completed more than 90% of the race distance.
- ‡ — Double points will be awarded at the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix.
Bold - Pole position
- † — Drivers did not finish the Grand Prix, but were classified as they completed more than 90% of the race distance.
- ‡ — Double points will be awarded at the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix.
FIA Pole Trophy
The FIA Pole Trophy will be awarded to the driver who qualified on pole position most often throughout the season. In the event of a tie-breaker, with two drivers qualifying on pole an equal number of times, the number of times they qualified in second will be used to settle the result. No additional championship points are awarded for starting a race from pole.
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