Cosworth elected not to build an engine to fit the 2014 generation of regulations. This decision prompted Marussia, the only team using Cosworth engines during the 2013 season, to seek out a new engine supplier. They later joined Ferrari's customer programme with Ferrari providing the team with both engine and powertrain for 2014 and beyond.
Williams will part ways with Renault after two seasons, switching to Mercedes power in what the team described as a "long-term deal". The deal came after Renault publicised their intentions to reduce their engine supply to three teams in 2014, before the French manufacturer ultimately settled on supplying four.
Susie Wolff joined Williams as a test and reserve driver, with a programme that will include participation in selected Free Practice 1 sessions. In doing so, she will become the first female driver to take part in a Grand Prix weekend since Giovanna Amati failed to qualify for the 1992 Brazilian Grand Prix.
The Indian Grand Prix will not be held in 2014 following the devaluation of the Indian rupee and ongoing complications arising from Indian taxation laws, which had dogged the event since its inaugural race, with authorities classifying the Grand Prix as "entertainment", which under Indian law would have entitled the authorities to claim a portion of the teams' revenue as tax for competing in India, something they would have been unable to do if the race had been classified as a "sport". The race promoters initially came to an agreement with Bernie Ecclestone to skip the 2014 event and return to the calendar early in 2015; however, in March 2014, Ecclestone stated that the race will likely be pushed back to 2016 while the sport tries to resolve the taxation issue.
Car aesthetics proved controversial in 2014, with the demand for a low nose resulting in teams designing cars with a finger-like appendage—seen here on the McLaren MP4-29—dubbed the "alien" at the front of the chassis.
The 2014 season will see the introduction of a new engine formula, with turbocharged engines returning to the sport for the first time since 1988. The new engines will be a 1.6 litre V6 format with an 8-speed semi automatic gearbox. The rules dictate the use of a ninety-degree engine bank, with fixed crankshaft and mounting points for the chassis, while the engines will be limited to 15,000rpm. Individual engine units under the 2014 specifications must last for at least 4,000 km (2,500 mi) before being replaced, in comparison to the pre-2014 engines, which were required to last for just 2,000 km (1,200 mi).
The Kinetic Energy Recovery System—known from 2009 to 2013 as KERS, and renamed from 2014 as ERS-K—will be incorporated into the design of the engine and its usage increased; its function as a supplementary power source will be taken by the introduction of the heat-based Energy Recovery System (ERS). The ERS unit captures waste heat as it is dispelled from the exhaust turbocharger, using an electrical device known as a Heat Motor Generator Unit. This waste heat is stored as an electrical charge until it is used by a complementary system called the Kinetic Motor Generator Unit. This device is connected directly to the drive train to deliver the additional power in the most direct and efficient way. In combination with the ERS-K it will give drivers an additional 161 bhp (120 kW) for thirty-three seconds per lap, compared to the KERS units used prior to 2014, which gave drivers 80 bhp (60 kW) for six seconds per lap.
Teams will be permitted to use electronic braking devices to manage the braking of the rear wheels as the increased power output from the ERS-K units will make regulating the brake bias much harder than it had been previously.
Teams may no longer change their gear ratios from race to race to suit the individual demands of a circuit. Instead, they must nominate eight gear ratios ahead of the first race of the season, and these eight ratios will be used at every Grand Prix. They will be given one opportunity to change their ratios once the season has started, but any subsequent changes will incur a grid penalty.
The 2014 regulations require the use of lower noses than in previous years, in the interests of safety. The tip of the nose will have to be no more than 185mm above the ground, in comparison to the 550mm allowed in 2012. These regulations were amended in June 2013 so as to completely outlaw the use of the "stepped noses" used in 2012 and 2013, thereby forcing teams to design a car with a genuinely lower nose rather than using the temporary solution.
The original rules—first published in August 2011—also called for a variety of bodywork changes aimed at cutting downforce, most notably through the use of narrower front wings, and a shallower angle to the main plane of rear wings. These additional changes were formally abandoned in December 2012, but the requirement that cars be built with a nose no more than 185mm above the ground was retained. The planned reduction in front wing width from 1,800mm to 1,650mm was subsequently reintroduced.
Teams will no longer be able to use a beam wing at the rear of the car, a small carbon fibre wing mounted above the diffuser designed to generate low pressure as air passed over it, allowing teams greater control over the air that was being deliberately directed over the diffuser.
In order to promote fuel efficiency, fuel will be flow restricted to 100 kg/h above 10,500rpm; below 10,500rpm a formula for the maximum flow must be applied based on the rpm in use.
Drivers must be able to return to the pits under their own power after the chequered flag has fallen in a bid to stop drivers from pulling over in order to preserve the mandatory one-litre fuel sample required to pass post-race scrutineering.
The position of the exhaust outlet will change so that it is now angled upwards toward the rear wing instead of downwards to face the rear diffuser so as to make the practice of using exhaust blown diffusers—passing exhaust gasses over the rear diffuser to improve the car's downforce—extremely difficult to achieve.
The minimum weight of the cars will increase from 642 kg (1,415 lb) to 691 kg (1,523 lb) to account for the increased weight of the engine, energy recovery units, and 2014 specification of tyres.
The use of false camera mountings will be banned. Teams had previously exploited a loophole in the regulations that allowed them to add additional pieces of bodywork to the car in the place of camera mountings and take advantage of the aerodynamic benefits. From 2014, this loophole will be closed, with the regulations rewritten to only allow camera mountings to be used for cameras.
Mid-season testing will return in 2014. Four European venues will each host a two-day test in the week following the Grand Prix held at the circuit. In addition to this, teams must dedicate one of these days to aiding tyre supplier Pirelli in the development of their tyres. These rules were later adjusted to allow teams to choose which venues they tested at during the season. Cars will also be classified as "current", "previous" and "historic", with the FIA introducing limits on which cars may be used and the conditions under which they are tested. The end-of-season Young Driver Tests, which were held to give teams the opportunity to assess rookie drivers, will be discontinued.
The penalty system will be overhauled in 2014 so as to improve driving standards, with the introduction of a "penalty points" system for driving offences. Under the system, driving offences will carry a pre-determined points value based on their severity. These points will be tallied up over the course of a season, with a driver receiving a race ban after accumulating twelve penalty points. Any driver who received a race ban would also receive an additional five penalty points upon their return, as a form of probation to discourage further driving offences. Penalty points will remain on a driver's licence for twelve months, at which point they will be removed.
Stewards will have the power to hand out five-second penalties in addition to the existing range of penalties within their power. The five-second penalties were introduced for situations where a penalty was justified, but the existing penalties—such as a drive-through or a stop/go penalty—were considered too severe, or where such a penalty would radically alter the outcome of a race if applied retroactively, with penalised drivers facing the loss of championship points for otherwise minor violations of the rules. Drivers will be permitted to serve these penalties before a regular pit stop, with the driver stopping in their pit bay for five seconds before any work is carried out on the car. Drivers serving drive-through or stop/go penalties will not be permitted to serve a penalty ahead of their pit stop, and will instead be required to enter the pit lane separately to serve the penalty.
The rules regarding unsafe pit releases—when a car is released from its pit bay to the lane directly into the path of an oncoming car—will be rewritten, with the driver who is released in an unsafe fashion given a grid penalty for the next race.
Drivers will only be able to use five engines over the course of a season in 2014, down from eight in 2013. Drivers who use a sixth engine will start the race from the pit lane, as opposed to the ten-place grid penalty handed down for going over the engine quota in previous season. The engine unit will be further divided up into individual elements, including the turbocharger, ERS unit and KERS battery, with drivers allocated five of each component. Should a driver go over this quota for any individual element, they will incur a ten-place grid penalty. They will receive a further five-place penalty for going over the five-unit allocation of any other element after the original ten-place penalty is applied in a bid to stop teams changing multiple elements of the engine unit after receiving a grid penalty.
In the event that such a penalty relegates a driver past the back row of the grid, the remaining penalty will carry over to the next race. For example, if a driver qualifies in nineteenth position and receives a five-place grid penalty, they will drop to twenty-second and last place for that race, and then receive an additional two-place penalty in the next Grand Prix. These penalties can only be carried over to the next race, rather than accumulate.
Following a series of high-profile incidents involving tyres throughout the 2013 season that culminated in a string of explosive blow-outs at the 2013 British Grand Prix, the FIA passed a resolution granting them the power to change the specifications of the tyres used by competitors with immediate effect should the need arise.
The pit lane speed limit will be reduced from 100 km/h (62 mph) to 80 km/h (50 mph).
Drivers will be assigned permanent numbers for the duration of their careers, with the championship adopting a system similar to the one used in MotoGP. The number 1 will be the champion's right, with drivers free to choose any number from 2 to 99; the champion's "regular" number will be reserved while they are using the number 1. The regulations further stipulate that a driver's number must be clearly visible, both on their car and on their helmet. Previously, the numbering system had been based on the World Constructors' Championship finishing positions from the previous year.
Drivers who do not take part in a qualifying period will be assigned grid positions based on the qualifying bracket they were in at the time and their Free Practice 3 lap times. For example, if two drivers qualify for but do not take part in Q3, they will start the race from ninth and tenth places, with the positions they take decided by their FP3 times. The rule was rewritten as grid positions for drivers who had not set lap times or left the pits had previously been decided by car numbers.
The FIA will introduce the "Pole Trophy", a non-championship award presented to the driver who qualifies on pole for the most races.
The FIA introduced a curfew system in 2011 that prohibited team personnel from accessing the circuit in the six hours before the first session of the day, with teams given four "jokers"—exceptions to the rule that allowed them to stay within the circuit boundaries past the curfew hours without penalty so as to complete work on cars—to use throughout the season. The rule has been revised for 2014, with teams given six exceptions over the course of the year as a response to the introduction of the new engine formula.
Teams will now be allowed to run up to four drivers during both Friday (Thursday in Monaco) practice sessions, though they will still be limited to entering two cars during the sessions. If one of the team's nominated drivers is unable to take part, any replacement driver must use the engine, gearbox and tyres which were allocated to the original driver.
The final race of the season will offer double points to drivers in a bid to keep the championship fight alive for longer.
^ abHuis in 't Veld, Jeroen (21 January 2014). "Caterham drivers confirm car numbers". GP UPDATE.net. JHED Media BV. Retrieved 21 January 2014. "Kobayashi, who returns to the top echelon of motor racing after a season on the sidelines, will use number 10 for the remainder of his Grand Prix career, while Formula 1 debutant Ericsson has chosen number nine."
^"Marussia_F1Team". @Marussia_F1Team. Twitter, Inc. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014. "Great to see @Jules_Bianchi in the house today, eyeing up the new #MR03. We said "smile" & @Rory_f1 kindly obliged!"
^"The Shortest Month". scuderiatororosso.com (Scuderia Toro Rosso). 3 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014. "On the Scuderia Toro Rosso front, the first STR9 chassis is currently being assembled in the Faenza factory. New rules or not, the same procedures apply and over the Christmas period Jean-Eric Vergne and Russian rookie Daniil Kvyat turned up at the factory for the traditional seat fitting in the new chassis that will carry all our hopes in 2014."
^Benson, Andrew (7 December 2012). "How Formula 1 is going green for 2014". BBC F1 (BBC). Retrieved 8 December 2012. "How much lower will the noses be? In 2012, F1 cars had a maximum front nose height of 550mm above the floor of the car. In 2014, that is being reduced to 185mm – a reduction in height of 365mm."
^ abCollantine, Keith (28 June 2013). "Driver penalty points system among new 2014 rules". F1 Fanatic (Keith Collantine). Retrieved 29 June 2013. "Drivers may only use five complete power units during a season and will have to start from the pits if they use an extra one. Engine suppliers may provide units to up to four teams."
^"2014 season changes". Formula 1.com. Formula One Management.Ltd. 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014. "We are used to seeing teams replace one of their race drivers with a test driver for opening practice on a Friday. However, from 2014 teams are able to run up to four drivers - though still only two cars - in either Friday session."