Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa
Situation map of the outbreak
|Date||December 2013 – present|
|Location||Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone|
As of 2014[update], an epidemic of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) is ongoing in West Africa. The outbreak began in Guinea in December 2013. It then spread to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Senegal. The disease is caused by the Ebola virus (EBOV). It is the most severe outbreak of Ebola since the discovery of the virus in 1976. By September 2014 cases of EVD exceeded the total of all cases from previous known outbreaks. A separate and much smaller outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo that has 66 possible and confirmed cases and 37 deaths as of 12 September 2014[update] is believed to be unrelated.
As of 20 September 2014[update], the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and local governments reported a total of 6,185 suspected cases and 2,909 deaths (3,424 cases and 1,705 deaths having been laboratory confirmed). Many experts believe that the official numbers substantially understate the size of the outbreak, due in part to community resistance to reporting cases, a lack of personnel and equipment to investigate reports of the disease,and as of September, the lack of beds in treatment centers to treat the high numbers of people needing hospital care. Early WHO reports suggested an overall case fatality rate (CFR) estimate of 53%, considerably lower than an average of the rates reported from previous outbreaks, but on 23 September, they released a revised overall CFR estimate of 70% derived using data from patients with definitive clinical outcomes.
Affected countries have encountered many difficulties in their control efforts. In some areas, people have become suspicious of both the government and hospitals; some hospitals have been attacked by angry protestors who believe that the disease is a hoax or that the hospitals are responsible for the disease. Many of the areas that have been infected are areas of extreme poverty without even running water or soap to help control the spread of disease. Other factors include belief in traditional folk remedies, and cultural practices that predispose to physical contact with the deceased, especially death customs such as washing the body of the deceased. Some hospitals lack basic supplies and are understaffed. This has increased the chance of staff catching the virus themselves. In August, the WHO reported that ten percent of the dead have been health care workers.
By the end of August, the WHO reported that the loss of so many health workers was making it difficult for them to provide sufficient numbers of foreign medical staff. By September 2014, Médecins Sans Frontières, the largest NGO working in the affected regions, had grown increasingly critical of the international response. Speaking on 3 September, the international president spoke out concerning the lack of assistance from the United Nations member countries saying, "Six months into the worst Ebola epidemic in history, the world is losing the battle to contain it." A United Nations spokesperson has stated "they could stop the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 6 to 9 months, but only if a 'massive' global response is implemented." The Director-General of the WHO, Margaret Chan, called the outbreak "the largest, most complex and most severe we've ever seen" and said that it "is racing ahead of control efforts". On 12 September Chan stated, "In the three hardest hit countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the number of new cases is moving far faster than the capacity to manage them in the Ebola-specific treatment centers. Today, there is not one single bed available for the treatment of an Ebola patient in the entire country of Liberia."
- 1 Epidemiology
- 2 Virology
- 3 Prevention
- 4 Healthcare providers
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Prognosis
- 7 Democratic Republic of Congo
- 8 Economic effects
- 9 Responses
- 9.1 International organizations
- 9.2 National responses
- 9.3 Charitable organizations, foundations and individuals
- 10 Popular culture
- 11 Timeline of reported cases and deaths
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Researchers believe a 2-year-old boy was the first human case of this Ebola virus disease epidemic. He died 6 December 2013 in the village of Meliandou, Guéckédou Prefecture, Guinea. His mother, sister and grandmother then became ill with symptoms consistent with Ebola infection and also died. People infected by those victims spread the disease to other villages.
On 19 March, the Guinean Ministry of Health acknowledged a local outbreak of an undetermined viral hemorrhagic fever; the outbreak, ongoing since February, had sickened at least 35 people and killed 23. Ebola was suspected, and on 25 March, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that Guinea's Ministry of Health had reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in four southeastern districts, with suspected cases in the neighbouring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone being investigated. In Guinea, a total of 86 suspected cases, including 59 deaths (case fatality ratio: 68.5%), had been reported as of 24 March.
On 31 March, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a five-person team to assist Guinea's Ministry of Health and the WHO to lead an international response to the Ebola outbreak. On that date, the WHO reported 112 suspected and confirmed cases including 70 deaths. Two cases were reported from Liberia of people who had recently traveled to Guinea, and suspected cases in Liberia and Sierra Leone were being investigated. On 30 April, Guinea's Ministry of Health reported 221 suspected and confirmed cases including 146 deaths. The cases included 25 health care workers with 16 deaths. By late May, the outbreak had spread to Conakry, Guinea's capital, a city of about two million inhabitants. On 28 May, the total cases reported had reached 281 with 186 deaths.
In Liberia, the disease was reported in Lofa and Nimba counties in late March. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare recorded possible cases in Margibi and Montserrado counties in mid-April. The first cases in Liberia's capital Monrovia were reported in mid-June.
The outbreak then spread into Sierra Leone and rapidly progressed. A study of the virus genomes determined that twelve residents, when attending a funeral in Guinea, became infected. They then carried the virus back home. The first cases broke out in the Kailahun District, near the border with Guéckédou in Guinea, and were reported on 25 May. By 20 June, there were 158 suspected cases, mainly in Kailahun and the adjacent district of Kenema. Others were reported in the Kambia, Port Loko, and Western districts in the northwest of the country. By 17 July, the total number of suspected cases in the country stood at 442, and had overtaken those in Guinea and Liberia. By 20 July, cases of the disease had additionally been reported in the Bo District. The first case in Freetown, Sierra Leone's capital, was reported in late July.
The first death in Nigeria was reported on 25 July. A Liberian-American with EVD flew from Liberia to Nigeria and died in Lagos soon after arrival. As part of the containment efforts, 353 possible contacts were monitored in Lagos and 451 in Port Harcourt. As of 16 September, the outbreak appears to have stabilised with 22 confirmed cases and eight deaths, no new cases having been confirmed for two weeks.
On 29 August, the Senegalese Health minister Awa Marie Coll Seck announced the first case in Senegal. This was subsequently identified as a Guinean national who had been exposed to the virus and had been under surveillance, but had travelled to Dakar by road and fallen ill after arriving. This case has subsequently recovered, but 67 possible contacts are being monitored in order to prevent further spread of the disease.
Nations with local transmission
Researchers believe that the first human case of the Ebola virus disease leading to the 2014 outbreak was a 2-year-old boy who died 6 December 2013 in the village of Meliandou, Guéckédou Prefecture. In early August, Guinea closed its borders with both Sierra Leone and Liberia to help contain the spread of the disease, as more new cases were being reported in those countries than in Guinea.
Thinking that the virus was contained, Médecins Sans Frontières closed its treatment centers in May leaving only a small skeleton staff to handle the Macenta region. However, high numbers of new cases reappeared in the region in late August. According to Marc Poncin, a coordinator for MSF, the new cases were related to persons returning to Guinea from neighbouring Liberia or Sierra Leone.
On 18 September, it was reported that the bodies of eight workers who had been distributing Ebola information and doing disinfection work were found in a village latrine in a village near Guéckédou. The workers had been attacked and died several days earlier. Government officials said "the bodies showed signs of being attacked with machetes and clubs" and "three of them had their throats slit." It has been reported that some villagers in this area believe that health workers have been purposely spreading the disease to the people, while others believe that the disease does not exist. Riots recently broke out in a nearby village when rumors were spread that people were being contaminated when health workers were spraying a market area to decontaminate it.
In Liberia, the disease was reported in Lofa and Nimba counties in late March. By 23 July, the health ministry implemented measures to improve the country's response. On 27 July, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the Liberian president, announced that Liberia would close its borders, with the exception of a few crossing points, such as the airport, where screening centres would be established, and the worst-affected areas in the country would be placed under quarantine. Football events were banned, because large gatherings and the nature of the sport increase transmission risks. Three days after the borders were closed, Sirleaf announced the closure of all schools nationwide, including the University of Liberia, and a few communities were to be quarantined. Sirleaf declared a state of emergency on 6 August, partly because the disease's weakening of the health care system has the potential to reduce the system's ability to treat routine diseases such as malaria; she noted that the state of emergency might require the "suspensions of certain rights and privileges". On the same day, the National Elections Commission announced that it would be unable to conduct the scheduled October 2014 senatorial election and requested postponement, one week after the leaders of various opposition parties had publicly taken different sides on the question. On 30 August, Liberia's Port Authority cancelled all "shore passes" for sailors from ships coming into the country's four seaports.
On 18 August, a mob of residents from West Point, an impoverished area of Monrovia, descended upon a local Ebola clinic to protest its presence. The protesters turned violent, threatening the caretakers, removing the infected patients, and looting the clinic of its supplies, including blood-stained bed sheets and mattresses. Police and aid workers expressed fear that this would lead to mass infections of Ebola in West Point. On 19 August, the Liberian government quarantined the entirety of West Point and issued a curfew state-wide. Violence again broke out on 22 August after the military fired on protesting crowds. The quarantine blockade of the West Point area was lifted on 30 August. The Information Minister, Lewis Brown, said that this step was taken to ease efforts to screen, test, and treat residents.
On Saturday 20 September Liberia opened a new 150 bed treatment unit clinic in Monrovia. At the opening ceremony of the Old Island Clinic on Bushrod Island six ambulances were already waiting with potential patients. In addition, the patients were already waiting by the clinic after making their way on foot with the help of relatives. By Monday morning 112 beds were already filled with 46 patients testing positive for Ebola, while the rest were admitted for observation. Some were treated for other diseases like malaria. According to WHO, they currently only have 20 percent of the required beds in Liberia.
The first person reported infected was a tribal healer. She had treated an infected person(s) and died on 26 May. According to tribal tradition, her body was washed for burial and this appears to have led to infections in women from neighboring towns.
On 31 March, Sierra Leone declared a state of emergency and instituted measures to screen travelers from Guinea and Liberia. On July 30, it declared a state of emergency and deployed troops to quarantine hot spots.
On 29 July, well-known physician Sheik Umar Khan, Sierra Leone's only expert on hemorrhagic fever, died after contacting Ebola at his clinic in Kenema. Khan had long worked with Lassa fever, a disease that kills over 5,000 a year in Africa. He had expanded his clinic to accept Ebola patients. Sierra Leone's President, Ernest Bai Koroma, celebrated Khan as a "national hero".
In August, awareness campaigns in Freetown, Sierra Leone's capital, were delivered over the radio and through loudspeakers. Also in August, Sierra Leone passed a law that subjected anyone hiding someone believed to be infected to two years in jail. At the time the law was enacted, a top parliamentarian was critical of failures by neighboring countries to stop the outbreak.
On 26 August, the WHO shut down one of two laboratories after a health worker became infected. The laboratory was situated in the Kailahun district, one of the worst-affected areas. It was thought by some that this move would disrupt efforts to increase the global response to the outbreak of the disease in the district. "It's a temporary measure to take care of the welfare of our remaining workers," WHO spokesperson Christy Feig announced. He did not specify how long the closure would last, but said they would return after an assessment of the situation by the WHO. The medical worker, one of the first WHO staff infected by the Ebola Virus, was treated at a hospital in Kenema and then evacuated to Germany.
On 21 September Stephen Gaojia, head of the Emergency Operations Center, announced that 92 bodies had been recovered. An additional 123 possible Ebola victims were reported to the authorities during the 72 hours lock-down. Of these, 56 tested positive for Ebola while 36 are still to be confirmed. The rest all tested negative. "There is a very strong possibility it will be extended," Gaojia reported after a meeting with President Ernest Bai Koroma, referring to the lock-down period that was supposed to end on 21 September.
On Monday 22 September, Stephen Gaojia said that the three day lock down has obtained its objective and will not be extended. Eighty percent of "targeted households" were reached in the operation. A total of around 150 new cases have been uncovered, but the exact figures will only be known on Thursday as the health ministry is still awaiting reports from remote locations. Nyka Alexander, a spokeswoman for the World Health Organization echoed this statement.
|Date||July 2014 – present|
The first case in Nigeria was a Liberian-American, Patrick Sawyer, who flew from Liberia to Nigeria's former capital Lagos on 20 July. Sawyer became violently ill upon arriving at the airport and died five days later. In response, the Nigerian government observed all of Sawyer's contacts for signs of infection and increased surveillance at all entry points to the country. On 6 August, the Nigerian health minister told reporters, "Yesterday the first known Nigerian to die of Ebola was recorded. This was one of the nurses that attended to the Liberian. The other five [newly confirmed] cases are being treated at an isolation ward." . On 19 August, it was reported that the doctor who treated Sawyer, Ameyo Adadevoh, had also died of Ebola disease. Adadevoh, a descendant of Herbert Macaulay and Samuel Ajayi Crowther, was posthumously praised for preventing the index case (Sawyer) from leaving the hospital at the time of diagnosis, thereby playing a key role in curbing the spread of the virus in Nigeria.
On 9 August, the Nigerian National Health Research Ethics Committee, the organization regulating research ethics in the country, issued a statement waiving the regular administrative requirements that limit the international shipment of any biological samples out of Nigeria. The statement also supports the use of non-validated treatments without prior review and approval by a health research ethics committee.
On 19 August, the Commissioner of Health in Lagos announced that Nigeria had seen twelve confirmed cases; four died (including the index case) while another five, including two doctors and a nurse, were declared disease-free and released. Other than increased surveillance at the country’s borders, the Nigerian government states that they have also made attempts to control the spread of disease through an improvement in tracking, providing education to avert disinformation and increase accurate information, and the teaching of appropriate hygiene measures: "Efforts are currently ongoing to scale up and strengthen all aspects of response, including contact tracking, public information and community mobilization, case management and infection prevention and control, and coordination. There is now increased disease surveillance system in a bid to monitor, control, and prevent any occurrence of the disease".
On 11 September, Nigeria announced that it no longer had even a single case of Ebola but would need to wait for about a week more before declaring itself completely Ebola-free. On 22 September WHO reported 20 cases and eight deaths in Nigeria as at 20 September. The outbreak is currently contained in Nigeria, with 696 contacts completing their 21-day follow-up. Three contacts are still being tracked in Lagos and 165 contacts in Port Harcourt.
In March, the Senegal Ministry of Interior closed the southern border with Guinea, but on 29 August the Senegal health minister announced Senegal's first case, a university student from Guinea who was being treated in Dakar. The WHO was informed on 30 August. According to the WHO, the case was a native of Guinea who had traveled by road to Dakar, arriving on 20 August. On 23 August, he sought medical care for symptoms including fever, diarrhoea, and vomiting. He received treatment for malaria, but did not improve and left the facility. Still experiencing the same symptoms, on 26 August he was referred to a specialized facility for infectious diseases, and was subsequently hospitalized. On 27 August, authorities in Guinea issued an alert informing medical services in Guinea and neighbouring countries that a person who had been in close contact with an Ebola infected patient had escaped their surveillance system. The alert prompted testing for Ebola at the Dakar laboratory, and the positive result launched an investigation and triggered urgent contact tracing. On September 10 the student was no longer infectious.
Nations with imported cases
A French volunteer health worker, working for MSF in Liberia, contracted EVD and was flown to France on 18 September. She is being treated at a military hospital. Health Minister Marisol Touraine stated the nurse will receive an experimental drug.
Germany set up an isolation ward to care for six patients at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. On 27 August, a Senegalese epidemiologist working for the WHO in Sierra Leone became the first patient.
On 5 August, the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God confirmed that Brother Miguel Pajares had been infected. He was volunteering in Liberia. The Spanish military helped with his transfer on 6 August 2014. Authorities stated he would be treated in the 'Carlos III' hospital in Madrid. This attracted controversy, amid questions as to the authorities' ability to guarantee no risk of transmission. Brother Pajares died from the virus on 12 August.
On Saturday 21 September the Spanish Ministry of Health released a press statement stating that Brother Manuel Garcia Viejo would be evacuated to Spain from Sierra Leone. Brother Viejo, a medical director at the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Lunsar, Sierra Leone, is the second Spanish health worker to be infected with the disease. He arrived in Madrid in serious condition; he is suffering from dehydration and organ failure, including kidney and liver complications. The chief health officer in the Madrid region said they are considering alternative treatments.
On Monday 22 September a Swiss health worker was flown by a private airline to Geneva. The nurse was bitten by an Ebola-infected child on Saturday, 20 September in Sierra Leone. The unidentified male nurse will remain in isolation for 21 days at Geneva's University Hospital. The health ministry says it is unlikely that he was infected, but are monitoring him as a potential Ebola patient until the incubation period has passed.
Kent Brantly, a physician and medical director in Liberia for the aid group Samaritan’s Purse, and co-worker Nancy Writebol were infected while working in Monrovia. Both were flown to the United States at the beginning of August for further treatment in Atlanta's Emory University Hospital, near the headquarters of the Centers for Disease Control. On 21 August, Brantly and Writebol recovered and were discharged from Emory University Hospital.
On 4 September, a Boston physician, Rick Sacra, was airlifted from Liberia to be treated in the United States. Working for Serving In Mission (SIM), he is the third US missionary to contract EVD. Sacra is being treated in Omaha at the Nebraska Medical Center. The doctor did not get infected while treating Ebola patients. Instead, he was exposed while delivering babies. On 9 September, it was reported that Sacra is receiving an experimental therapy (not ZMapp) and it was later announced that he had received a blood transfusion from Kent Brantly, who has recovered from the disease. It has been theorized that transfusing blood products from former Ebola patients may assist a diseased person's immune system to fight the disease. As of 11 September, he has shown "remarkable" improvement though recovery remains uncertain.
On 9 September, the fourth U.S. citizen who contracted the Ebola virus arrived at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta for treatment. The patient was airlifted from Sierra Leone and landed at Dobbins Air Reserve Base. The identity of the patient, a male doctor working for the WHO in Sierra Leone, has not been released. According to doctors at the hospital, he will not be receiving any experimental treatment and will only receive supportive care to boost his immune system. The patient exited the ambulance and was assisted into the hospital while walking on his own.
Ebola virus disease is caused by four of five viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The four disease-causing viruses are Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, and one called simply, Ebola virus (formerly and often still called the Zaire Ebola virus). Ebola virus is the most dangerous of the known Ebola disease-causing viruses, as well as being responsible for the largest number of outbreaks. The strain of virus affecting people in the current outbreak is believed to be a member of the Zaire lineage. An article published in the New England Journal of Medicine on-line in April 2014 asserted that while the Ebola virus in Guinea shared 97% of its genetic code with the Zaïre lineage, it was of a different clade from the strains present in outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon, and that it constituted a new strain indigenous to Guinea, and was not imported from Central Africa to West Africa. This result, however, was contradicted by two subsequent reports.
The first of these reports reached the conclusion that the outbreak "is likely caused by a Zaire ebolavirus (Ebola virus) lineage that has spread from Central Africa into Guinea and West Africa in recent decades, and does not represent the emergence of a divergent and endemic virus." A second report published in June 2014 supports the latter view, determining that it was "extremely unlikely that this virus falls outside the genetic diversity of the Zaïre lineage" and that their analysis "unambiguously supports Guinea 2014 EBOV as a member of the Zaïre lineage.".
In a study done by the Broad Institute and Harvard University, in partnership with the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, researchers may have provided information about the origin and transmission of the Ebola virus that sets this outbreak apart from previous outbreaks. For this study, 99 Ebola virus genomes were collected and sequenced from 78 patients diagnosed with the Ebola virus during the first 24 days of the outbreak in Sierra Leone. The team found more than 300 genetic changes that make the 2014 Ebola virus distinct from previous outbreaks. It is still unclear whether these differences are related to the severity of the current outbreak. Five members of the research team became ill and died from Ebola before the study was published in August.
Various aid organisations and international bodies, including the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the U.S. CDC and the European Commission have donated funds and mobilised personnel to help counter the outbreak; charities including Médecins Sans Frontières, the Red Cross, and Samaritan's Purse are also working in the area. At the end of August, the WHO reported that the loss of so many health workers was making it difficult for them to provide sufficient numbers of foreign medical staff, and the African Union launched an urgent initiative to recruit more health care workers from among its members.
Médecins Sans Frontières described the situation as being "totally out of control" in late June. Urging the world to offer aid to the affected regions, the Director-General said, "Countries affected to date simply do not have the capacity to manage an outbreak of this size and complexity on their own. I urge the international community to provide this support on the most urgent basis possible."
The outbreak was formally designated as a public health emergency of international concern on 8 August. This is a legal designation used only twice before (for the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic and the 2014 resurgence of polio) and invokes legal measures on disease prevention, surveillance, control, and response, by 194 signatory countries.
Disease reports accelerated in August with 40% of the total cases reported in a period of only three weeks. The WHO stated that the acceleration could see the number of cases reported exceed 20,000.
- "Six months into the worst Ebola epidemic in history, the world is losing the battle to contain it. In West Africa, cases and deaths continue to surge. Riots are breaking out. Isolation centers are overwhelmed. Health workers on the front lines are becoming infected and are dying in shocking numbers. Others have fled in fear, leaving people without care for even the most common illnesses. Entire health systems have crumbled. Ebola treatment centers are reduced to places where people go to die alone, where little more than palliative care is offered. It is impossible to keep up with the sheer number of infected people pouring into facilities. In Sierra Leone, infectious bodies are rotting in the streets."
Speaking in September after visiting Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, Tom Frieden, director of the U.S. CDC, said, "There is a window of opportunity to tamp this down, but that window is closing ... we need action now to scale up the response." On 16 September, United States President Barack Obama announced that the U.S. military will take the lead in overseeing the response to the epidemic. However the CDC has warned that there may be insufficient staff for the new treatment facilities which the international community is building.
On 8 August, a cordon sanitaire, a disease fighting practice that forcibly isolates affected regions, was established in the triangular area where Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are separated only by porous borders and where 70 percent of the known cases had been found. By September, the closure of borders had caused a collapse of cross-border trade and was having a devastating effect on the economies of the involved countries. A United Nations spokesperson reported that the price of some food staples had increased by as much as 150% and warned that if they continue to rise widespread food shortages can be expected.
On 2 September, WHO Director-General Margaret Chan advised against travel restrictions saying that they are not justified and that they are preventing medical experts from entering the affected areas and "marginalizing the affected population and potentially worsening [the crisis]". UN officials working on the ground have also criticized the travel restrictions saying the solution is "not in travel restrictions but in ensuring that effective preventive and curative health measures are put in place."  Médecins Sans Frontières, also speaking out against the closure of international borders, called it "another layer of collective irresponsibility": "The international community must ensure that those who try to contain the outbreak can enter and leave the affected countries if need be. A functional system of medical evacuation has to be set up urgently."
Difficulties faced in attempting to contain the outbreak include the outbreak's multiple locations across country borders, Dr Peter Piot, the scientist who co-discovered the Ebola virus, has stated that the present outbreak is not following its usual linear patterns as mapped out in previous outbreaks. This time the virus is "hopping" all over the West African epidemic region. Furthermore, past epidemics have occurred in remote regions, but this outbreak has spread to large urban areas which has increased the number of contacts an infected person may have and has also made transmission harder to track and break. 
Adequate equipment has not been provided for medical personnel, with even a lack of soap and water for hand-washing and disinfection. Containment efforts are further hindered because there is reluctance among residents of rural areas to recognize the danger of infection related to person-to-person spread of disease, such as burial practices which include washing of the body of one who has died. A 2014 study found that nearly two thirds of cases of Ebola in Guinea are believed to be due to burial practices. Semen and possibly other body fluids (e.g. breast milk) may be infectious in survivors for months. A condition of dire poverty exists in many of the areas that have experienced a high incidence of infections. According to the director of the NGO Plan International in Guinea, "The poor living conditions and lack of water and sanitation in most districts of Conakry pose a serious risk that the epidemic escalates into a crisis. People do not think to wash their hands when they do not have enough water to drink."
Denial in some affected countries has often made containment efforts difficult. Language barriers and the appearance of medical teams in protective suits has sometimes increased fears of the virus. There are reports that some people believe that the disease is caused by sorcery and that doctors are killing patients. In late July, the former Liberian health minister, Peter Coleman, stated that "people don't seem to believe anything the government now says." Acting on a rumor that the virus was invented to conceal "cannibalistic rituals" (due to medical workers preventing families from viewing the dead), demonstrations were staged outside of the main hospital treating Ebola patients in Kenema, Sierra Leone. The demonstrations were broken up by the police and resulted in the need to use armed guards at the hospital. In Liberia, a mob attacked an Ebola isolation centre stealing equipment and "freeing" patients while shouting, "There's no Ebola." Red Cross staff was forced to suspend operations in southeast Guinea after they were threatened by a group of men armed with knives. In the village of Wome in Guinea, at least eight aid-workers were murdered by suspicious villagers with machetes and their bodies dumped in a latrine on September 18.
Contact tracing is an essential method to tamp down the spread of the disease. It involves finding everyone who had close contact with an Ebola case, and tracking them for 21 days. However, this requires careful record keeping by properly trained and equipped staff. WHO Assistant Director-General for Global Health Security, Keiji Fukuda, said on 3 September, "We don’t have enough health workers, doctors, nurses, drivers, and contact tracers to handle the increasing number of cases."
Healthcare providers caring for people with Ebola and family and friends in close contact with people with Ebola are at the highest risk of getting infected because they may come in direct contact with the blood or body fluids of the sick person. In some places affected by the current outbreak, care may be provided in clinics with limited resources (for example, no running water, no climate control, no floors, and inadequate medical supplies), and workers could be in those areas for several hours with a number of Ebola infected patients. According to the WHO, the high proportion of infected medical staff can be explained by lack of the number of medical staff needed to manage such a large outbreak, shortages of protective equipment, or improperly using what is available, and "the compassion that causes medical staff to work in isolation wards far beyond the number of hours recommended as safe.".
Comparing the present Ebola outbreak to some in the past, the WHO notes that many of the most recent districts in which epidemics have occurred were in remote areas where the transmission had been easier to track and break. This outbreak is different in that large cities have been affected as well, where tracking has been difficult and medical staff may not suspect Ebola disease when they make a diagnosis. Several infectious diseases endemic to West Africa, such as malaria and typhoid fever, mimic the symptoms of Ebola disease, and doctors and nurses may see no need to take protective measures. Also, without recent past experience with the disease, people have become intensely fearful and have, in some cases, attacked medical staff, believing that they cause the disease.
The WHO reports that in the hardest hit areas there have historically been only one or two doctors available to treat 100,000 people, and these doctors are heavily concentrated in urban areas; the loss of so many health workers has made it difficult for the WHO to provide sufficient numbers of medical staff. Among the fatalities is Samuel Brisbane, a former advisor to the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, described as "one of Liberia's most high-profile doctors." In July, leading Ebola doctor Sheik Umar Khan from Sierra Leone died in the outbreak. His death was followed by two more deaths in Sierra Leone: Modupe Cole, a senior physician at the country`s main referral facility, and Sahr Rogers, who worked in Kenema. The African Union has launched an urgent initiative to recruit more health care workers from among its members.
Two American health workers who had contracted the disease in Liberia and later recovered said that their team of workers had been following "to the letter all of the protocols for safety that were developed by the CDC and WHO", including a full body coverall, several layers of gloves, and face protection including goggles. One of the two, a physician, had worked with patients, but the other was working to help workers get in and out of their protective gear, while wearing protective gear herself. In an interview she stated, "At this time we have not been able to confirm 100 percent the method of contagion. We are working closely with CDC and WHO to investigate. It is just an incredibly contagious disease."
In August, it was reported that healthcare workers had represented nearly 10 percent of the cases and fatalities, significantly impairing the ability to respond to the outbreak in an area which already faces a severe shortage of doctors. In August, the WHO reported that more than 240 health care workers had developed the disease and more than 120 had died; by 14 September, the cases had risen to 318 with 151 deaths. By 22 September, 348 workers had been infected and 186 had died. Liberia has been especially hard hit with almost half the total cases (180) reported. Sierra Leone registered 96 cases with 61 fatalities, thus indicating a death toll of six out of ten. Guinea reported 61 infected cases. In Nigeria 11 healthcare workers were also infected and 5 deaths were recorded.
No proven Ebola virus-specific treatment exists as of August 2014. Treatment is primarily supportive in nature and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing fluids and electrolytes to counter dehydration, administration of anticoagulants early in infection to prevent or control disseminated intravascular coagulation, administration of procoagulants late in infection to control bleeding, maintaining oxygen levels, pain management, and the use of medications to treat bacterial or fungal secondary infections. Early treatment may increase the chance of survival. Semen and possibly other body fluids (e.g. breast milk) may be infectious in survivors for months. Therefore it is advised to refrain from exchanging body fluids for at least 3 months.
Level of care
In late August, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) called the situation "chaotic" and the medical response "inadequate". They reported that they had expanded their operations but were unable to keep up with the rapidly increasing need for assistance which had forced them to reduce the level of care they were able to offer: "It is not currently possible, for example, to administer intravenous treatments." Calling the situation "an emergency within the emergency", MSF reported that many hospitals have had to shut down due to lack of staff or fears of the virus among patients and staff which has left people with other health problems without any care at all. Speaking from a remote region, a MSF worker said that a shortage of protective equipment was making the medical management of the disease difficult and that they had limited capacity to safely bury bodies. By September, treatment for Ebola patients had become unavailable in some areas. Speaking on 12 September, WHO director-general Margaret Chan said, "In the three hardest hit countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the number of new cases is moving far faster than the capacity to manage them in the Ebola-specific treatment centers. Today, there is not one single bed available for the treatment of an Ebola patient in the entire country of Liberia." According to a WHO report released on 19 September, Sierra Leone is currently meeting only 25% of its need for patient beds, and Liberia and Guinea are meeting only 20% of their needs.
The unavailability of treatments in the most-affected regions has spurred controversy, with some calling for experimental drugs to be made more widely available in Africa on a humanitarian basis, and others warning that making unproven drugs widely available would be unethical, especially in light of past experimentation conducted in developing countries by Western drug companies. As a result of the controversy, on 12 August an expert panel of the WHO endorsed the use of interventions with as-yet-unknown effects for both treatment and prevention of Ebola, and also said that deciding which treatments should be used and how to distribute them equitably were matters that needed further discussion. Subsequently the WHO assistant director-general for health systems and innovation said on 5 September that transfusion of whole blood or purified serum from Ebola survivors is the therapy with the greatest potential to be implemented immediately on a large scale in West Africa, although there is little information on the efficacy of such treatment. In mid-September the sale of black market blood from survivors of the disease has been noted as a new trend in the Ebola-affected regions. While serum derived blood from surviving victims has been used under strict control in certain cases, this trend in an uncontrolled manner could lead to other infectious diseases. This treatment must be properly implemented as a medical treatment under strict control and screening of possible donors. Margaret Chan of the WHO has criticized the use of this practice in a black market environment, noting concerns over "storage and collection methods".
A number of experimental treatments are being studied or will undergo trials proximately:
- ZMapp, a monoclonal antibody vaccine. The limited supply of the drug has been used to treat a small number of individuals infected with the Ebola virus. Although some of these have recovered the outcome is not considered statistically significant. ZMapp has proved highly effective in a trial involving rhesus macaque monkeys.
- TKM-Ebola, an RNA interference drug.
- Favipiravir, a drug approved in Japan for stockpiling against influenza pandemics. The drug appears to be useful in a mouse model of the disease and Japan has offered to supply the drug if requested by the WHO.
- In September, an experimental vaccine, currently known as the NIAID/GSK vaccine, commenced simultaneous Phase 1 trials in Oxford and Bethesda. The vaccine was developed jointly by GlaxoSmithKline and the NIH. If this phase is completed successfully, the vaccine will be fast tracked for use in West Africa. In preparation for this, GSK is preparing a stockpile of 10,000 doses.
According to a website for collaborative analysis and discussion about the Ebola emergence, as of 7 August, attempts to create an accurate Case Fatality Rate (CFR) had been unreliable due to differences in testing policies, the inclusion of probable and suspected cases, and primarily the rate of new cases that have not run their course. However, on 28 August, the WHO made their first overall case fatality rate estimate of 52%. It ranges from 42% in Sierra Leone to 66% in Guinea. Compared to previous Zaire strain outbreaks, this number is quite low. The twelve Zaire strain outbreaks since the first one reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976 have had an average CFR of about 76%. Even the Sudan ebolavirus species, known to be less virulent than the Zaire species of the Ebola virus, has had an average CFR of about 57%. However, a weakness of the WHO figures is that they simply divide the number of deaths by the total number of total cases; this will underestimate the CFR as it includes recent diagnoses who may not survive. On 23 September, the WHO released a revised and far more accurate CFR of 70%, derived using data from patients with definitive clinical outcomes.
The basic reproduction number is a statistical measure of the number of people who are expected to be infected by one person who has the disease in question. If the rate is less than 1, the infection will die out in the long run and if the rate is greater than 1 the infection will continue to spread in a population. Using data supplied by the WHO, several studies done in early to mid September estimated a reproduction number of the EVD epidemic in West Africa between 1.2 and 2.5, with variations between countries and time during the outbreak. A more recent study published on 23 September in the New England Journal of Medicine found that, "On the basis of the initial periods of exponential growth, the estimated basic reproduction numbers (R0 ) are 1.71 (95% CI, 1.44 to 2.01) for Guinea, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.72 to 1.94) for Liberia, and 2.02 (95% CI, 1.79 to 2.26) for Sierra Leone. The estimated current reproduction numbers (R) are 1.81 (95% CI, 1.60 to 2.03) for Guinea, 1.51 (95% CI, 1.41 to 1.60) for Liberia, and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.51) for Sierra Leone; the corresponding doubling times are 15.7 days (95% CI, 12.9 to 20.3) for Guinea, 23.6 days (95% CI, 20.2 to 28.2) for Liberia, and 30.2 days (95% CI, 23.6 to 42.3) for Sierra Leone." 
On 28 August, the WHO released its first estimate of the possible total cases (20,000) from the outbreak as part of its roadmap for stopping the transmission of the virus. The WHO roadmap states "[t]his Roadmap assumes that in many areas of intense transmission the actual number of cases may be two- to fourfold higher than that currently reported. It acknowledges that the aggregate case load of EVD could exceed 20,000 over the course of this emergency. The Roadmap assumes that a rapid escalation of the complementary strategies in intense transmission, resource-constrained areas will allow the comprehensive application of more standard containment strategies within 3 months." It includes an assumption that some country or countries will pay the required cost of their plan, estimated at half a billion dollars.
When the WHO released its first estimated projected number of cases, a number of epidemiologists presented data to show that the WHO's projection of a total of 20,000 cases was likely an underestimate. On August 31, the journal Science quoted Christian Althaus, a mathematical epidemiologist at the University of Bern in Switzerland, as saying that if the epidemic were to continue in this way until December, the cumulative number of cases would exceed 100,000 in Liberia alone. According to a research paper released in early September, in the hypothetical worst-case scenario, if a reproduction number of over 1.0 continues for the remainder of the year we would expect to observe a total of 77,181 to 277,124 additional cases within 2014. Writing in the NYT on 12 September, Bryan Lewis, an epidemiologist at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, said that researchers at various universities who have been using computer models to track the growth rate say that at the virus’s present rate of growth, there could easily be close to 20,000 cases in one month, not in nine. On 3 September, Thomas Kenyon, Director of the U.S. CDC's Center for Global Health, said, "The highly virulent disease, which has claimed more than 1,900 lives so far, is spreading faster than health workers in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone can manage." Similar comments were made by Anthony Fauci, Director of the US NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, who said that 42 percent of the cases have occurred in the last month and that the outbreak is "completely out of control". He further noted that the rate of infection is exponential, saying "The number of cases per unit time is dramatically increasing." On 8 September, the WHO warned that the number of new cases in Liberia was increasing exponentially, and would increase by "many thousands" in the following three weeks. On 9 September, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit of the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine controversially announced that the containment fight in Sierra Leone and Liberia has already been "lost" and that the disease will "burn itself out".
In a 23 September WHO report, the WHO revised their previous projection, stating that they expect there to be an excess of 20,000 Ebola cases in West Africa by 2 November. They further stated, that if the disease is not adequately contained it could become endemic in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, "spreading as routinely as malaria or the flu", and according to an editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine, eventually to other parts of Africa and beyond.
Democratic Republic of Congo
An outbreak of Ebola Virus in Democratic Republic of Congo was reported in August 2014. The index case and the 80 contacts had no history of travel to the Ebola-affected countries or history of contact with individuals from the affected areas, and it is believed that the outbreak in DRC is unrelated to the ongoing outbreak in West Africa.
On 20 August, several people, including four health care workers, were reported to have died of Ebola-like symptoms in the remote northern Équateur province, a province that lies about 750 miles north of the capital Kinshasa. By 21 August, 13 people were reported to have died with similar symptoms.
On 26 August, the Équateur Province Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola to the WHO. The initial case was a woman from Ikanamongo Village who became ill with symptoms of Ebola after she had butchered a bush animal that her husband had killed. She was treated in a private clinic, but on 11 August she died of a then-unidentified hemorrhagic fever. The following week, relatives of the woman, several health-care workers who had treated the woman, and individuals with whom they had been in contact came down with similar symptoms. Five health care workers subsequently died.
On 2 September, the WHO said that there were currently 31 deaths in the Northern Boende area in the province of Équateur and 53 confirmed, suspected or likely cases. The WHO confirmed that the current strain of the virus in the Boende District is the Zaire Ebola species. This strain is common in the country and similar to the 1995 Kikwit outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The virology results and epidemiological findings indicated no connection to the current epidemic in West Africa Region or Nigeria.
On 9 September, the WHO raised the number of cases to 62 and the death toll to 35 from possible or confirmed Ebola cases. Included in this number are 9 health-care workers with 7 deaths among them. In total 386 contacts have been listed and 239 contacts are being followed up. The outbreak is still contained in Jeera county in the Boende region.
On 18 September, the WHO raised the number of cases to 68 and the death toll to 41 from possible or confirmed Ebola cases. Among this group are 8 health care workers.
In addition to the loss of life, the outbreak is having a number of significant economic impacts.
- Markets and shops are closing, due to travel restrictions, cordon sanitaire, or fear of human contact, leading to loss of income for producers and traders.
- Movement of people away from affected areas has disturbed agricultural activities. The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has warned that the outbreak could endanger harvest and food security in West Africa.
- Tourism is directly impacted in affected countries. Other countries in Africa which are not directly affected by the virus have also reported adverse effects on tourism.
- Foreign mining companies have withdrawn non-essential personnel, deferred new investment, and cut back operations.
- Many airlines have experienced reduced traffic. Some airlines have suspended flights to the area.
- Forecasts of economic growth have been reduced. A 4 August World Bank-IMF assessment for Guinea projected a full percentage point fall in GDP growth from 4.5 percent to 3.5 percent and on 17 September, they reported that if the epidemic continues to grow, the affected countries could see the economic impact grow eight-fold, "dealing a potentially catastrophic blow to the already fragile states."
- The outbreak is straining the finances of governments, with Sierra Leone using Treasury bills to fund the fight against the virus.
- The IMF is considering expanding assistance to Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia as their national deficits balloon and their economies contract sharply.
World Health Organization
In July, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened an emergency sub-regional meeting with health ministers from eleven countries in Accra, Ghana. On 3 July, the West African states announced collaboration on a new strategy, and the creation of a WHO sub-regional centre in Guinea "to co-ordinate technical support"; the centre was inaugurated in Conakry on 24 July.
The WHO Regional Director for Africa, Luis Sambo, visited the affected countries from 21 to 25 July, meeting with political leaders, ministers of health, NGOs, and other agencies. He stressed the need to "promote behavioural change while respecting cultural practices." On 24 July, WHO's Director General met with agencies and donors in Geneva to facilitate an increase in funding and manpower to respond to the outbreak. On 31 July, the WHO and West Africa nations announced a requirement for $100 million in aid to help contain the disease.
WHO declared the outbreak an international public health emergency on 8 August, after a two-day teleconference of experts. On 11 August, they emphasised lack of supplies and capacity as one of the problems, while local awareness of the disease had increased. Revised guidelines on how to prevent the spread of the disease were released, updating guidelines from 2008.
On 28 August, the WHO published a roadmap to guide and coordinate the international response to the outbreak, aiming to stop ongoing Ebola transmission worldwide within 6–9 months. It simultaneously revised its cost estimate for the global resources required over the next six months up to $490 million. They report that they "are on the ground establishing Ebola treatment centres and strengthening capacity for laboratory testing, contact tracing, social mobilization, safe burials, and non-Ebola health care" and "continue to monitor for reports of rumoured or suspected cases from countries around the world." Other than cases where individuals are suspected or have been confirmed of being infected with Ebola, or have had contact with cases of Ebola, the WHO does not recommend any travel or trade restrictions.
On 16 September, the WHO Assistant Director General, Bruce Aylward, announced that the cost for combating the epidemic will be a minimum of $1 billion. "We don't know where the numbers are going on this," according to Aylward.
United Nations Security Council
On 18 September, the United Nations Security Council declared the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa a "threat to international peace and security". The Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution urging UN member states to provide more resources to fight the outbreak. The resolution was the first in the history of the Security Council to deal with a public health crisis. It was sponsored by 131 countries, which – according to US Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power – makes it the most broadly supported of the 2,176 resolutions in the entire history of the United Nations.
For the first time in the history of the UN Security Council they have created a mission for a public health emergency. The United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) will be formed in the coming days. The mission's primary task will be coordinating the UN agencies' vast resources to combat the epidemic under the leadership of the WHO. In a press statement Dr. David Nabarro, the UN Secretary General’s Senior Coordinator, said, "This unprecedented outbreak requires an unprecedented response. The number of cases have doubled in these countries in the last three weeks. To get in front of this, the response must be increased 20-fold from where it is today." The city of Accra, in Ghana, will serve as a base for UNMEER from where they will work closely with the governments of the affected areas.
Médecins Sans Frontières
According to a WHO report released on 18 September, the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) is the leading organization responding to the crisis. Currently it has five treatment centers in the area with two in Guinea, two in Liberia and one in Sierra Leone. The centers are staffed by 210 international workers in collaboration with 1,650 staff from the affected regions.
Médecins Sans Frontières has campaigned since the beginning of the epidemic for a better response from governments and international agencies.
Economic Community of West African States
In March, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) disbursed US$250,000 to deal with the outbreak. In response to the ECOWAS Special Fund for the Fight Against Ebola, in July the Nigerian government donated 3.5 million dollars to Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, the West African Health Organization, and the ECOWAS Pool Fund, to aid in the fight against the epidemic.
In April, a mobile laboratory, capable of performing the molecular diagnosis of viral pathogens of risk groups 3 and 4, was deployed in Guinea by the European Mobile Laboratory project (EMLab) as part of the WHO/GOARN outbreak response. Prior samples were analyzed at the Jean Mérieux BSL-4 Laboratory in Lyon.
World Bank Group
The World Bank Group has pledged US $230 million in emergency funding to help Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone contain the spread of Ebola infections, help their communities cope with the economic impact of the crisis, and improve public health systems throughout West Africa.
World Food Programme
On 18 August, the World Food Programme(WFP) of the United Nations announced plans to mobilise food assistance for an estimated 1 million people living in restricted access areas. In a 18 September WHO Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report it was reported that as of that date the WFP have delivered an estimated 3,000 metric tonnes of food to the worst affected areas, enough to feed 147,500 people. They have also assisted in the transportation of 400 cubic meters of medical cargo.
A number of governments across the world have put measures in place to protect their populations from Ebola. These include:
- Advisory notices to warn travellers of the potential risk of travel to countries affected by the epidemic. (Germany, Spain, UK, USA, Colombia, Philippines, Saudi Arabia.)
- Withholding visitor visas from nationals of the affected countries, closing borders and cancelling flights. (Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, South Africa, Chad, Seychelles, Mauritania)
- Precautions such as isolation facilities, training of staff, biocontainment exercises, and health screening for incoming travellers. (Malta, Colombia, India, South Africa, Morocco, Mali, Germany, Philippines, Mauritania)
Australia announced on 17 September that it will commit an additional 7 million Australian dollars to help the international response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, bringing the total committed to AU$8 million. The funds will be divided between support to the British government's response, the World Health Organization, and Medecins Sans Frontieres. However MSF has declined the donation, saying that what's needed instead is a specialised deployment of civil and military assets.
In response to the request for international cooperation made by the World Health Organization, Brazil's Health Ministry has donated a number of medical kits to affected countries. Each kit comprises 1.2 tons of supplies including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, gloves and masks, sufficient to treat 500 patients for three months. Four kits have been allocated to Guinea, five to Sierra Leone and five more to Liberia.
On 12 August, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) announced that the country would donate between 800 and 1,000 doses of an untested vaccine (VSV-EBOV) to the WHO. The offer was made by the Minister of Health directly to the Director General of the WHO as part of the country's commitment to containment efforts. The Government of Canada holds the patent associated with the vaccine, but has licensed BioProtection Systems of Ames, Iowa to develop the product for use in humans.
As of 12 August, Canada's contribution to address the spread of the Ebola virus in West Africa is estimated at $5,195,000. This includes resources dedicated to humanitarian, security, and public health interventions.
On 6 September, the Public Health Agency of Canada announced that they will be resuming work at the Kailahun mobile laboratory in Sierra Leone after having recalled three members in late August, after they had possible contact with infected persons who had stayed in the same hotel. A team of three has been sent to the laboratory; staff will rotate on a monthly basis.
A Chinese plane carrying supplies worth 30 million yuan (4.9 million US dollars) arrived in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia on 11 August. This is their second Ebola relief after the first batch delivered in May to Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea-Bissau. The supplies include medical protective clothes, disinfectants, thermo-detectors, and medicines. China also sent three expert teams composed of epidemiologists and specialists in disinfection and protection as well as medical supplies to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone despite high risk of infection. Before their arrival, eight members of a Chinese medical team sent to assist patients in Sierra Leone's hospitals were quarantined after treating Ebola patients.
Some Chinese companies in West Africa also joined the relief efforts. China Kingho Group, a leading exploration and mining company in Sierra Leone, donated 400 million Leones (about $90,000) to the Government and People of Sierra Leone on 15 August.
On 16 August, Chinese President Xi Jinping and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Saturday discussed several hot issues, including Ebola, in their fourth meeting this year. The meeting in Nanjing, capital of east China's Jiangsu Province, was held before they attended the opening ceremony of the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games. Xi said China will continue to make joint efforts with the international community to prevent and control the Ebola virus outbreak that has hit West Africa. China has provided emergency medical assistance to Ebola-hit countries and sent expert groups. China's medical teams in the countries are working with local staff, according to Xi. Xi also spoke highly of the measures taken by the United Nations and WHO and its professional institutions, and called for more assistance and input for medical and health services in African countries.
On 10 September, Cuba announced its willingness to help curtail the spread of the disease. Cuba will be sending 165 doctors and nurses to Sierra Leone on a six month rotation starting early October. Infection control specialists will be among the group.
The German government announced on 19 September that its contributions to the fight against Ebola had reached a total of euro 17 million to date. This includes contributions to the World Health Organisation, Medecins sans Frontieres, and other agencies. Material contributions include air transport to the region and a treatment station for Liberia.
On 22 September Ursula von der Leyen, the German defense minister, has asked volunteers from their military contingent to assist in staffing a clinic in the epidemic region. The minister appealed to soldiers to "voluntarily make yourselves available for this unusual mission."
On 30 August, the Ghanaian Presidency released a press statement, announcing the country's willingness to use Accra as a support base to help fight Ebola in the stricken countries. This agreement follows a telephonic meeting with the United Nations chief, Ban Ki-moon and John Dramani Mahama, the President of Ghana. Accra will serve as a base for air lifting medical and other supplies to countries affected by the Ebola outbreak, as well as personnel to curtail the disease. In the coming months Ghana will play a major role in the fight against the disease in the region. The city of Accra will be the designated base for UNMEER, the newly formed mission by the UN.
The Ivory Coast, on 22 August, released a statement on state-owned television announcing the closure of its borders to the neighbouring countries affected by the Ebola outbreak. Attempting to prevent the Ebola outbreak of the virus from spreading to the Ivory Coast, the government announced the closure of all its land based borders to the country's West African neighbours Guinea and Liberia.
The Ivory Coast previously placed a ban on all flights to and from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea. Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is allowing shipping commerce to enter the port of Abidjan from the affected countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Vessels coming from those countries are required to undergo a medical inspection by a boarding team prior to entry.
In April, the Government of Japan gave $520,000 through the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) to support the Ebola outbreak response in Guinea. In August, another $1.5 million in additional support was provided to be disbursed via the WHO, UNICEF and Red Cross, and will be used for measures to prevent Ebola infections and to provide medical supplies.
On 25 August, Japanese authorities announced that they would be willing to provide access to an anti-influenza drug currently under development called favipiravir to try to treat EVD patients. Fujifilm Holdings Corp and MediVector have reportedly approached the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to request approval for this experimental use of favipiravir. Up to 20,000 doses of favipiravir would currently be available.
Malaysia plans to send more than 20 million medical gloves to Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone to alleviate a shortage of medical supplies in the affected countries. Malaysia will also send medical gloves to the Democratic Republic of Congo which is also dealing with an Ebola outbreak unrelated to the one affecting West Africa.
The Department of Health expressed its willingness to send medical workers to Ebola-affected countries to help contain the outbreak. On 23 August, the Philippines announced that it is pulling out its 115 UN peacekeepers stationed in Liberia due to the increasing health risk the troops face due to the outbreak.
The UK government has made £2 million available to partners including the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC) and Médecins Sans Frontières that are operating in Sierra Leone and Liberia to tackle the outbreak. Additionally a £6.5 million rapid response research initiative has been announced jointly by the Department for International Development and the Wellcome Trust to better inform the management of Ebola outbreaks. This includes research which could help tackle the current outbreak.
On 8 September Mark Francois, a spokesperson for the Minister of Armed Forces, announced that British troops, medics and equipment will be deployed to help assist Sierra Leone in the containing of the disease. An initial survey team consisting of military engineers will be sent to the country within the next couple of days. The troops will be building a 62 bed treatment facility near Freetown. The Armed Forces' engineers and medics expect the facility to be completed and operational in two months. The treatment center will be staffed by Armed Forces’ medical personnel and handed over to one of the aid organizations in the country.
By the beginning of August, the Centers for Disease Control had placed staff in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria to assist the local Ministries of Health and WHO-led response to the outbreak. On 6 August, the CDC moved its Ebola response to Level 1 (the highest on a scale from 1 to 6) to increase the agency's ability to respond to the outbreak.
On 8 September, United States President Barack Obama announced that the United States government would send military personnel to the epidemic area. The military will assist in the setting up of isolation units and will provide additional safety to health workers in the area. The military will also assist in providing transportation of medical equipment. President Obama added that the steps are necessary to curtail the spread of the virus. The announcement came amid fears that the virus might mutate and become more virulent and "represents a serious national security concern."
On 8 September, the Department of Defense announced that it had allocated $22 million to set up a 25-bed field hospital in Liberia to treat healthcare workers affected by the Ebola virus. On 9 September, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) announced that it will support the African Union’s deployment of approximately 100 health workers to West Africa to manage and run Ebola treatment units.
On 16 September, President Obama announced that the U.S. military will take the lead in overseeing the response to the epidemic. The military will dispatch up to 3,000 personnel to West Africa in an effort that could cost up to $750 million over the next six months. U.S. Major General Darryl A. Williams, Commander, United States Army Africa, will be in place in Monrovia, Liberia, within the week to lead the effort. The general will head a regional command based in Liberia that will help oversee and coordinate U.S. and international relief efforts while a new, separate regional staging base in Senegal will help accelerate transportation of urgently needed equipment, supplies and personnel. In addition, the Pentagon will send engineers to set up 17 treatment centers in Liberia — each with a 100-bed capacity — and will set up a site in the region to train up to 500 health-care workers a week. The President said that the armed forces “are going to bring their expertise in command and control, in logistics, in engineering” to help do tasks ranging from bringing in aid workers and medical equipment to distributing supplies and information kits to families in high-risk areas so they can take the appropriate precautions. He added, “Our armed services is better at that than any organization on Earth.”
Ebola will be on the top of Obama's agenda list in the upcoming September meeting of the United Nations. Having already pledged 3,000 U.S. military personnel as an immediate relief and additional financial and medical assistance, the US will seek cooperation from other countries to join efforts against fighting the outbreak.
On 19 September Gen. Ray Odierno, the Army chief of staff, announced that the promised 3,000 troops will be deployed in the area within 30 days. This time will allow the troops being deployed to be properly prepared to deal with the outbreak. A small initial assessment team consisting of 12 members have already arrived in Monrovia together with some equipment on Wednesday 17 September. Two more aircraft with an estimated 45 member team is expected to arrive on the weekend of 20 September. The US forces will not be involved directly in treatment of patients, but will be involved in setting up treatment facilities and other logistical support.
Charitable organizations, foundations and individuals
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
On 10 September, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation released $50 million to the United Nations and other international aid agencies fighting the epidemic. The foundation also donated $2 million to the CDC to assist them with their burden. The funds were released with immediate effect. Previous donations consisted of $5 million to the WHO and $5 million to UNICEF to buy medical supplies and fund support efforts in the region. This brings the Seattle-based Foundation's total contribution to date over $60 million. “We are working urgently with our partners to identify the most effective ways to help them save lives now and stop transmission of this deadly disease,” the Foundation CEO said in a statement.
Paul G. Allen Family Foundation
On 11 September, the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, following the footsteps of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, pledged $9 million to the CDC. The funds will be appropriated to build treatment co-ordination centers and assist in training programs. This follows their earlier donation of $2.8 million, in August, to the Red Cross.
Samaritan's Purse is providing direct patient care in multiple locations in Liberia. At a congressional committee hearing on 7 August 2014, the head of Samaritan's Purse stated that "The disease is uncontained and out of control in West Africa."
The Wellcome Trust announced on 23 September a £(British pounds) 3.2 million grant to fast-track trials of the most promising Ebola treatments. This will enable multiple partners around the world to quickly establish clinical trials at existing Ebola treatment centres in West Africa, where treatments can be formally evaluated in patients with Ebola virus disease.
"Ebola in Town", a dance tune by a group of West African rappers warning people of the dangers of the Ebola virus and explaining how to react, became popular in Guinea and Liberia during the first quarter of 2014.
There are a number of Ebola-themed jokes circulating in West Africa to spread awareness.
Timeline of reported cases and deaths
Data came from reports by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the WHO. All numbers are correlated with United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) if available. The table includes suspected cases that have not yet been confirmed. The reports are sourced from official information from the affected countries' health ministries. WHO has stated the reported numbers "vastly underestimate the magnitude of the outbreak", saying there may be 2.5 times as many cases as officially reported. Cases in remote areas may also be missed.
The case numbers reported may include probable or suspected cases. Numbers are revised downward if a case is later found to be negative. (Numbers may differ from reports as per respective Government reports. See notes at the bottom for stated source file.)
|20 Sep 2014||6,185||2,909||1,008||632||3,280||1,720||1,876||549||20||8||1||0||✓|
|17 Sep 2014||5,762||2,746||965||623||3,022||1,578||1,753||537||21||8||1||0||✓|
|14 Sep 2014||5,339||2,586||942||601||2,720||1,461||1,655||516||21||8||1||0||✓|
|10 Sep 2014||4,846||2,375||899||568||2,415||1,307||1,509||493||22||8||3||0||✓|
|7 Sep 2014||4,366||2,177||861||557||2,081||1,137||1,424||476||22||7||3||0||✓|
|3 Sep 2014||4,001||2,089||823||522||1,863||1,078||1,292||452||22||7||1||0||✓|
|31 Aug 2014||3,707||1,808||771||494||1,698||871||1,216||436||21||7||1||0||✓|
|25 Aug 2014||3,071||1,553||648||430||1,378||694||1,026||422||19||7||✓|
|20 Aug 2014||2,615||1,427||607||406||1,082||624||910||392||16||5||✓|
|18 Aug 2014||2,473||1,350||579||396||972||576||907||374||15||4||✓|
|16 Aug 2014||2,240||1,229||543||394||834||466||848||365||15||4||✓|
|13 Aug 2014||2,127||1,145||519||380||786||413||810||348||12||4||✓|
|11 Aug 2014||1,975||1,069||510||377||670||355||783||334||12||3||✓|
|9 Aug 2014||1,848||1,013||506||373||599||323||730||315||13||2||✓|
|6 Aug 2014||1,779||961||495||367||554||294||717||298||13||2||✓|
|4 Aug 2014||1,711||932||495||363||516||282||691||286||9||1||✓|
|1 Aug 2014||1,603||887||485||358||468||255||646||273||4||1||✓|
|30 Jul 2014||1,440||826||472||346||391||227||574||252||3||1||✓|
|27 Jul 2014||1,323||729||460||339||329||156||533||233||1||1||✓|
|23 Jul 2014||1,201||672||427||319||249||129||525||224||✓|
|20 Jul 2014||1,093||660||415||314||224||127||454||219||✓|
|17 Jul 2014||1,048||632||410||310||196||116||442||206||✓|
|14 Jul 2014||982||613||411||310||174||106||397||197||✓|
|12 Jul 2014||964||603||406||304||172||105||386||194||✓|
|8 Jul 2014||888||539||409||309||142||88||337||142||✓|
|6 Jul 2014||844||518||408||307||131||84||305||127||✓|
|2 Jul 2014||779||481||412||305||115||75||252||101||✓|
|30 Jun 2014||759
|22 Jun 2014||599||338||—||—||51||34||—||—||✓|
|20 Jun 2014||581||328||390
|17 Jun 2014||528||337||—||—||—||—||97
|16 Jun 2014||526||334||398||264||33
|15 Jun 2014||522||333||394||263||33||24||95||46||✓|
|10 Jun 2014||474||252||372||236||—||—||—||—||CDC|
|6 Jun 2014||453||245||—||—||—||—||89
|5 Jun 2014||445||244||351
|5 Jun 2014||438||233||—||—||—||—||81
|3 Jun 2014||436||233||344
|1 Jun 2014||383||211||328||208
|29 May 2014||354||211||—||—||—
|28 May 2014||319||209||291||193||—||—||—||—||✓|
|27 May 2014||309||202||281||186||—||—||16||5||✓|
|23 May 2014||270||185||258||174||—||—||—||—||✓|
|18 May 2014||265||187||253||176||—||—||—||—||✓|
|12 May 2014||260||182||248||171||—||—||—||—||✓|
|10 May 2014||245||168||233||157||12||11||—||—||✓|
|7 May 2014||249||169||236||158||—||—||—||—||✓|
|3 May 2014||244||166||231||155||—||—||0||0||✓|
|2 May 2014||239||160||—||—||13||11||✓|
|1 May 2014||237||158||226||149||—||—||✓|
|30 Apr 2014||233||155||221||146||—||—||CDC|
|24 Apr 2014||253||152||—||—||35||—||✓|
|23 Apr 2014||252||152||218||141||—||—||✓|
|21 Apr 2014||242||147||—||—||34
|20 Apr 2014||235||149||208||136||—||—||✓|
|17 Apr 2014||230||142||203||129||27||13||GU
|16 Apr 2014||224||135||197||122||27||13||(1)||✓|
|14 Apr 2014||194||121||168||108||—||—||✓|
|11 Apr 2014||184||114||—||—||26||13||✓|
|10 Apr 2014||183||113||—||—||25||12||—||—||✓|
|9 Apr 2014||179||111||158||101||—||—||—||—||✓|
|7 Apr 2014||172||105||151||95||21||10||—
|1 Apr 2014||135||88||127||83||8
|31 Mar 2014||130||82||122||80||8||2||—||—||✓|
|29 Mar 2014||114||71||—||—||2
|28 Mar 2014||120||76||112||70||—||—||(2)||(2)||✓|
|27 Mar 2014||111||72||103||66||8||6||(6)||(5)||✓|
|26 Mar 2014||86||62||86||62||✓|
|25 Mar 2014||86||60||86||60||✓|
|24 Mar 2014||86||59||86||59||✓|
|22 Mar 2014||49||29||49||29||✓|
- Date is the "as of" date from the reference. A single source may report statistics for multiple "as of" dates.
- Total cases and deaths before 1 July 2014 are calculated.
- Numbers with ± are deltas from a previous report. The deltas may not be consistent.
- Numbers with a ↓ indicate cases that were eliminated.
- 29 Mar: LI data is confused. Earlier, there were 8 suspected cases and 6 deaths (no confirmed cases). Seven suspected cases were tested by 29 Mar, and five were not Ebola. That should take suspected cases to 3, but a total was not stated; it also implies deaths should be at most 3. The report states only 2 suspected deaths were tested, and one was not Ebola.
- 21 Apr: reduced deaths by 2: one in Guinea total and one case discarded. 26 samples negative for Ebola.
- 24 Apr: stated it was reviewing its 27 suspected cases and may toss all of them;
- 2 May: reclassification complete.
- Sierra Leone: cases were reported, but by 3 May there were no cases. Early reports are marked with parens "()".
- Mali: 4 possible cases were reported on 7 April, but they were not EVD.
- Note: 31 August WHO SL death toll wrong 
- Note: 7 Sep WHO report Sierra Leone death rate suspected added up double in report.
- Note: 10 Sep From Primary Source OCHA and Liberia government---Note Nigeria and Senegal stat
- Note: 14 Sept Guinea as per WHO report. Updated with Liberia numbers as per Gov. Updated with Sierra Leone death toll as per Gov
- Note: 17 Sept Guinea and Senegal as per OCHA report. Updated with Liberia numbers as per Gov. Updated with Sierra Leone per Gov (OCHA report states 18 Sept but totals are as per SL gov on 17 Sept)  Nigeria stat.
- Note: 20 Sept Guinea, Nigeria and Senegal as per WHO report. Liberia number 20 Sept(report dates 21 Sept). Updated with Sierra Leone per Gov
- Grady, Denise; Fink, Sheri (9 August 2014). "Tracing Ebola’s Breakout to an African 2-Year-Old". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Update, 22 September 2014". WHO. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Liberia: Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 129, 21 September 2014
- Sierra Leone: EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - SITUATION REPORT (Sit-Rep) – 21 September, 2014
- WHO Ebola Response Team (23 September 2014). "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections". New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Chronology of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "MMS: Error". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "WHO Response to the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak - 12 September 2014". WHO. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "As Ebola outbreak grows, WHO notes case-count difficulties". University of Minnesota CIDRAP. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Payne, Ed (12 September 2014). "West African health centers can't keep up with Ebola outbreak, WHO says". CNN Health. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 2". World Health Organization. 5 September 2014.
- Vogel, Gretchen (2014). "How deadly is Ebola? Statistical challenges may be inflating survival rate". Science Mag. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — the First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections". New England Journal of Medicine: 140922210513002. 2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411100.
- Diallo, Boubacar (29 March 2014). "Ebola en Guinée : l’ONG Plan Guinée craint une aggravation de l’épidemie" [Ebola in Guinea: the NGO Plan Guinea fears a worsening of the epidemic] (in French). Africa guinée. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 3 July 2014". World Health Organisation. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "8 Ebola suspects freed by relatives in Sierra Leone". Global Post. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Growing Ebola Outbreak Threatens to Overwhelm Volunteers". Today Health. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- McCauley, Lauren (3 September 2014). "As Ebola Outbreak Surges, Health Officials Slam International 'Coalition of Inaction'". As Ebola Outbreak Surges, Health Officials Slam International 'Coalition of Inaction'. Common Dreams. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Unprecedented number of medical staff infected with Ebola". Situation assessment. WHO. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Ebola: the failures of the international outbreak response". Médecins Sans Frontières. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- news release (3 September 2014). "UN senior leaders outline needs for global Ebola response". WHO. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Baize, Sylvain; Pannetier, Delphine; Oestereich, Lisa; Rieger, Toni (16 April 2014). "Emergence of Zaire Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea — Preliminary Report". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1404505.
- "Mystery hemorrhagic fever kills 23 in Guinea". Reuters. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Previous Updates: 2014 West Africa Outbreak". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- "2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Outbreak Distribution Map". Cdc.gov. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "2 of 5 Test Positive for Ebola in Liberia", Liberian Observer, 31 March 2014, retrieved 6 July 2014
- Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Liberia: Situation Report 11 (PDF), LR: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, 13 April 2014, retrieved 6 July 2014
- "Seven die in Monrovia Ebola outbreak". BBC News. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever, West Africa (Situation)". WHO. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever, West Africa (Situation)". WHO. 27 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Gire, S.; et al (28 August 2014). "Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak". Science. doi:10.1126/science.1259657.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Update of 26 May 2014)". WHO: Outbreak news. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 23 June 2014". WHO: Outbreak news. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 18 July 2014". WHO: Outbreak news. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Sierra Leone hunts Ebola patient kidnapped in Freetown". BBC News. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: Sierra Leone escaped patient dies". BBC News. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 25 July 2014". WHO: Outbreak news. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Wesee, Ben P. (4 August 2014). "I'm ok - Nigerian Ambassador Assures Public". The New Dawn, Monrovia. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Worst-ever Ebola outbreak, by the numbers". CBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease update Senegal 30 August 2014". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Senegalese minister of health confirms 1st case of Ebola virus in the West African country". Washington Post. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "First case of Ebola virus is confirmed in Senegal". ITV. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Ebola Crisis - Quality of Core Services: Ebola Treatment Centers (as of 19 Sept 2014)". OCHA. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Stern, Jeffrey E. (October 2014). "Hell in the Hot Zone". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus is surging in places where it was beaten back: experts". CTV News. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Phillip, Abby (18 September 2014). "Eight dead in attack on Ebola team in Guinea. ‘Killed in cold blood.’". Eight dead in attack on Ebola team in Guinea. ‘Killed in cold blood.’. The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Guinea Outbreak: Guinea Health Team Killed". BBC News. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 23 July 2014". WHO: Outbreak news. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: Liberia shuts most border points". BBC News. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: Asky bans flights in West Africa". BBC News. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Kwanue, C.Y. (1 August 2014). "In Compliance with Sirleaf’s Mandate, UL Closed". Liberian Observer. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Liberia shuts schools, quarantines communities in bid to halt Ebola". Reuters. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Ellen Declares State of Emergency". Executive Mansion via Heritage. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "NEC Recommends Postponement of Senatorial Election", Heritage, 7 August 2014. Accessed 7 August 2014.
- Daygbor, E.J. Nathaniel (31 July 2014). "Senatorial Election Faces Postponement as Political Leaders Debate". The New Dawn. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Ebola-hit Liberia bans sailors from disembarking". Yahoo News. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Liberian mob attacks Ebola clinic; dozens of patients missing | The Rundown | PBS NewsHour". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Johnathan Paye-Layleh, Associated Press (2014-08-17). "Ebola fears heightened in Liberia as clinic looted". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Liberian Soldiers Seal Slum to Halt Ebola". NBC News. 2014-08-09. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- By Clair MacDougall and James Harding Giahyue. "Liberia police fire on protesters as West Africa's Ebola toll hits 1,350". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Last Ebola-free region of Liberia falls to virus". News 24. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Liberian Ebola survivor calls for quick production of experimental drug". Global News. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Liberia: 120-Bed Ebola Treatment Center Opens in Liberia". All Africa. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Streets bustling after Sierra Leone shutdown ends". The Washington Post. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Sierra Leone 'hero' doctor's death exposes slow Ebola response". Sierra Leone 'hero' doctor's death exposes slow Ebola response. Fox News. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Ebola: Liberia confirms cases, Senegal shuts border". BBC News. 31 March 2014.
- "Sierra Leone, Liberia deploy troops for Ebola = News 24". 4 August 2014.
- Ofeibea Quist-Arcton (6 August 2014). "Skeptics In Sierra Leone Doubt Ebola Virus Exists". WVXU.
- "Two year jail terms for hiding Ebola victims in Sierra Leone". IBNLIVE. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "WHO pulls staff after worker infected with Ebola in Sierra Leone". Reuters. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Ebola Patient Arrives in Germany for Treatment". NBC News. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "UPDATE 1-Sierra Leone's Ebola lockdown likely to be extendedl". Reuters. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus shutdown in Sierra Leone yields 'massive awareness'". CBC News. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of Congo". Epidemic & Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) - Outbreak News (WHO). Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease outbreak – west Africa". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Nigeria 'on red alert' over Ebola death in Lagos". BBC News. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Mark, Monica (6 August 2014). "Ebola Outbreak: Nurse who Treated First Victim in Nigeria Dies". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Reuters (4 August 2014). "Lagos records second Ebola case in doctor who treated victim: Nigerian health minister".
- "Dr Ameyo Adadevoh dies from Ebola virus infection". YNaija.com The Internet Newspaper for Young Nigerians. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
- "Ebola strikes at the heart of Nigeria: Ameyo, daughter of Kwaku Adadevoh, grand daughter of Herbert Macaulay dies". Thisday. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Tribute to Herbert Macaulay's Great-Granddaughter who died in service to Nigeria". The Cable. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Ebola kills doctor related to first African Anglican Bishop". Anglican News. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "NHREC Statement on Ebola Care". Nigerian National Health Research Ethics Committee. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- 19 August 2014. "Ebola Latest: 3 new cases as 4 more victims are discharged - Vanguard News". Vanguardngr.com. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
- "No Single Case of Ebola in Nigeria, Says Chukwu". Thisday. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "No single Ebola case’ in Nigeria". thecable.ng. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Ebola Death Toll in Guinea Rises to 70 as Senegal Closes Border". Bloomberg News. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Senegal Confirms Its 1st Case of Ebola". ABC News. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease – Senegal". World Health Organization. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Guinean Who Brought Ebola To Senegal Recovers From Virus Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/r-guinean-who-brought-ebola-to-senegal-recovers-from-virus-2014-9#ixzz3DtMDjfCU". Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "France's First Ebola Patient to Get Experimental Drug". The Wall Street Journal. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Ebola patient's husband feels 'the comfort of God'". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Ebola: Spanish missionary infected with virus in Liberia flown to Spain". The Guardian. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Muere el religioso español Miguel Pajares a causa del ébola". RTVE. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Spain Repatriates Priest With Ebola From Africa". ABC News. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Man Bitten by Ebola Patient Flown to Switzerland". The Guardian. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "British Ebola patient arrives in UK for hospital treatment". Bbc News. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Ebola:British nurse makes 'full recovery' and leaves hospital". he Week. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- "Two Americans Stricken With Deadly Ebola Virus in Liberia". 28 July 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: U.S. missionary Nancy Writebol leaves Liberia Tuesday". 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "Ebola drug likely saved American patients". CNN.com. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Steenhuysen, Julie. "Ebola patient coming to U.S. as aid workers' health worsens". MSN News. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "American Ebola doc: 'I am thrilled to be alive'". Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "A Third US missionary with Ebola virus leaves Liberia". The Telegraph. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- "American Ebola patient arrives in Omaha for treatment". KETV-TV. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- KATE BRUMBACK and JOSH FUNK. "4th Ebola patient to be flown to US for care". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Finucane, Martin (11 September 2014). "Progress of Mass. physician fighting Ebola called ‘remarkable’". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Ebola patient arrives at Atlanta hospital". WCVB Boston. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Kuhn JH, Becker S, Ebihara H, Geisbert TW, Johnson KM, Kawaoka Y, Lipkin WI, Negredo AI, Netesov SV, Nichol ST, Palacios G, Peters CJ, Tenorio A, Volchkov VE, Jahrling PB (2010). "Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: Classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations". Archives of Virology 155 (12): 2083–103. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0814-x. PMC 3074192. PMID 21046175.
- Dudas, G.; Rambaut, A. (2 May 2014). "Phylogenetic Analysis of Guinea 2014 EBOV Ebolavirus Outbreak". PLOS Current Outbreaks. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.84eefe5ce43ec9dc0bf0670f7b8b417d.
- "Clock Rooting Further Demonstrates that Guinea 2014 EBOV is a Member of the Zaïre Lineage". PLOS Current Outbreaks. 16 June 2014.
- "Ebola Outbreak: Scientists Sequence Virus Genomes and Find Clues About Origin and Transmission of Disease". International Business Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Vogel, Gretchen (28 August 2014). "Ebola's heavy toll on study authors". Ebola's heavy toll on study authors. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Nossiter, Adam (28 July 2014). "Fear of Ebola Breeds a Terror of Physicians". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Doctors Without Borders: West Africa's Ebola Outbreak is Totally Out of Control". CTVNews. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Statement on the Meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee Regarding the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa". World Health Organization. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Dopplick, Renée (29 April 2009). "Swine Flu: Legal Obligations and Consequences When the World Health Organization Declares a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern"". Inside Justice. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "WHO says Ebola outbreak could strike 20,000 people". Reuters. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Over 1,500 people have died due to Ebola virus, says WHO". Africa Leader. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Obama says military will help fight Ebola outbreak in West Africa". Fox News. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Sun, Lena H.; Eilperin, Juliet (16 September 2014). "U.S. military will lead $750 million fight against Ebola in West Africa". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "New Ebola clinics useless without more trained staff". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- McNeil, Donald G., Jr. (13 August 2014). "Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century, Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Liberia: Unheralded Fear - Ebola Pose Risks for Liberia Health Workers". FrontPage Africa. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014 – via AllAfrica.com.
- "Ebola virus - Pathogen Safety Data Sheets". Phac-aspc.gc.ca. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- Chan, M (Aug 20, 2014). "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa - No Early End to the Outbreak.". The New England Journal of Medicine. PMID 25140856.
- "Ebola media centre fact sheets". Ebola media centre fact sheets. WHO. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Ofeibea Quist-Arcton (6 August 2014). "Skeptics In Sierra Leone Doubt Ebola Virus Exists". NPR.
- Anja Wolz (15 July 2014). "Fighting fear, denial and death on Ebola frontline". NewScientist.
- "Ebola, snakes and witchcraft: Stopping the deadly disease in its tracks in West Africa". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Ebola center in Sierra Leona under guard after protest march". Reuters news. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Patients reported missing after Ebola clinic attacked in Liberia". The Age. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Red Cross suspends Ebola operations in southeast Guinea after threats". Reuters. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "At least 8 Ebola aid workers reportedly killed 'in cold blood' by villagers in Guinea". Fox News. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "The reason Ebola isn't being stopped". CNN. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "UN senior leaders outline needs for global Ebola response". WHO. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Questions and answers on Ebola". Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever 2014 West Africa Outbreak. CDC. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Liberia: top doctor becomes latest Ebola victim". Guardian Online. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Cham, Kemo (10 August 2014). "Another Sierra Leone doctor contracts Ebola". Africa Review. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Ebola-infected doctor in Sierra Leone, Sahr Rogers, dies". CBC News. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Top Ebola doctor dead in African outbreak; local airline suspends flights". New York Daily News. Associated Press. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Dr. Kent Brantly, one of two American Ebola patients, arrives safely at Emory University". Fox News. 2 August 2014.
- Chan, Margaret (12 August 2014). "WHO Director-General briefs Geneva UN missions on the Ebola outbreak". WHO. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Ebola Response Situation Report 4, 18 September 2014". WHO. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 3, 12 September 2014
- "WHO revises up number of health workers killed by Ebola in Sierra Leone". FOX News. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Choi JH, Croyle MA (December 2013). "Emerging targets and novel approaches to Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment". BioDrugs 27 (6): 565–83. doi:10.1007/s40259-013-0046-1. PMID 23813435.
- Bausch DG, Feldmann H, Geisbert TW, Bray M, Sprecher AG, Boumandouki P, Rollin PE, Roth C (2007). "Outbreaks of Filovirus Hemorrhagic Fever: Time to Refocus on the Patient". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 196: S136–S141. doi:10.1086/520542. PMID 17940941.
- Jeffs B (2006). "A clinical guide to viral haemorrhagic fevers: Ebola, Marburg and Lassa". Tropical Doctor 36 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1258/004947506775598914. PMID 16483416.
- Nkoghé D, Formenty P, Nnégué S, Mvé MT, Hypolite I, Léonard P, Leroy E (2004). "Practical guidelines for the management of Ebola infected patients in the field". Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial 64 (2): 199–204. PMID 15460155.
- Makiko Kitamura (8 June 2014). "Sierra Leone Is Epicenter of Ebola as Guinea Clinic Shut". Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Assessment of the Risk of Ebola Virus Transmission from Bodily Fluids and Fomites". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "MSFs new ebola management centers already overwhelmed". MSF.
- "WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 18 September 2014". WHO. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Three leading Ebola experts call for release of experimental drug". Los Angeles Times. 6 August 2014.
- "In Ebola Outbreak, Who Should Get Experimental Drug?". The New York Times. 8 August 2014.
- "Ethical considerations for use of unregistered interventions for Ebola viral disease (EVD)". World Health Organization. 12 August 2014.
- "Blood transfusion named as priority treatment for Ebola". Nature. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "Black market in blood of Ebola survivors to treat victims, doctors report". The Telegraph. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Briggs, Helen (7 August 2014) Ebola: Experimental drugs and vaccines BBC News, Health, Retrieved 8 August 2014
- "How Will We Know If The Ebola Drugs Worked?". Forbes. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "ZMapp drug fully protects monkeys against Ebola virus". Science News. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Andrew Pollack (7 August 2014). "Second Drug Is Allowed for Treatment of Ebola - NYTimes.com". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Ebola Drug From Japan May Emerge Among Key Candidates". Bloomberg.com. 7 August 2014.
- Gatherer D (2014). "The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa". J. Gen. Virol. 95 (Pt 8): 1619–1624. doi:10.1099/vir.0.067199-0. PMID 24795448.
- Oestereich, L.; Lüdtke, A.; Wurr, S.; Rieger, T.; Muñoz-Fontela, C.; Günther, S. (2014). "Successful treatment of advanced Ebola virus infection with T-705 (favipiravir) in a small animal model". Antiviral Research 105: 17–21. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.02.014. PMID 24583123.
- "Ebola outbreak: Japan offers anti-influenza drug for treatment". CBC News Health. 25 August 2014.
- "First British volunteer injected with trial Ebola vaccine in Oxford". Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "An Ebola vaccine was given to 10 volunteers, and there are ‘no red flags’ yet". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Case Fatality Rate for ebolavirus". Epidemic: Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Viral Pathogens. 7 August 2014.
- "Disease Outbreak News". Disease Outbreak News. WHO. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Case Fatality Rate for ebolavirus". epidemic. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — the First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections". New England Journal of Medicine: 140922210513002. 2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411100.
- "Basic Reproductive Rate (Ro)". University of Michigan. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Althaus, Christian L. "Estimating the Reproduction Number of Ebola Virus (EBOV) During the 2014 Outbreak in West Africa". PLoS Currents. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.91afb5e0f279e7f29e7056095255b288.
- Gomes, Marcelo F. C.; Pastore y Piontti, Ana; Rossi, Luca; Chao, Dennis; Longini, Ira; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Vespignani, Alessandro. "Assessing the International Spreading Risk Associated with the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak". PLoS Currents. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.cd818f63d40e24aef769dda7df9e0da5.
- Fisman, David; Khoo, Edwin; Tuite, Ashleigh. "Early Epidemic Dynamics of the West African 2014 Ebola Outbreak: Estimates Derived with a Simple Two-Parameter Model". PLoS Currents. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.89c0d3783f36958d96ebbae97348d571.
- Nishiura, H; Chowell, G (Sep 11, 2014). "Early transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease (EVD), West Africa, March to August 2014.". Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin 19 (36). PMID 25232919.
- Towers, Sherry; Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos. "Temporal Variations in the Effective Reproduction Number of the 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak". PLoS Currents. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.9e4c4294ec8ce1adad283172b16bc908.
- "WHO issues roadmap for scaled-up response to the Ebola outbreak". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Ebola Response Roadmap
- Kupferschmidt, Kai. "Disease modelers project a rapidly rising toll from Ebola". Science.
- Grady, Denise. (12 September 2014). "U.S. Scientists See Long Fight Against Ebola". New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Ebola Outbreak Still Not Under Control: Officials". US News & World Report. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "NIH: Ebola Outbreak is 'Completely Out of Control'". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Virologist: Fight against Ebola in Sierra Leone and Liberia is lost". Deutsche Welle. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Szabo, Liz. "Could the Ebola outbreak last forever?". USA Today. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "The Ebola Emergency — Immediate Action, Ongoing Strategy". Farrar, Jeremy J. New England Journal of Medicine. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Ebola kills 31 in DRC, says WHO". News24. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of Congo". World Health Organization. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Ebola crisis: Illness With Ebola-Like Symptoms Kills Several In Congo". The Huffington Post. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Virological analysis: no link between Ebola outbreaks in west Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo". WHO. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of Congo". WHO. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "Ebola Wreaks Economic Woe In West Africa". NPR. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Lomax, Selma (2014-08-20). "Liberia: Ebola Outbreak Affects Agriculture in Lofa County". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "First WHO worker infected by Ebola, DR Congo reports cases". Rappler.com. 2014-08-15. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Ebola threatens food security in West Africa: FAO". Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Ebola Virus Eats Into West Africa's Economic Growth". AFKInsider. 2014-08-21. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Brock, Joe. "Ebola fears slowing tourist flow to Africa | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "BBC News - UK employees leave Sierra Leone over Ebola threat". Bbc.co.uk. 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "West Africa Ebola outbreak forces miners to lock down operations, delay projects". MINING.com. 2014-08-10. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Mark Anderson and agencies. "Ebola: airlines cancel more flights to affected countries | Society". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Kay, Chris (2014-08-14). "Ebola Threatens West Africa GDP as Companies Slow Production". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Ebola: World Bank Group Mobilizes Emergency Funding to Fight Epidemic in West Africa". Worldbank.org. 2014-08-04. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
- "Ebola: Economic Impact Already Serious; Could Be "Catastrophic" Without Swift Response". press release. The World Bank. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Chris Kay (2014-08-20). "Africa nations sell debt for Ebola fight | African Business". BDlive. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "IMF says Ebola impacted West African nations may need economic assistance". Australian News.Net.
- "WHO calls emergency sub-regional Ministerial meeting in Accra, Ghana to tackle the on-going Ebola virus in West Africa". 2 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: West African states agree strategy". BBC News. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Sub-regional Ebola Coordination Centre officially opened by the Prime Minister of Guinea in the presence of the WHO Regional Director for Africa". WHO: Regional Office for Africa. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "WHO, CDC See $100 Million Surge for Africa Ebola Battle". Bloomberg. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease update news 4 August 2014". World Health Organization. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "WHO | Barriers to rapid containment of the Ebola outbreak". Who.int. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "WHO issues roadmap for scaled-up response to the Ebola outbreak". World Health Organization. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Ebola Cases May Surpass 20,000, WHO Says in Updated Plan". Bloomberg. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "WHO warns Ebola response could cost $1B". The Hill. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Ebola 'threat to world security'- UN Security Council". BBC News. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Sifferlin, Alexandra (18 September 2014). "UN Launches ‘Unprecedented’ Mission to Combat Ebola". Time. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "WHO WELCOMES DECISION TO ESTABLISH UNITED NATIONS MISSION FOR EBOLA EMERGENCY RESPONSE". Time (EIN Presswire). 19 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "La CEDEAO décaisse 250 000 dollars pour faire face à la fièvre Ebola" (in French). abidjan.net. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Liberia: Nigerian President Donates 500k to Liberia's Ebola Fight". allAfrica.com. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Inserm and the Institut Pasteur identify a new variant of Ebola virus in Guinea". INSERM.fr (Press release). 18 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- 18 August 2014. "Steps Up Assistance to Meet Urgent Food Needs of Families and Communities Affected By Ebola | WFP | United Nations World Food Programme - Fighting Hunger Worldwide". WFP. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report - 18 September 2014". WHO. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise" (in German). Federal Foreign Office. 1 August 2014.
- de Benito, Emilio (2014). "España desaconseja viajar a Guinea, Sierra Leona o Liberia por el ébola" (in Spanish). El País. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Foreign travel advice Guinea". gov.uk. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Ebola in Liberia". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Minsalud da tranquilidad a población colombiana por virus del ébola" (in Spanish). El Universal. 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "DFA warns sea-based OFWs when docking in Ebola-hit countries". Sun.Star. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "(MOH) Advises Against Traveling To Parts Of West Africa Affected By Ebola Outbreak". Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Ebola virus outbreak: Equatorial Guinea temporarily suspends visas, regional flights". News-Medical.net. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Kenya to Bar Travelers From Ebola-Hit Countries, Liberia Fears Ebola Spread After Clinic Raided". Mashable. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "On arrival visa for 4 nations stopped". Colombo Gazette. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "South Africa Issues Travel Bans For Countries in Grip of Ebola Outbreak". The Wall Street Journal. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Ebola compels Chad to take wicked action". spyghana.com. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Visa requirement for West African travellers introduced- Seychelles steps up protection measures against Ebola". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Sierra Leone team refused Seychelles visa over Ebola virus". Goal.com. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "La Mauritanie interdit aux ressortissants des pays touchés par ébola d’entrer sur son territoire". Saharamedias. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Xuereb, Matthew (2 August 2014). "Border staff told to keep watch for signs of Ebola". Times of Malta. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "MinSalud actúa de manera coordinada con la OMS de cara al Ébola" (in Spanish). CO: Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Airports in India put on Ebola Alert". Hindustan Times. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Fièvre Ebola : contrôle sanitaire renforcé au Maroc" [Ebola fever: sanitary control reinforced at Morocco] (in French). Nouvelobs. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "China donates 80mn francs worth of Ebola prevention materials to Mali". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Dacanay, Barbara Mae (14 August 2014). "Philippines challenged by Ebola virus". Gulf News. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Ebola Screening Procedures". Embassy of the United States in Nouakchott, Mauritania. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Australia Promises $6.4 Million to Fight Ebola". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Calls for civil and military aid to combat Ebola, not just cash". ABC. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Jamil Chade, João Domingos (13 September 2014). "OMS cobra ajuda do Brasil contra o surto de Ebola". O Estado de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-09-13.
- "Brazil ships supply kits to Sierra Leone as help against ebola epidemic". Agência Brasil. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Government of Canada donates experimental Ebola vaccine to World Health Organization = Public Health Agency of Canada". 12 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Marketwired - Aug 5, 2014". Yahoo Finance. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Canada offers experimental Ebola vaccine VSV-EBOV to West Africa". CBC. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: Canada sends mobile laboratory back into Sierra Leone". CBC News. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: Canadians pulled from Sierra Leone as precaution". CBC News. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "China Sends Aid, Medical Teams to Fight Ebola Outbreak". The Diplomat. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "China to Sierra Leone ... We Fight Ebola Together". Awoko.org. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Chinese Ebola Doctors Arrive in Africa". cntv.com. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "China Sends Medical Experts to West Africa". Times of Zambia. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "China Kingho Donates Le400m to Ebola". Awoko.org. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Chinese President Meets UN Secretary-General on Hot Issues". cntv.com. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Cuba to send doctors to Ebola areas". BBC News. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Deutsche Hilfe im Kampf gegen Ebola". Bundesregierung.de (in German). September 19, 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Germany Asks Soldiers to Volunteer to Fight Ebola". ABC News. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "UN to use Ghana as base for supplies to Ebola countries". Business Day Online ]. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Ivory Coast closes borders over Ebola". IOL News. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Ivory Coast bans flight from three states". BBC News Africa. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- I'm an American Merchant Mariner working out of that port at this time. This information comes from personal experience.
- "Emergency grant aid to the Republic of Guinea in response to the Ebola Haemorhagic Fever outbreak". Japan: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Japan to provide $1.5 million in aid to Ebola-hit West Africa". The Japan Times. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Japan to provide experimental Ebola drug". Aljazeera. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Ebola outbreak: Malaysia sends W Africa medical gloves". BBC News. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Department of Health open to deploying experts in Ebola-hit countries". Sun.Star. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Philippines withdraw UN troops over Ebola concerns". Deutsche Welle. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia Blocks Visas From West African Countries Amid Ebola Crisis". International Business Times. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Britain to provide new assistance to combat Ebola in West Africa - Press releases". GOV.UK. 2014-07-29. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Emergency research call launched to help combat Ebola outbreak - Press releases". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "British troops to build Ebola treatment centre". The Telegraph. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "CDC issues emergency 'all-hands' call for Ebola response - Yahoo News". News.yahoo.com. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Obama: U.S. military to provide equipment, resources to battle Ebola epidemic in Africa". The Washington Post. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Pentagon to Set Up Ebola Field Hospital in Liberia". Military.com. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "United States will help mobilize 100 additional African health workers for the ebola outbreak". USAID. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Major General Darryl A. Williams: Commander, U.S. Army Africa". U.S. Army Africa: The offical home page of U.S. Army Africa. Army of the United States. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Eilperin, Juliet; Sun, Lena H. (16 September 2014). "Obama says world has responsibility to act; Ebola to "get worse before it gets better"". Politics (The Washington Post). Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Lederman, Josh. "Foreign fighters, Ebola top Obama’s UN agenda". Washington Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "US Troops Heading Into Africa Soon for Ebola Fight". ABC News. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Gates Foundation gives $50 million to fight Ebola outbreak". The Seattle Times. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Microsoft Co-Founder Paul Allen Joins Ebola Fight". CBS Seattle. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Battling an Ebola Outbreak". SP.
- "House witnesses paint grim picture of Ebola epidemic".
- "Ebola treatment trials to be fast-tracked in West Africa". Wellcome Trust. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Nigeria reports one more Ebola case, 11 in total | Top News | Reuters". Af.reuters.com. 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
- Monica Mark (27 May 2014). "Ebola virus causes outbreak of infectious dance tune". The Guardian.
- Mike Pflanz (28 May 2014). "Ebola rap warns West Africans of virus's dangers". Daily Telegraph.
- "Liberian soccer star George Weah records Ebola song". Capital Group Limited. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Tell Me the One About Ebola: How Jokes Spread Awareness". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Disease Outbreak News (DONs)". CDC.
- "Disease Outbreak News". WHO.
- "https://wca.humanitarianresponse.info/en". OCHA.
- "Ebola crisis vastly underestimated, says WHO". BBC. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Ebola cases could reach between 550,000 and 1.4 mln by late Jan-CDC". Yahoo! News. Reuters. September 23, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Nebehay, Stephanie; MacDougall, Clair (22 August 2014). "WHO warns of 'shadow zones' and unreported Ebola cases". Reuters.
- OCHA: West Africa: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak (as of 18 Sep 2014)
- Liberia: Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 125
- Sierra Leone: EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - SITUATION REPORT (Sit-Rep) – 18 September, 2014
- Liberia: Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 122, 14 September 2014
- Sierra Leone: EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - SITUATION REPORT (Sit-Rep) – 15 September, 2014
- OCHA:West Africa: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak (as of 10 Sep 2014)
- Liberia Ebola SitRep no. 118, 10 September 2014
- SIERRA LEONE: EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - SITUATION REPORT (Sit-Rep) – 08 September, 2014
- Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak (as of 3 Sep 2014), OCHA
- "WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 2, 5 September 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- SIERRA LEONE: EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE - SITUATION REPORT (Sit-Rep) – 01September, 2014
- WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report 1-29 August 2014, WHO
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 22 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 20 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 19 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 15 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 13 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 11 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 8 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 6 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 4 August 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 31 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 29 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 25 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 23 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 18 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 17 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 14 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 10 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 7 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 3 July 2014 ". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 1 July 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa – update 23 June 2014". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 17 June 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Dashboard - Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa (Situation as of 16 June 2014), WHO
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 7 June 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 5 June 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 01 June 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 30 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 27 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Dashboard - Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa (Situation as of 27 May 2014), WHO
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 23 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 18 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 15 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 10 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 9 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 5 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 2 May 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 25 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 22 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 19 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa Dashboard (17 April 2014), WHO
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 16 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 14 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 10 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 7 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Dashboard - Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa (07 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 2 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, West Africa (Situation as of 1 April 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, Liberia (Situation as of 30 March 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, Guinea (Situation as of 30 March 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease, Guinea (Situation as of 27 March 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease in Guinea (Situation as of 26 March 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Ebola virus disease in Guinea (Situation as of 25 March 2014)". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- WHO (24 March 2014), "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea", Outbreak Bulletin 4 (1)
- "Ebola virus disease in Guinea". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak.|
- Outbreak Updates, World Health Organization (WHO).
- Outbreak Updates, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).