2014 Venezuelan protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
2014 Venezuelan protests
2014 Venezuelan Protests Collage.png
Images from top to bottom and from left to right: Opposition march in Caracas on 12 February 2014, Peaceful march in Maracaibo, Protests at Altamira Square, "Camp Freedom" outside of the UN headquarters in Caracas, March in Caracas following the arrest of Leopoldo Lopez
Date February 12, 2014 – ongoing
(10 months, 1 week and 2 days)
Location  Venezuela
Status Ongoing
Parties to the civil conflict

Venezuelan opposition


Movimiento Estudiantil
(Organized student opposition organization)


"Guarimberos"
(built street barricades called "guarimbas")


Anti-government protesters

  • Anti-government students

Coat of arms of Venezuela.svg Government of Venezuela


Great Patriotic Pole
(PSUV, PCV, MEP, MRT and others)


Pro-government paramilitaries (Colectivos)


Pro-government demonstrators

  • Pro-government students
Lead figures
Number

Hundreds of thousands of opposition protesters[1][2][3]

  • Tens of thousands of student protesters[4][5]
Hundreds of thousands of pro-government demonstrators[6]
Casualties
Death(s) 43[10]
Injuries 873[7]–5285[8][9]
Arrested 3370[11]

The 2014 Venezuelan protests is a series of protests, political demonstrations, and civil insurrection that had occurred throughout Venezuela, primarily from February to June 2014, with the exception of smaller yet significant demonstrations that occurred during the later months. The protests erupted, for the most part, as a result of Venezuela's high levels of violence, inflation, and chronic shortages of basic goods,[12][13] which protesters and analysts claim are caused by economic policies such as strict price controls.[14][15] At least 6,369 protests occurred during the first six months of the year, with the highest numbers of them being reported in February and March.[16]

While protests occurred in January 2014, after the murder of actress and former Miss Venezuela Monica Spear,[17][18] the protests began in earnest that February following the attempted rape of a student on a university campus in San Cristobal. Subsequent arrests of student protestors spurred their expansion to neighboring cities and the involvement of opposition leaders.[19][20] The majority of protests have been peaceful, consisting of demonstrations, sit-ins, and hunger strikes to call for policy changes.[16][21] However, clashes with security forces have been frequent and small groups of protestors have been responsible for attacks on public property, such as government buildings and public transportation. Erecting improvised street barricades, dubbed guarimbas, has been the most common form of protest, although their use is controversial: they are seen as disruptive to communities[22] and as flashpoints for violence,[23] being linked to at least thirteen deaths, including those of motorists and people attempting to remove or bypass the barricades.[23][24][25][26] Publications like the New York Times have observed that the protests have exposed a class divide in Venezuela, as the protests have primarily occurred in wealthier urban areas with limited participation from the working-class, despite lower-income areas being hit especially hard by the country's economic struggles.[27]

Nicolas Maduro's government characterized the protests as an undemocratic coup d'etat attempt[28] orchestrated by "fascist" opposition leaders and the United States.[24] The Venezuelan government has been widely condemned for its handling of the protests as security forces have reportedly gone beyond typical practices of handling protests, with methods ranging from the use of rubber pellets and tear gas to instances of live ammunition and torture of arrested protestors, according to organizations like Amnesty International[29] and Human Rights Watch.[30] Other problems include media censorship and violence by pro-government militant groups known as colectivos. Venezuela's government has also been accused of politically-motivated arrests of opponents, most notably former Chacao mayor and leader of Popular Will, Leopoldo Lopez, who surrendered himself in February, responding to controversial charges of murder and inciting violence, using his arrest to protest the government's "criminalization of dissent."[31][32] In October 2014, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention had also ruled that López was detained arbitrarily and that the Venezuelan government had violated multiple rights while also demanding the immediate release López and opposition mayor Daniel Cabello.[33][34] Weeks later, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad reiterated demands for the immediate release of all of those detained due to the protests.[35] President Maduro, a former trade union leader, rejects many of the claims against his government, saying he supports peaceful protesting and has set up a council to investigate human rights violation claims and a truth commission to investigate all the acts of violence that have occurred;[36] he blames capitalism and speculation for causing high inflation rates and goods scarcities as part of an "economic war" being waged on his government.[37][38] His government had also condemned the statements by the United Nations demanding them to not interfere in Venezuelan affairs.[39]

The protests, which have been called a "Venezuelan Spring," in reference to the ongoing Arab Spring,[40][41][42][43] have resulted in thousands of arrests, between 800 and 5000 injuries, and over 40 deaths,[44][45][46][47][48] including both supporters and opponents of the government.[49]

Background[edit]

Bolivarian Revolution[edit]

Former President Hugo Chávez.

Venezuela was headed by a series of governments, later labelled as right-wing by the Chávez government, for years. In 1992, Hugo Chávez formed a group named Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 aiming to take over the government, and attempted a coup d'état.[50][51] Later, another coup was performed while Chávez was in prison. Both coup attempts failed and fighting resulted in around 143–264 dying.[51][better source needed] Chávez, after receiving a pardon from president Rafael Caldera, later decided to participate in elections and formed the Movement for the Fifth Republic (MVR) party. He won the Venezuelan presidential election, 1998. The changes started by Chávez were named the Bolivarian Revolution.

Chávez, an anti-American politician who declared himself a democratic socialist, enacted a series of social reforms aimed at improving quality of life. According to the World Bank, Chávez's social measures reduced poverty from about 49% in 1998 to about 25%. From 1999 to 2012, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), shows that Venezuela achieved the second highest rate of poverty reduction in the region.[52] The World Bank also explained that Venezuela's economy is "extremely vulnerable" to changes in oil prices since in 2012 "96% of the country’s exports and nearly half of its fiscal revenue" relied on oil production. In 1998, a year before Chávez took office, oil was only 77% of Venezuela's exports.[53][54] Under the Chávez government, from 1999 to 2011, monthly inflation rates also tended to be significantly lower than that from 1991 to 1998.[55]

While Chávez was in office, his government was accused of corruption, abuse of the economy for personal gain, propaganda, buying the loyalty of the military, officials involved in drug trade, assisting terrorists such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, intimidation of the media, and human rights abuses of its citizens.[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65] Government price controls put in place in 2002 which initially aimed for reducing the prices of basic goods have caused economic problems such as inflation and shortages of basic goods.[66] The murder rate under Chávez's administration also quadrupled during his terms in office leaving Venezuela as one of the most violent countries in the world.[67]

On 5 March 2013, Chávez died of cancer and Nicolás Maduro, who was vice president at the time, took Chávez's place.[68] In the 2013 Venezuelan presidential elections, Maduro narrowly defeated Henrique Capriles with a support of 50.6% contrasted to the 55.1% Chávez had received in the previous elections.[69][70] Throughout the year 2013 and into the year 2014, worries about the troubled economy, increasing crime and corruption increased, which led to the start of anti-government protests.

In 2002, the Chávez government faced a coup d'état. Anti-government demonstrations taking place were redirected into supporting the coup, and Chávez was removed from office for two days. He was later reinstated following massive public support. This event, along with the early 2014 Euromaidan demonstrations which resulted in a change of government in Ukraine, termed by some commentators as a coup d'état, was later cited by the Venezuelan government in relation to the 2014 protests to support the idea that the opposition may be attempting another undemocratic change of government.[citation needed]

First demonstrations of 2014[edit]

Protesters sign saying, "Why do I protest? Insecurity, scarcity, injustices, repression, deceit, for my future."

Demonstrations against violence in Venezuela began in January 2014,[17] and continued, when former presidential candidate Henrique Capriles shook the hand of President Maduro;[18] this "gesture... cost him support and helped propel" opposition leader Leopoldo López Mendoza to the forefront.[18] According to the Associated Press, well before protests began in the Venezuelan capital city of Caracas, the attempted rape of a young student on a university campus in San Cristóbal, in the western border state of Táchira, led to protests from students "outraged" at "long-standing complaints about deteriorating security under President Nicolas Maduro and his predecessor, the late Hugo Chávez. But what really set them off was the harsh police response to their initial protest, in which several students were detained and allegedly abused, as well as follow-up demonstrations to call for their release". These protests expanded, attracted non-students, and led to more detentions; eventually, other students joined, and the protests spread to Caracas and other cities, with opposition leaders getting involved.[19]

López is a leading figure in the opposition to the government.[71] During events surrounding the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, Lopez "orchestrated the public protests against Chávez and he played a central role in the citizen's arrest of Chavez's interior minister", Ramón Rodríguez Chacín, though he later tried to distance himself from the event,[72] and did not sign the Carmona Decree.[73] The government of Venezuela banned López from holding elected office; the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that this was illegal, but the Venezuelan government refused to comply with the court ruling.[74]

President Maduro said that San Cristóbal was under siege by right-wing paramilitaries under orders from former Colombian President Alvaro Uribe; Uribe dismissed the allegation as a distraction tactic. Maduro also stated that San Cristobal Mayor Daniel Ceballos, a member of López’s Popular Will Party, would soon join López “behind bars for fomenting violence.” Maduro said: "It's a matter of time until we have him in the same cold cell.”[19] Ceballos was detained in March by the Bolivarian National Intelligence Service without being presented with an arrest warrant[75] and remains in jail.

Corruption[edit]

Venezuela's perception of corruption scores between 2004 and 2013.
* Score was averaged according to Transparency International's method.
Source: Transparency International

In a 2014 survey by Gallup, nearly 75% of Venezuelans believe corruption is widespread in their government.[76] Leopoldo López has said, "We are fighting a very corrupt authoritarian government that uses all the power, all the money, all the media, all the laws, all the judicial system in order to maintain control."[77]

Corruption in Venezuela is ranked high by world standards. Corruption is difficult to measure reliably, but one well-known measure is the Corruption Perceptions Index, produced annually by a Berlin-based NGO, Transparency International (TNI). Venezuela has been one of the most corrupt countries in TNI surveys since they started in 1995, ranking 38th out of 41 that year[78] and performing very poorly in subsequent years. In 2008, for example, it was 158th out of 180 countries in 2008, the worst in the Americas except Haiti,[79] in 2012, it was one of the 10 most corrupt countries on the index, tying with Burundi, Chad, and Haiti for 165th place out of 176.[80] TNI public opinion data says that most Venezuelans believe the government's effort against corruption is ineffective, that corruption has increased and that government institutions such as the judicial system, parliament, legislature and police are the most corrupt.[81] According to TNI, Venezuela is currently the 18th most corrupt country in the world (160 of 177) and its judicial system has been deemed the most corrupt in the world.[82]

The World Justice Project moreover, ranked Venezuela's government in 99th place worldwide and gave it the worst ranking of any country in Latin America in the 2014 Rule of Law Index.[83] The report says, "Venezuela is the country with the poorest performance of all countries analyzed, showing decreasing trends in the performance of many areas in relation to last year. The country ranks last in the surrender of accounts by the government due to an increasing concentration of executive power and a weakened checks and balances." The report further states that "administrative bodies suffer inefficiencies and lack of transparency…and the judicial system, although relatively accessible, lost positions due to increasing political interference. Another area of concern is the increase in crime and violence, and violations of fundamental rights, particularly the right to freedom of opinion and expression."[64]

Economic problems[edit]

Main article: Economy of Venezuela
An opposition protestor holding a sign saying, "I protest for the scarcity. Where to get these?'

According to the 2013 Global Misery Index Scores, Venezuela was ranked as the top spot globally with the highest misery index score.[84] In data provided by the CIA, Venezuela had the second highest inflation rate (56.20%) in the world for 2013, only behind the war-torn Syria.[85] The Venezuelan government's economic policies, including strict price controls, have led to one of the highest inflation rates in the world with "sporadic hyperinflation",[66] and have caused severe shortages of food and other basic goods.[15] The Heritage Foundation, a US-based conservative advocacy group, has ranked Venezuela at 175 of 178 in economic freedom and was classified as a "Repressed" economy.[86] According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), activity in Venezuela is uncertain but may continue to slow for the year 2014 saying that "loose macroeconomic policies have generated high inflation and a drain on official foreign exchange reserves". The IMF suggested that "more significant policy changes are needed to stave off a disorderly adjustment".[87] Venezuela was also the only country in the world that the International Monetary Fund predicted that their GDP will contract. The IMF predicted Venezuela's GDP to contract at a rate around -.5% for the year 2014.[88] Data provided by economist Steve H. Hanke of the Cato Institute shows that Venezuela's current economy, as of March 2014, had an inflation rate hovering above 300%, an official inflation rate around 60% and a product scarcity index rising above 25% of goods.[89] Hanke believes that "State-controlled prices - prices that are set below market-clearing price - always result in shortages" and that "The shortage problem will only get worse, as it did over the years in the Soviet Union".[90] More than half of those interviewed in a Datos survey held the Maduro government responsible for the country's current economic situation and most thought the country’s economic situation would be worse or just as bad in the next 6 months of 2014.[91][92] President Maduro has blamed the economic troubles on an alleged "economic war" being waged against his government; specifically, he has placed blame on capitalism and speculation.[38]

Line of people waiting to buy toilet paper in Guatire, Venezuela on 13 March 2014.

In 2013, as the country suffered from shortages of necessities such as toilet paper, milk, and flour, Venezuela devalued its currency[93][94] El Tiempo reported that some goods in Venezuelan stores had a 114% to 425% premium due to "under the table" negotiations between the Venezuelan government and traders.[95] President of the National Statistics Institute (INE) Elias Eljuri suggested that all shortages in the country were due to Venezuelan's eating, saying that “95% of people eat three or more meals a day” while referencing a national survey.[96][97] The government's catastrophic monetary policy means that businesses cannot afford to import basic goods such as paper;[98] the National Guard occupied MANPA, the nation's largest manufacturer of toilet paper, with the aim to check operations for "possible diversion of distribution" and "illegal management".[99] In early 2014, however, members of Popular Will who were visiting El Salvador claimed that Venezuelan toilet paper, along with other Venezuelan products, had been given to El Salvador by the Venezuelan government, even though such items were “not available in our country” except if one waited in “humiliating lines for hours.” Among the items they found on sale in El Salvador, and displayed at a press conference, were Alba brand rice and beans. Abelardo Diaz said that the alliances that result in these subsidized Venezuelan goods being shipped abroad at the expense of Venezuelan citizens “are not productive for our people, because they bleed our economy and promote the destabilization that is causing suffering to all Venezuelans today.” Díaz called it “treason” to support such arrangements, which had led to so much injury and death on the part of protesters.[100] An article by The Guardian noted that a "significant proportion" of the subsidized basic goods in short supply were being smuggled into Colombia and sold for far higher prices.[24] In February 2014, the government said it had confiscated more than 3,500 tons of contraband on the border with Colombia—food and fuel which, it said, was intended for "smuggling" or "speculation." The president of the National Assembly, Diosdado Cabello, said that the confiscated food should be given to the Venezuelan people, and should not be “in the hands of these gangsters.”[101]

Shoppers waiting in line at a government-run MERCAL store.

In November 2013, weeks before the local elections, Maduro ordered the military to take over appliance stores. Analysts said that the move amounted to a "cannibalizing" of the economy and that it might lead to even more shortages in the future.[102][103] Maduro said he was fighting an "economic war" and enforcing "fair" prices for buyers, saying, "This is for the good of the nation. Leave nothing on the shelves, nothing in the warehouses."[104] According to El Nacional "the first economic offense" of checks and sanctions that President Maduro took at the end of 2013 "brought more inflation and shortages".[105] These price controls had hurt businesses and led to shortages, long queues, and looting, even by the National Guard.[106]

According to a February 2014 article in The Economist, the Venezuelan government was, as of that date, running out of hard currency to pay bills. Venezuela's largest privately owned business, Empresas Polar, was owed US$463 million by the government; production was at risk because it could not pay foreign suppliers.[98] Similarly, a major railway project in Venezuela was delayed because Venezuela could not pay US$7.5 billion and owed China Railway nearly US$500 million.[107] In early 2014, many international airlines such as Air Canada, Air Europa, American Airlines, and United Airlines suspended operation in Venezuela.[108][109][110] The Venezuelan government faced accusations of owing international airlines more than $3.7 billion and violating treaties, the International Air Transport Association on 13 March 2014 accused the government of failing to "repatriate" $3.7 billion in air ticket revenue owed to foreign airlines.[111] As of early 2014, automotive companies Toyota, Ford and General Motors had also suspended production owing to a lack of currency in the country with a General Motors representative saying that they "saw no horizon or resolutions to business operations in Venezuela".[112][113][114] In response to the inflation Maduro increased the minimum wage and pension, by the same percentage as the official inflation rate: 59% between May 2013 and January 2014.[115] Actual inflation rates may be much higher with an implied inflation rate of 330%, nearly six times the official rate of 59%.[116] The money supply of the Bolivar Fuerte in Venezuela also continues to accelerate, possibly helping to fuel more inflation.[117]

Blue line represents implied value of VEF compared to USD. The red line represents what the Venezuelan government officially rates the VEF.
*March/April 2013 data is missing
Sources: Banco Central de Venezuela, Dolar Paralelo, Federal Reserve Bank, International Monetary Fund

In February 2014, doctors at University of Caracas Medical Hospital stopped performing surgery due to the lack of supplies, even though nearly 3,000 people require surgery.[118] The government's currency policy made it difficult to import drugs and other medical supplies.[119] An AP report dated 22 February noted that “legions of the sick across the country” were being “neglected by a health care system doctors say is collapsing after years of deterioration.” Doctors at one hospital “sent home 300 cancer patients last month when supply shortages and overtaxed equipment made it impossible for them to perform non-emergency surgeries.” The government, which controlled “the dollars needed to buy medical supplies,” had “simply not made enough” dollars available for those supplies, the AP reported. As a result, “many patients began dying from easily treatable illnesses when Venezuela's downward economic slide accelerated after Chavez's death.” Doctors called it impossible “to know how many have died, and the government doesn't keep such numbers, just as it hasn't published health statistics since 2010.” Among the items “in critically short supply” were “needles, syringes and paraffin used in biopsies to diagnose cancer; drugs to treat it; operating room equipment; X-ray film and imaging paper; blood and the reagents needed so it can be used for transfusions.” The previous month, the government had “suspended organ donations and transplants.” Also, over “70 percent of radiotherapy machines” were “now inoperable.” Dr. Douglas Natera, president of the Venezuelan Medical Federation, said, "Two months ago we asked the government to declare an emergency,” but they received no response. Health Minister Isabel Iturria refused to give the AP an interview, while a deputy health minister, Nimeny Gutierrez, “denied on state TV that the system is in crisis.”[120]

In March 2014, the executive director of the Venezuelan Association of Hospitals and Clinics explained that in less than a month, the number of medical products that were in short supply rose from 53 to 109, and explained how the CADIVI system was to blame, since 86% of supplies were imported.[121] Both public and private sector hospitals had only about 2 months’ worth of supplies, with private-sector hospitals claiming they owed suppliers US$15 billion.[122] On 16 March, the company Superenvases Envalic, a subsidiary of Empresas Polar, which produces soda and beer cans, had to stop operations owing to lack of raw material[123]

In order to "crush speculators", President Maduro introduced a new card called Tarjeta de Abastecimiento Seguro along with a new "Cuban-like" rationing system. The system had struggled in Cuba because "the products offered are not sufficient and families must resort to the black market to survive."[124][125][126] Many Venezuelans disliked the new rationing system and said they would not use it once the biometric food mission began on 1 April 2014.[126] In an August 2014 article by The Guardian, it was reported that the Tarjeta de Abastecimiento Seguro failed to go past the trial phase and that another "biometric card" was going to be developed according to President Maduro.[127]

On 22 April, President Maduro said that he had new plans for an "economic offensive," focusing on three objectives: to find new ways to spur economic production at all levels of the country, as growth had slipped in 2013 to 1.6% after record growth of 5.6% in 2012; to dismantle obstacles hindering goods from reaching ordinary citizens, including increased inspections and sanctions on companies found to be smuggling or hoarding goods; and to continue enforcing a "law of fair prices," which in part caps profits for businesses at 30%.[128][129] Analyst Heckel Garcia, director of Econometric, said that the plans "will not be enough" to get Venezuela out of the crisis it is facing.[129][130][131][dubious ][132] President Maduro also raised the minimum wage by 30%, hoping to improve citizens' purchasing power.[133] According to El Nuevo Herald, most economists said that this measure will only help temporarily due to the official inflation rate being over 59% and that the wage increase will only make situations on companies more difficult since they already face a shortage of currency.[134][135]

Even though Venezuela is the largest oil producer in the world, there have been shortages and rationing of gas, which according to the Venezuelan government, is to combat smuggling of cheaper fuel to Colombia.[136][137] PDVSA said that the gasoline supply was running normally and that the long lines stated at gas stations were "destabilizing rumors factions opposing the Bolivarian government".[138]

Violent crime[edit]

Main article: Crime in Venezuela
A protester with a sign saying, "I'd rather die standing than live on my knees."

In Venezuela, a person is murdered every 21 minutes.[139][140] In the first two months of 2014, nearly 3,000 people were murdered – 10% more than in the previous year and 500% higher than when Hugo Chávez first took office.[141] In 2014, Quartz claimed that the high murder rate was due to Venezuela’s “ growing poverty rate; rampant corruption; high levels of gun ownership; and a failure to punish murderers (91% of the murders go unpunished, according to the Institute for Research on Coexistence and Citizen Security).”[141] InsightCrime attributed the escalating violence to "high levels of corruption, a lack of investment in the police force and weak gun control."[17]

Following the January killing of actress and former Miss Venezuela Monica Spear and her ex-husband in a roadside robbery in the presence of their five-year-old daughter, who herself was shot in the leg,[17] Venezuela was described by Channel 4 as “one of the most dangerous countries in the world,” [17] a country “where crime escalated during the administration of former President Hugo Chávez and killings are common in armed robberies.”[17] The Venezuelan Violence Observatory said in March 2014 the country's murder rate was now nearly 80 deaths per 100,000 people, while government statistics put it at 39 deaths per 100,000.[142] The number of those murdered during the previous decade was comparable to the death rate in Iraq during the Iraq War; during some periods, Venezuela had a higher rate of civilian deaths than Iraq, even though the country was at peace.[143] Crime had also affected the economy, according to Jorge Roig, president of the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce, who said that many foreign business executives were too scared to travel to Venezuela and that many owners of Venezuelan companies live abroad, with the companies producing less as a result.[144]

The opposition says that crime is the government's fault "for being soft on crime, for politicizing and corrupting institutions such as the judiciary, and for glorifying violence in public discourse," while the government says that "capitalist evils" are to blame, such as drug trafficking and violence in the media.[145]

The United States State Department and the Government of Canada have warned foreign visitors that they may be subjected to robbery, kidnapping for a ransom, or sale to terrorist organizations and murder.[146][147] The United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office has advised against all travel within 80 km (50 miles) of the Colombian border in the states of Zulia, Táchira, and Apure.[148]

Elections[edit]

Multiple signs of Nicolas Maduro remaining from 2013 Venezuelan presidential election.

On 14 April 2013, Nicolas Maduro won the presidential election with 50.6% of the vote, ahead of the 49.1% of candidate Henrique Capriles Radonski. The results were surprisingly close[149] because Hugo Chávez had defeated Capriles less than a year before by a margin of more than 10 points,[150] and Maduro had led most polls through the campaigns by large margins.[151][152][153][154][155] Opposition leaders made accusations of fraud shortly after the election.[156] Capriles refused to accept the results, alleging that voters had been coerced to vote for Maduro and claiming election irregularities. The National Electoral Council (CNE), which conducted a post-election audit of a random selection of 54% of the votes, comparing electronic records with paper ballots, claimed to find nothing suspicious.[157][158] Capriles initially called for an audit of the remaining 46% of the votes, asserting that this would show that he had won the election. The CNE agreed to carry out an audit, and planned to do so in May.[157][158] Later Capriles changed his mind, adding demands for a full audit of the electoral registry, and calling the audit process “a joke.”.[157]

Before the government agreed to a full audit of the vote, there were public protests by opponents of Maduro. The crowds were ultimately dispersed by National Guard members using tear gas and rubber bullets.[159] President Maduro responded to the protests by saying, “If you want to try to oust us through a coup, the people and the armed forces will be waiting for you.” [160] The clashes resulted in 7 people killed and dozens injured. President Maduro described the protests as a "coup" attempt, and blamed the United States for them. Finally, Capriles told protesters to stop and not play the "government's game," so there would be no more deaths.[161]

On 12 June 2013 the results of the partial audit were announced. The CNE certified the initial results and confirmed Maduro's electoral victory.[162] The Carter Center, founded by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, stated in a detailed report on the elections that “the extremely close election results…presented an electoral and political conflict not seen since the 2004 recall referendum. Accompanied by divisive public discourse on all sides, the electoral dispute interrupted not only an incipient national consensus on the reliability of the electoral outcome, but also the ability to move forward with constructive debate and dialogue on other issues of import to the country.” The Carter Center noted the lack of “agreement…about the quality of the voting conditions and whether every registered voter is able to vote one time, and only one time,” and the fact that “inequities in campaign conditions in terms of both access to financial resources and access to the media diminish the competitiveness of elections, particularly in a legal framework that permits indefinite reelection of public officials.” The Carter Center issued a 9-point set of recommendations to make Venezuelan elections fairer and the results more reliable.[163] Government resources were used to support the ruling party's electoral campaigns, and government vehicles were used for transport. During the local election campaign, Maduro spent two hours per day on live television,.[164]

Protest violence[edit]

"Colectivos"[edit]

Main article: Colectivo (Venezuela)

Militant groups known as "colectivos" attacked protesters and opposition TV staff, sent death threats to journalists, and tear-gassed the Vatican envoy after Hugo Chávez accused these groups of intervening with his government. Colectivos helped assist the government during the protests.[165] Human Rights Watch said that "the government of Venezuela has tolerated and promoted groups of armed civilians," which HRW claims have "intimidated protesters and initiated violent incidents".[166] Socialist International also condemned the impunity that irregular groups have had while attacking protesters.[167] President Maduro has thanked certain groups of motorcyclists for their help against what he views as a "fascist coup d'etat... being waged by the extreme right", but also distanced himself from armed groups, stating that they "had no place in the revolution".[168] On a later occasion, President Maduro issued a condemnation of all violent groups and said a government supporter would go to jail if he performed a crime, just as an opposition supporter would. He said that someone who is violent has no place as a government supporter and thus should leave the pro-government movement immediately.[169]

Some "colectivos" have acted violently against the opposition without impediment from Venezuelan government forces.[170] Colectivos in several trucks allegedly attacked an apartment complex known for protesting damaging 5 vehicles, leaving 2 burnt, and fired several shots into the apartments leaving one person injured from a gunshot wound.[171] According to a correspondent from Televen, armed groups attempted to kidnap and rape individuals in an apartment complex in Maracaibo without intervention from the National Guard.[172][173][174][175] Vice President of Venezuela, Jorge Arreaza, praised colectivos saying, "If there has been exemplary behavior it has been the behavior of the motorcycle colectivos that are with the Bolivarian revolution."[176] However, on March 28, Arreaza promised that the government would disarm all irregular armed groups in Veneuela.[177] Colectivos have also been called a "fundamental pillar in the defense of the homeland" by the Venezuelan Prison Minister, Iris Varela.[178][179]

In the month of March in 2014, paramilitary groups acted violently in 437 protests, about 31% of total protests in March, where gunshot wounds were reported in most protests they were involved in.[8] Armed colectivos allegedly attacked and burnt down Universidad Fermín Toro after intimidating student protesters and shooting one.[180][181]

Human Rights Watch reported that government forces "repeatedly allowed" colectivos "to attack protesters, journalists, students, or people they believed to be opponents of the government with security forces just meters away" and that "in some cases, the security forces openly collaborated with the pro-government attackers". Human Rights Watch also stated that they "found compelling evidence of uniformed security forces and pro-government gangs attacking protesters side by side. One report said that government forces aided pro-government civilians that shot protesters with live ammunition.[30]

These groups of guarimberos, fascists and violent [people], and today now other sectors of the country’s population as well have gone out on the streets, I call on the UBCh, on the communal councils, on communities, on colectivos: flame that is lit, flame that is extinguished.

President Nicolas Maduro [30]

Human Rights Watch stated that "Despite credible evidence of crimes carried out by these armed pro-government gangs, high-ranking officials called directly on groups to confront protesters through speeches, interviews, and tweets." According to Human Rights Watch, President Nicolas Maduro "on multiple occasions called on civilian groups loyal to the government to 'extinguish the flame' of what he characterized as 'fascist' protesters". The governor of the state of Carabobo, Francisco Ameliach, called on Unidades de Batalla Bolívar-Chávez (UBCh), a government created civilian group that according to the government is a “tool of the people to defend its conquests, to continue fighting for the expansion of the Venezuelan Revolution”. In a tweet, Ameliach asked UBCh to launch a rapid counterattack against protesters saying that the order would come from the President of the National Assembly, Diosdado Cabello.[30]

Government forces[edit]

Government authorities have used "unlawful force against unarmed protesters and other people in the vicinity of demonstrations". Government agencies involved in the use of unlawful force include the National Guard, the National Police, the Guard of the People, and other government agencies. Some common abuses included "severely beating unarmed individuals, firing live ammunition, rubber bullets, and teargas canisters indiscriminately into crowds, and firing rubber bullets deliberately, at point-blank range, at unarmed individuals, including, in some cases, individuals already in custody". Human Rights Watch said that "Venezuelan security forces repeatedly resorted to force—including lethal force—in situations in which it was wholly unjustified" and that "the use of force occurred in the context of protests that were peaceful, according to victims, eyewitnesses, lawyers, and journalists, who in many instances shared video footage and photographs corroborating their accounts".[30]

Use of firearms by state authorities[edit]

Government forces have used firearms to control protests.[182] Amnesty International reported that they had "received reports of the use of pellet guns and tear gas shot directly at protesters at short range and without warning" and that "Such practices violate international standards and have resulted in the death of at least one protester." They also said that "Demonstrators detained by government forces at times have been denied medical care and access to lawyers". Amnesty International was also worried about "the use of chemical toxins in high concentrations” by government forces and recommended better training for them.[29] During the months of protest, the heavy use of tear gas by authorities in Chacao affected surrounding residents and forced them to wear gas masks to "survive" in their homes.[183] Some violent demonstrations have been controlled with tear gas and water cannons.[184]

The New York Times reported that a protester was "shot at such close range by a soldier at a protest that his surgeon said he had to remove pieces of the plastic shotgun shell buried in his leg, along with the shards of keys" that were in their pocket at the time. Venezuelan authorities have also been accused of shooting shotguns with "hard plastic buckshot at point-blank range" which allegedly injured a great number of protesters and killed a woman. The woman who was killed was banging a pot outside of her house in protest when her father reported that "soldiers rode up on motorcycles" and that the woman then fell while trying to seek shelter in her home. Witnesses of the incident then said that "a soldier got off his motorcycle, pointed his shotgun at her head and fired". The shot that was fired by the policeman "slammed through her eye socket into her brain". The woman died days before her birthday. Her father said that the soldier who killed her was not arrested.[185] There has also been claims by the Venezuelan Penal Forum accusing authorities that have allegedly attempted to tamper with evidence, covering up that they had shot students.[186]

El Nacional claimed that the objective of those attacking opposition protesters is to kill since many of the protesters that were killed were shot in vulnerable areas like the head and that, "9 of the 15 dead people were from the 12F demonstrators, who were injured by state security forces or paramilitaries linked to the ruling party."[187] El Universal has claimed that Melvin Collazos of SEBIN, and Jonathan Rodríquez, a bodyguard of the Minister of the Interior and Justice Miguel Rodríguez Torres, are in custody after shooting unarmed, fleeing, protesters several times in violation of protocol.[188] The article 68 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that "the use of firearms and toxic substances to control peaceful demonstrations is prohibited", and that "the law shall regulate the actions of the police and security control of public order."[189][190]

Abuse of protesters and detainees[edit]

Venezuelan National Guardsman holding a protester in a headlock.

According to Amnesty International, "torture is commonplace" against protesters by Venezuelan authorities despite Article 46 of the Venezuelan Constitution prohibiting "punishment, torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment".[191] During the protests, there were hundreds of reported cases of torture.[192] In a report titled Punished for Protesting following a March investigation of conduct during the protests, Human Rights Watch said that those who were detained by government authorities were subjected to "severe physical abuse" with some abuses including being beaten "with fists, helmets, and firearms; electric shocks or burns; being forced to squat or kneel, without moving, for hours at a time; being handcuffed to other detainees, sometimes in pairs and others in human chains of dozens of people, for hours at a time; and extended periods of extreme cold or heat." It was also reported that "many victims and family members we spoke with said they believed they might face reprisals if they reported abuses by police, guardsmen, or armed pro-government gangs".[30]

Amnesty International "received reports from detainees who were forced to spend hours on their knees or feet in detention centers". Amnesty International also reported that a student was forced at gunpoint by plainclothes officers to sign a confession to acts he did not commit where his mother explained that “They told him that they would kill him if he didn’t sign it, ... He started to cry, but he wouldn’t sign it. They then wrapped him in foam sheets and started to hit him with rods and a fire extinguisher. Later, they doused him with gasoline, stating that they would then have evidence to charge him.” Amnesty International said that the Human Rights Center at the Andres Bello Catholic University had reported that, “There are two cases that involved electric shocks, two cases that involved pepper gas and another two cases where they were doused with gasoline,” she said. “We’ve found there to be systematic conduct on the part of the state to inflict inhumane treatment on detainees because of similar reports from different days and detention centers.”[29]

The New York Times reported that the Penal Forum said that abuses are "continuous and systematic" and that Venezuelan authorities were "widely accused of beating detainees, often severely, with many people saying the security forces then robbed them, stealing cellphones, money and jewelry". In one case, a group of men said that when they were leaving a protest since it turned violent, "soldiers surrounded the car, broke the windows and tossed a tear gas canister inside". A man then said that a soldier "fired a shotgun at him at close range" while in the vehicle. The men were then "pulled from the car and beaten viciously" then one soldier "smashed their hands with the butt of his shotgun, telling them it was punishment for protesters’ throwing rocks." The vehicle was then set on fire. One protester said that while detained, soldiers "kicked him over and over again." The protesters he was with "were handcuffed together, threatened with an attack dog, made to crouch for long periods, pepper sprayed and beaten." The protester then said that he was "hit so hard on the head with a soldier’s helmet that he heard it crack". A woman also said she was with her daughter when "they were swept up by National Guard soldiers, taken with six other women to a military post and handed over to female soldiers". The women then said that "soldiers beat them, kicked them and threatened to kill them". The women also said that soldiers threatened to rape them, cut their hair and "were released only after being made to sign a paper stating that they had not been mistreated."[185]

Human Rights Watch reported that a man was going home and was attacked by National Guardsman dispersing a group of protesters. He was then hit by rubber bullets the National Guardsmen shot, beat by the National Guardsmen, and then shot in the groin. Another man was detained, shot repeatedly with rubber bullets, beat with rifles and helmets by three National Guardsman and was asked "Who's your president?" Some individuals that were arrested innocently were beaten and forced to repeat that Nicolas Maduro was president.[30]

NTN24 reported from a lawyer that National Guardsmen and individuals with "Cuban accents" in Mérida forced three arrested adolescents to confess to crimes they did not commit and then the adolescents "kneeled and were forced to raise their arms then shot with buckshot throughout their body" during an alleged "target practice".[193]

El Nuevo Herald reported that student protesters had been tortured by government forces in an attempt for the government to make them admit they are part of a plan of foreign individuals to overthrow the Venezuelan government.[194] In Valencia, protesters were dispersed by the National Guard in El Trigál where four students (three men and one woman) were attacked inside of a car while trying to leave the perimeter;[195] the three men were imprisoned and one of them was allegedly sodomized by one of the officers with a rifle.[196]

In an El Nacional article sharing interviews with protesters who were arrested, individuals explained their experiences in jail. One protester explained how he was placed into a 3 by 2 meter cell with 30 other prisoners where the inmates had to defecate in a bag behind a single curtain. The protester continued explaining how prisoners dealt punishments toward one another and the punishment for "guarimberos" was to be tied and gagged, which would allegedly occur without intervention from the authorities. Other arrested protesters interviewed also explained their fears of being imprisoned with violent criminals.[197]

The director of the Venezuelan Penal Forum, Alfredo Romero, called for both the opposition and the Venezuelan government to listen to the claims of the alleged human rights violations that have not been heard. He also reported that a woman was tortured with electric shocks to her breasts.[198][199] The Venezuelan Penal Forum also reported students being tortured with electric shocks, being beaten, and being threatened of being set on fire after they were doused in gasoline after they were arrested.[200]

Human Rights Watch reported that, "not all of the security force members or justice officials encountered by the victims in these cases participated in the abusive practices. Indeed, in some of the cases ... security officials and doctors in public hospitals had surreptitiously intervened to help them or to ease their suffering". Some National Guardsman assisted detainees that were being held in "incommunicado". It was also reported that "[i]n several cases, doctors and nurses in public hospitals—and even those serving in military clinics—stood up to armed security forces, who wanted to deny medical care to seriously wounded detainees. They insisted detainees receive urgent medical care, in spite of direct threats—interventions that may have saved victims’ lives".[30]

Government's response to abuses[edit]

The Venezuelan Attorney General's office reported it was conducting, as of the Human Rights Watch report, 145 investigations into alleged human rights abuses, and that 17 security officials had been detained in connection to them. President Maduro and other government officials have acknowledged human rights abuses, but said they were isolated incidents and not part of a larger pattern.[30] When opposition parties asked for a debate about torture in the National Assembly, the Venezuelan government refused, blaming the violence on the opposition saying, "The violent are not us, the violent are in a group of opposition".[201]

Innocent individuals arrested[edit]

According to Human Rights Watch, Venezuelan government authorities arrested many innocent people. They stated that "the government routinely failed to present credible evidence that these protesters were committing crimes at the time they were arrested, which is a requirement under Venezuelan law when detaining someone without an arrest warrant". They also explained that "Some of the people detained, moreover, were simply in the vicinity of protests but not participating in them. This group of detainees included people who were passing through areas where protests were taking place, or were in public places nearby. Others were detained on private property such as apartment buildings. In every case in which individuals were detained on private property, security forces entered buildings without search orders, often forcing their way in by breaking down doors." One man was in his apartment when government forces fired tear gas into the building. The man went to the courtyard for fresh air and was arrested for no reason after police broke into the apartments.[30]

Violent protests[edit]

Some protests have included incidents of arson, vandalism and other cases of violence.

Apart from peaceful demonstrations, an element in some protests includes burning trash, creating barricades and have resulted in violent clashes between the opposition and state authorities. Human Rights Watch said that protesters "who committed acts of violence at protests were a very small minority—usually less than a dozen people out of scores or hundreds of people present". It was reported that barricades were the most common form of protest and that occasional attacks on authorities with Molotov cocktails, rocks and slingshots occurred. In rare instances, homemade mortars were used by protesters. The use of Molotov Cocktails in some cases caught authorities and some government vehicles on fire.[30] President Maduro has stated that some protests "have included arson attacks on government buildings, universities and bus stations."[202]

The National Guard alleged that they had prevented some violent students from the University of the Andes (ULA) from entering a premises.[203] The governor of Aragua state, Tarek El Aissami, claimed that six opposition protesters were arrested for having firearms with one of the arrested being accused of allegedly shooting an officer with El Aissami saying, "He's a fascist. We ordered the Public Ministry and the entire judiciary application of all penalties"[204] The article 68 of the constitution also states that "citizens have the right to demonstrate" as long as it is "peacefully and without weapons".[189][190]

Barricades[edit]

Throughout the protests, a common tactic that has divided opinions among Venezuelans and the anti-government opposition has been erecting burning street barricades, colloquially known as guarimbas. Street barricades, which stop vehicles from passing, violate the 50th article of the constitution of Venezuela, which grants the right of free transit.[205][206] Initially, these barricades consisted of piles of trash and cardboard set on fire at night, and were easily removed by Venezuelan security forces. Guarimbas have since evolved into "fortress-like structures" of bricks, mattresses, wooden planks and barbed wire guarded by protestors, who "have to resort to guerrilla-style tactics to get a response from the government of President Nicolas Maduro". However, their use is controversial. Critics claim guarimbas, which are primarily erected in residential areas, victimize local residents and businesses and have little political impact.[22] According to a survey conducted by the ICS, more than 80% of the Venezuelans disagree with violent forms of protests, including guarimbas.[207]

A wall painting criticizing "guarimbas"
A barricade built by protestors blocking a street.

President Maduro and poor sectors in some cities criticized barricades, with Maduro denouncing that “thousands of people are affected by a small group of ten or twenty persons”, and that “some of them don’t have access to health care, including children and elders”,[208] although many opposition protesters argue that guarimbas are also used as a protection against armed groups, and not only as a form of protest.[209] At some barricades, "guayas" or wires are placed near them. These wires are difficult for motorists to see and have reportedly killed a man on a motorcycle. Those who were protesting at the barricades claimed that the guayas were used for defense against Tupamaros and colectivos groups that had been allegedly "instilling terror" among the protesters. However, the government alleges that the guayas are placed groups of "fascists" saying that have "the sole intention of destabilizing".[210] Contested statements claim that at least thirteen deaths had been attributed to opposition supporters at these barricades.[24] It has also been reported that protesters have used homemade caltrops made of hose pieces and nails, colloquially known in Spanish as “miguelitos” or "chinas", to deflate motorbike tires.[211][212] The government has also condemned their usage.[213][214] Some protestors have cited videos of protests in Ukraine and Egypt as inspiration for their tactics in defending barricades and repelling government forces, such as using common items such as beer bottles, metal tubing, and gasoline to construct fire bombs and mortars, while using bottles filled with paint to block the views of tank and armored riot vehicle drivers. Common protective gear for protestors include motorcycle helmets, construction dust masks, and gloves.[215] President Maduro claimed that barricades had resulted in more than 50 deaths.[216]

Attacks on public property[edit]

Public property has been a frequent target of protestor violence. Attacks have been reported by Attorney General Luisa Ortega Diaz on the Ministerio Publico's headquarters;[217] by Minister for Science, Technology and Innovation Manuel Fernandez on the headquarters of the nationalized telephone service CANTV in Barquisimeto;[218][219] and by Mayor Ramón Muchacho on the Bank of Venezuela and BBVA Provincial.[220] Many government officials have used social media to announce attacks and document damage. Carabobo state governor Francisco Ameliach used Twitter to report attacks by the "fascist right" on the United Socialist Party of Venezuela's headquarters in Valencia,[221] as did José David Cabello after an attack by "armed opposition" on the headquarters of the National Integrated Service for the Administration of Customs Duties and Taxes.[222] First Lady of Venezuela Vielma Karla Jimenez said the headquarters of the Fundacion de la Familia Tachirense had been attacked by "hooligans" and posted photographs of the damage on her Facebook page.[223]

In some attacks, institutions have suffered severe damage. In anger over Maria Corina Machado being teargassed for trying to enter the National Assembly after having been expelled, some protestors attacked the headquarters of the Ministry of Public Works & Housing. President Maduro said the attack forced the evacuation of workers and about 89 children from the building after it had become "engulfed in flames" with much of the building's equipment destroyed and its windows shattered.[224][225] Two weeks earlier, the Tachira state campus of the National Experimental University of the Armed Forces, a military university that was converted by government decree to a public university, was attacked with petrol bombs and largely destroyed. The dean, who blamed far-right groups, highlighted damage to the university's library, technology labs, offices, and buses.[226][227] A National Guard officer stationed at the university was shot dead days later during a second attack on the campus.[227]

Many vehicles have been destroyed, including those belonging to the national food distribution companies PDVAL[228] and Bicentenario.[229] Electricity Minister Jesse Chacon said 22 vehicles of the company Corpoelec had been burned and that some public property electricity distribution wires were cut down, the result of alleged "fascist vandalism."[230] The Land Transport Minister, Haiman El Troudi, reported attacks on the transport system.[231] President Maduro showed a video of "fascist groups" damaging transportation vehicles and reported that 50 damaged units will have to be replaced.[232] Vehicles affected by the attacks on land transportation belong to various organizations and bus lines including BusCaracas, BusGuarenas-Guatire, Metrobus[233][234][235] and the Caracas subway, with the consequence of the temporary closure of some transport routes and the closing down of stations of the Caracas subway to prevent damage.[236]

Timeline of events[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Timeline of the 2014 Venezuelan protests.

According to the Venezuelan Observatory of Social Conflict (SVCO), 6,369 protests were recorded during the first six months of 2014 for an average of 35 protests per day. This represents a 278% increase in frequency over the first half of 2013. The majority of protesting began in the first week of February, reaching peak numbers in the middle of that month, followed by a progressive decline in numbers. According to the SVCO, 445 protests occurred in January; 2,248 in February; 1,423 in March; 1,131 in April; 633 in May; and 489 in June.[16]

Domestic reactions[edit]

Government[edit]

Policemen from the Bolivarian National Police watching protesters in Maracaibo.

In March 2014, the Venezuelan government suggested that the protesters wanted to repeat the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt.[237] President Maduro also calls the opposition "fascists".[238]

President Maduro has said: "Beginning February 12, we have entered a new period in which the extreme right, unable to win democratically, seeks to win by fear, violence, subterfuge and media manipulation. They are more confident because the US government has always supported them despite their violence."[239] The Venezuelan government claimed that the United States government is actively supporting the opposition and has been accused of meddling with Venezuelan affairs by trying to destabilize President Maduro through its "soft coup" tactic.[240] In an op-ed in The New York Times, President Maduro said that the protesters actions had caused several millions of dollars' worth of damage to public property. He continued, saying that the protesters have an undemocratic agenda to overthrow a democratically elected government, and that they are supported by the wealthy while receiving no support from the poor. He also added that crimes by government supporters will never be tolerated and that all perpetrators, no matter who they support, will be held accountable for their actions, and that the government has opened a Human Rights Council to investigate any issues, as "every victim deserves justice".[37] In an interview with The Guardian, President Maduro pointed to the United States' history of backing coups, citing examples such as the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état, 1973 Chilean coup d'état, and 2004 Haitian coup d'état.[24] President Maduro also highlighted whistleblower Edward Snowden's revelations, U.S. state department documents, and 2006 WikiLeaks cables from the U.S.'s ambassador to Venezuela outlining plans to "'divide', 'isolate' and 'penetrate' the Chávez government" and revealing opposition group funding, some through USAid (which, according to an AP investigation,[241] supposedly funded attempts to create political unrest and rioting in Cuba through social media) and the Office of Transition Initiatives, including $5 million earmarked for overt support of opposition political groups in 2014.[24] The United States has denied all involvement in the Venezuelan protests with President Barack Obama saying, "Rather than trying to distract from protests by making false accusations against U.S. diplomats, Venezuela's government should address the people's legitimate grievances".[242][243] USAID had also denied the alleged attempts of causing unrest in Cuba saying "the program was similar to others that the agency has financed in Africa, Asia and Latin America" and that the "programs are part of our mission to promote open communications”.[241]

Maduro also claimed that the government of Panama was interfering with the Venezuelan government.[244] At the same time the Venezuelan government supporters commemorated the first year since the death of President Chávez, the Venezuelan government severed diplomatic relations with Panama. Three days following, the government declared cessation of economic ties with Panama.

The National Boliviarian Militia, a "political army" created by Hugo Chávez that has hundreds of thousands of members in service, including military reservists and employees of state and public enterprises.[245] The militia also supports the government and its members are "under the direct command of the president" as the Commander in Chief of the National Armed Forces and "are trained to defend the (Bolivarian) revolution of internal and external enemies". It has been alleged by El Mundo that the militia has sometimes used "violence to silence dissent or journalists who do not bow to the discourse of the regime".[245]

Venezuelan security forces are alleged to have committed extensive human rights violations against protesters and journalists.[246] El Nacional claimed that the objective of those attacking opposition protesters is to kill since many of the protesters that were killed were shot in vulnerable areas like the head and that, "9 of the 15 dead people were from the 12F demonstrators, who were injured by state security forces or paramilitaries linked to the ruling party."[187] NTN24 reported that some protesters were allegedly tortured and raped by government forces who detained them during the protests.[247] A lawyer reported that National Guardsmen and individuals with "Cuban accents" in Mérida forced three arrested adolescents to confess to crimes they did not commit and then the adolescents "kneeled and were forced to raise their arms then shot with buckshot throughout their body" during an alleged "target practice".[193][248] El Universal has claimed that Melvin Collazos of SEBIN, and Jonathan Rodríquez a bodyguard of the Minister of the Interior and Justice Miguel Rodríguez Torres, are in custody after shooting unarmed, fleeing, protesters several times in violation of protocol.[188]

Tear gas being used against opposition protesters in Altamira, Caracas.

President Maduro has organized pro-government demonstrations to counter the opposition and announced that violent anti-government protests are prohibited.[249] On 17 February 2014, Francisco Ameliach, governor of Carabobo, announced that protest marches are not allowed in the neighborhoods located south of the city of Valencia, due to security concerns. He warned from his Twitter account that the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela Diosdado Cabello may order the Bolivar and Chavez Battle Units (UBCH) to attack protesters saying, "Gringos (Americans) and fascists beware".[250][251][252] On the same day, armed government intelligence personnel illegally forced their way into the headquarters of Popular Will in Caracas and held individuals that were inside at gunpoint.[253]

Sukhoi fighter jets of the Venezuelan Air Force were seen flying over San Cristóbal, Táchira, Venezuela on 20 February and President Nicolas Maduro ordered paratroopers of the 41st Airborne Brigade, 4th Armored Division, Venezuelan Army on standby on recommendations from the Minister of Interior and Justice, Lieutenant General Miguel Rodríguez Torres.[254][255] Personnel from the Bolivarian National Police and the Venezuelan National Guard were also seen firing weapons and bombs on buildings where opposition protesters were gathered.[256] During a press conference, Minister of the Interior and Justice Miguel Rodriguez Torres denied allegations of Cuban special forces known as the "Black Wasps" of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces assisting the Venezuelan government with protests saying that the only Cubans in Venezuela were helping with medicine and sports.[257] The allegations that members of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces were in Venezuela began when many people reported images of a military transport plane deploying uniformed soldiers alleged to be Cuban.[258]

During a news conference on 21 February, Maduro once again accused the United States and NATO of trying to overthrow his government through media and claimed that Elias Jaua will be able to prove it.[259] President Maduro asked United States president Barack Obama for help with negotiations.[260] Maduro also announced that those SEBIN personnel who fired at protesters have been arrested for their actions.[261] President Maduro decreed 27 February as "The Day of No Work in Venezuela" in respect for the fallen of the protests (that date was also the 25th year anniversary of the historic Caracazo of 1989).[262] Also, during a public speech at the Miraflores Palace, President Maduro spoke out against the media, international artists, and criticized the President of the United States saying, "I invoke Obama and his African American spirit, to give the order to respect Venezuela."[263]

Protesters responding to tear gas on 12 March 2014.

On 23 February, about 30 military units arrived at the residence of retired brigadier general Ángel Vivas to arrest him for "training" protestors to place barbed wire over the roads to injure government forces and pro-government protestors, resulting in one fatality in the process and many more wounded.[210][264] According to CBC, Vivas "rose to prominence in 2007 when he resigned as head of the Defence Ministry's engineering department rather than order his subalterns to swear to the Cuban-inspired oath 'Socialist Fatherland or death'."[265] Vivas reported that "Cubans and thugs" were attacking his house and moments later appeared atop the roof of his house wearing a flak jacket along with an assault rifle saying "Come find me Maduro!". National Guardsmen made a barricade in front of Vivas' house but neighbors and supporters defended Vivas by placing a barricade of vehicles in front of the troops. The troops retreated without arresting Vivas after the citizens refused to leave the area.[266][267][268][269] According to reporter Berenice Gomez for Radio Caracas, the daughters of Hugo Chávez and the family of Diosdado Cabello have fled the country on a private jet to stay in Argentina.[270] It was reported that the Venezuelan National Guard was firing both buckshot at protestors.[271] Images were also released showing members of the People's Guard in Carabobo beating a woman and an elderly man with rifles.[272][273] The military set up a field hospital at Juan Vicente Gómez International Airport in San Antonio del Táchira to treat casualties of the protest actions.[274]

VN-4s belonging to the Bolivarian National Guard on the street.

The Government of Venezuela held a National Peace conference on 26 February that was not attended by opposition figures because according to the opposition, "any talks must be predicated on an agenda agreed upon in advance and the participation of a third party".[275] President Maduro criticized international artists and celebrities saying, "They think because they are famous and we like their songs, they can determine what to do with the country, they were wrong about Venezuela, Venezuela is to be respected."[276] On 27 February, the government issued an arrest warrant for Carlos Vecchio, a leader of Popular Will on various charges.[277] On 1 March the Venezuelan Attorney General, Luisa Ortega, denied the opposition's claims of students being the main target of the Venezuelan government, when in fact they represent 35% of all detainees. She also stated that at least 27 government agents are being investigated for violations against human rights, plus another five accused of killing three people on the first day of protests. Meanwhile, President Maduro announced that a National Guard officer had died and another two had been wounded by sniper fire.[278] On 2 March, the National Guard used tear gas on protesters and played loud music to prevent them from being heard.[279]

During the last few weeks of March, the government began making accusations and arresting government leaders. Opposition mayor Vicencio Scarano Spisso was tried and sentenced to ten and a half months of jail for failing to comply with a court order to take down barricades in his municipality which resulted in various deaths and injuries in the previous days.[280] Adán Chávez, older brother of Hugo Chávez, has joined the government's effort of criticizing opposition mayors who have supported the protest actions, stating that they "could end up like Scarano and Ceballos" by being charged for various cases.[281] During a press conference, President of the National Assembly Diosdado Cabello said that the government accused María Corina Machado of 29 counts of murder due to the deaths resulting from the protests.[282] On 25 March, President Maduro announced that three Venezuelan Air Force generals were arrested for allegedly planning a "coup" against the government and in support for the protests and will be charged accordingly.[283] The accusations were called by David Smilde of the Washington Office on Latin America as a form of unity and said, "When you talk about conspiracies, it's basically a way of rallying the troops. It's a way of saying 'this is no time for dissent'".[284] 225 Venezuelan military officers rejected the allegations against the three air force generals stating that to bring them before a military court "would be violating their constitutional rights, as it is essential first to submit a preliminary hearing" and asked the National Guard "to be limited to fulfill its functions under articles 320, 328 and 329 of the Constitution and cease their illegal activities repression of public order".[285] The allegations against the air force generals were also seen by former Venezuelan officials and commanders as a "media maneuver" to gain support from UNASUR since President Maduro timed it for the meeting and was not able to give details.[286] On 3 April, President Maduro denounced a "secessionist" plan against Venezuela planned by the opposition. He declared that the Táchira, Mérida, Carabobo, Lara, Nueva Esparta and Zulia states would be part of the secessionist plan, that its objective was to divide the nation and that the states that accomplished it would be autonomous or would merge with the Republic of Colombia.[287][288][289][290][291][292][293]

On April 29, Captain Juan Carlos Caguaripano Scott of the Bolivarian National Guard criticized the Venezuelan government in a YouTube video. He said that "As a national guard member who loves this country and is worried about our future and our children". He continued saying that, “There are sufficient reasons to demand the resignation of the president, to free the political prisoners” and said that the government conducted a "fratricidal war". This video was posted days after Scott was accused of plotting a coup against the government "joining three generals from the air force and another captain of the national guard already accused of plotting against the state".[294]

On 3 June, President Maduro claimed on his radio talk show that the United States and the Venezuelan opposition had plans to assassinate him saying Maria Corina Machado was involved in the plans, called her a "killer", and said that there was evidence from emails that he "did not want to publicly display".[295]

On 12 September 2014, President Maduro said that "We are not going to have even a minimum of tolerance with the protests ... I will have no hesitation in ensuring peace and justice, which is what the people want" following the "flare ups" of protests in August and September.[296]

Opposition[edit]

María Corina Machado and Lilian Tintori at an opposition gathering.

Organized opposition protests began during the month of February. On 1 February when Leopoldo Lopez called upon college students to protest peacefully against the scarcity, insecurity, and shortages that had occurred in the country.[297] The next day, opposition leaders Leopoldo Lopez and María Corina Machado decide for the march to be on 12 February during Venezuela's National Youth Day celebrations, also commemorating the bicentennial year of the 1814 Battle of La Victoria.[298] The opposition demonstrations that followed have been called by some as "Middle Class Protests".[299] However, some lower class Venezuelans told student protesters visiting them that they also want to protest against the "worsening food shortages, crippling inflation and unchecked violent crime" but are afraid to since pro-government groups known as "colectivos" had "violently suppressed" demonstrations and had allegedly killed some opposition protesters too.[300]

On 15 February, the father of Leopoldo Lopez said "They are looking for Leopoldo, my son, but in a very civilized way" after his house was searched through by the government.[301] The next day, Popular Will leader Leopoldo Lopez announced that he would turn himself in to the Venezuelan government after one more protest saying, "I haven't committed any crime. If there is a decision to legally throw me in jail I'll submit myself to this persecution."[302] On 18 February, Lopez explained during his speech how he could have left the country, but "stayed to fight for the oppressed people in Venezuela".[303] Lopez surrendered to police after giving his speech and was transferred to the Palacio de Justicia in Caracas where his hearing was postponed until the next day.[304] Human Rights Watch demanded the immediate release of Lopez saying, "The arrest of Leopoldo López is an atrocious violation of one of the most basic principles of due process: you cannot imprison someone without evidence linking him with a crime".[305][306] Hackers from multiple countries, including the internet vigilante group Anonymous, have infiltrated Venezuelan government websites due to the alleged repression and censorship of the people in Venezuela.[307][308] A member of Anonymous said, "I would say this is one of the biggest cooperative operations involving South American Anons and Anons from the rest of the world to date" when members of another hacker group, LulzSec Peru, also hacked into the government's United Socialist Party of Venezuela Twitter official account.[309]

Opposition medic tending to a protester.
A female protester wearing a Guy Fawkes mask.

On 19 February, the MUD leader Henrique Capriles came from his silence that evening confronting Francisco Ameliach, government officials and denouncing the violence the government was using on the protesters.[310] Henrique Capriles said he did not attend the National Peace Conference on 26 February because he did not want dialogue until he saw "results" from the government saying that, "it is the government that has to listen to our people, not the people listen to the government".[311] In response to the death of Miss Tourism Venezuela Génesis Carmona, groups of women planned to defend the family of Génesis and protest her killing on 22 February.[312] Juan Requesens, leader of a student movement, called on the Catholic Church to mediate the situation in the country and help guarantee that human rights of Venezuelans will not be violated in the future.[313] Leopoldo Lopez also had murder charges dropped during a hearing inside a bus outside Ramo Verde Prison.[314] On 21 February, Leopoldo Lopez said to his supporters from prison, "I'm fine, I ask you not to give up, I won't," while President Maduro replied to protesters, "I recommend they buy some stainless steel pots to last for a good 10, 20, 30 or 40 years, because the revolution is here for a long time!"[315]

In an op-ed for the New York Times titled “Venezuela’s Failing State," Lopez lamented “from the Ramo Verde military prison outside Caracas" that for the past fifteen years, “the definition of ‘intolerable’ in this country has declined by degrees until, to our dismay, we found ourselves with one of the highest murder rates in the Western Hemisphere, a 57 percent inflation rate and a scarcity of basic goods unprecedented outside of wartime.” The economic devastation, he added, “is matched by an equally oppressive political climate. Since student protests began on Feb. 4, more than 1,500 protesters have been detained, more than 30 have been killed, and more than 50 people have reported that they were tortured while in police custody,” thus exposing “the depth of this government's criminalization of dissent.” Addressing his incarceration, López recounted that on February 12, he had “urged Venezuelans to exercise their legal rights to protest and free speech – but to do so peacefully and without violence. Three people were shot and killed that day. An analysis of video by the news organization Últimas Noticias determined that shots were fired from the direction of plainclothes military troops.” Yet after the protest, “President Nicolás Maduro personally ordered my arrest on charges of murder, arson and terrorism….To this day, no evidence of any kind has been presented.”[31]

Henrique Capriles showed support for Lopez saying, "Leopoldo Lopez is innocent, what they have done with Leopoldo is to feed the tension" and called student protests in the street "peaceful".[316] Ángel Vivas, a retired Venezuelan general, explained why he thought Venezuelans need to defend the country from foreigners, saying "Cubans are in all structures of the Venezuelan state" and also explained that he told protesters to set up barricades in order to defend themselves against attacks from the National Guard.[317]

The student leader at University of the Andes marched with protesters and delivered a document to the Cuban Embassy saying, "Let's go to the Cuban Embassy to ask them to stop Cuban interference in Venezuela. We know for a fact that Cubans are in the barracks' and Miraflores giving instructions to suppress the people."[318][319] A video was released of an opposition protester who gave hugs to an entire line of government personnel and even received a few hugs back.[320]

A barricade at Altamira Square in Caracas.

Opposition protests continued through the month of March. Beaches that are typically full of celebrations during the beginning of lent for Carnaval were empty due to the opposition protests.[321] Protests continued during the Carnaval holiday after President Nicolas Maduro declared nearly a week of holiday events.[322] A group of women by the name "Mujeres por la Vida" gathered to remind Venezuelans of those killed during the protest with opposition leader María Corina Machado saying, "Mr. Maduro and his regime, want to bury the faces of young Venezuelans who have been killed for their repression, their memory and their names, and thus their guilt in each of these events that have left wounded, killed, persecuted and tortured".[323] On 22 March, thousands of opposition protestors demonstrated throughout Venezuela in the cities of Caracas, Mérida, Barquisimeto, San Cristóbal, Zulia, Cumaná, Valencia, Bolívar and Coro.[324] Caracas had one of the largest demonstrations where thousands of opposition protesters gathered in a protest called "Por la Libertad".[325] Both opposition and government supporters protests were convoked in the capital city Caracas to protest for the release of political prisoners and against the alleged vandalism and destruction caused by opposition protesters respectively.[326][327] María Corina Machado was arrested when she arrived at Maiquetia Airport but was later released.[328]

Public support of protests[edit]

Since the outset of the protests, peaceful daytime demonstrations advocating for policy changes and "redress of misgovernment" have received widespread support among the public.[329] However, calls for regime change have been met with minimal backing while opposition leaders have struggled to win over politically-unaffiliated Venezuelans and members of the lower classes.

Support by the poor[edit]

Since the majority of protests have been limited to more affluent areas of major cities, many working-class citizens view the protests as unrepresentative of them and not working in their interests.[329] This is especially evident in the capital Caracas, where in the wealthier east side of the city, protests have widely disrupted daily activities, while life in the poorer west side of the city—hit especially hard by the country's economic struggles—has largely continued as normal. Government support is also broad in western provinces where the proximity to Columbia has created a contraband industry around selling subsidized goods across the border, leading to the worst shortages in Venezuela.[28] The New York Times describes this "split personality" as representative of a long-standing class divide within the country and a potentially crippling fault within the anti-government movement, recognized both by opposition leaders and President Maduro.[27]

Despite this, many in Venezuela's slums, seen as "bulwarks of [government] support" thanks to social welfare programs, support the protesters due to frustrations over crime, shortages, and inflation.[330] In some poor neighborhoods like Petare in western Caracas, residents that had benefitted from such government programs, joined protests against inflation, high murder rates and shortages.[331] However, demonstrations in poor communities remain rare, partially out of fear of armed colectivos acting as community enforcers and distrust of opposition leaders. An Associated Press investigation that followed two students encouraging anti-government support in poor districts found much discontent among the lower classes, but those Venezuelans were generally more worried about possibly losing pensions, subsidies, education, and healthcare if the opposition were to gain power, and many stated they felt leaders on both sides were only concerned with their own interests and ambitions.[330] The Guardian has also sought out viewpoints from the Venezuelan public. Respondents reiterated many of the core protest themes for their protester support: struggles with shortages in basic goods; crime; mismanagement of oil revenue; international travel struggles caused by difficulties in buying airline tickets and the "bureaucratic nightmare" of buying foreign currency; and frustration over the government's rhetoric regarding the alleged "far-right" nature of the opposition.[332] Others offered a variety of reasons for not joining the protests, including: support for the government due to improvements in education, healthcare, and public transportation; pessimism over whether Maduro's ouster would lead to meaningful changes; and the belief that a capitalist model would be no more effective than a socialist model in a corrupt government system.[333] However, later into the protests, 23 de Enero, a poor "pro-Chavez" barrio in Caracas, banged pots in protest after having more than 24 hours without electricity just days after a large blackout affected Venezuela days earlier.[334][335]

Protest coverage[edit]

Public support for the protests has also been affected by media coverage. Some outlets have downplayed, and sometimes ignored, the larger daytime protests, allowing the protest movement to be defined by its "tiny, violent guarimbero clique," whose radicalism undermines support for the mainline opposition and seemingly reinforces the government's narrative of "fascists" working to overthrow the government[329] in what Maduro described as a "slow motion coup."[28] An activist belonging to the Justice First party said, "Media censorship means people here only know the government version that spoiled rich kids are burning down wealthy parts of Caracas to foment a coup," creating a disconnect between opposition leaders and working-class Venezuelans that keeps protest support from spreading.[28]

Analysis of support[edit]

Some Venezuelans contend that the protests—seen as "rich people trying to get back lost economic perks"—have only served to unite the poor in defense of the revolution.[28] Analysts such as Steve Ellner, a political science professor at the University of the East in Puerto La Cruz, have expressed doubt over the protests' ultimate effectiveness if the opposition cannot create broader social mobilization.[28] Eric Olson, associate director for Latin America at the Woodrow Wilson International Center, said disruption caused by protestors had allowed Maduro to use the "greedy economic class" as a scapegoat, which has been an effective narrative for gaining support because people "are more inclined to believe conspiracy theories of price gouging than the intricacies of underlining economic policies."[28]

Poll and survey data[edit]

Alfredo Keller & Associates[edit]

In a survey by Alfredo Keller & Associates, 40% sided with the opposition while 37% sided with the government and 23% were independent. 64% of Venezuelans thought the government under President Maduro is worse than under President Chavez with only 39% of the population supporting President Maduro. 69% believed that the current situation is due to the government. 43% agree that the government must leave constitutionally while 37% disagree. In cases of various debates, 56% agreed with the opposition and 38% agreed with the government. 57% of Venezuelans disliked President Maduro. Venezuelans had positive opinions on Democratic Unity Roundtable, Fedecamaras and the United States while Venezuelans had negative opinions on the United Socialist Party of Venezuela and the Government of Cuba.[336][337][338][339]

In a June survey, 67% of those questioned found the situation in the country negative, 60% did not believe socialism turned Venezuela into a "world power" and 69% do not believe the Venezuelan government or the economy is successful. Respondents also said that if elections were held at the time, 42% would vote for MUD while 35% would vote for PSUV.[340]

Croes, Gutierrez & Associates[edit]

A Venebarometro survey by Croes, Gutierrez & Associates, 42.8%, agreed with the opposition while 38.0% agreed with the government. 50.9% said that the government under President Maduro has done a bad job at managing the country. 54.3% distance themselves from President Maduro's government. 52.9% think the arrest of Leopoldo Lopez is unjust. 69.7% believed the situation in the country was bad with insecurity being the largest principal problem. 51.3% of Venezuelans believed the government and President Maduro was responsible for the problems in Venezuela. 67.2% thought the protests were fair. 60.5% thought human rights violations were caused by the government. 69.2% said that the protests have helped show flaws in President Maduro's government. 65.3% don't believe that colectivos should go to the streets to defend the government of President Maduro.[341][342]

Datanálisis[edit]

Approval rating of President Nicolas Maduro.
Sources: Datanálisis

Luis Vicente León, the president of Datanálisis, announced on April 6 his findings that 63% of Venezuelans reject the form of protests that are taking place throughout the country; he noted that this is down from 70% who supported the protests at their start. He also announced that the results of his latest opinion studies showed President Maduro at between 42% and 45% popularity, while no opposition leader surpassed 40%.[343]

Another Datanálisis poll released on 5 May found that 79.5% of Venezuelans evaluated the country's situation as "negative". Maduro's disapproval rating had risen to 59.2%, up from 44.6% on November 2013. It also found that only 9.6% of the population would support the re-election of Maduro in 2019. The poll revealed that the Democratic Unity Roundtable had an approval rating of 39.6% compared to 50% of those who disapproved it; while the ruling United Socialist Party of Venezuela had a 37.4% approval rating, and a disapproval rating of 55%.[344]

Datos[edit]

In March, a survey conducted by Datos, a Venezuelan group focusing on public opinion and consumers, found that more than half of Venezuelans blame the Maduro government for the country's problems, and that 64% believe the government should get out of power constitutionally as soon as possible.[345] In the current political situation, 43.7% agreed with the opposition while only 27.1% agreed with the government. When Venezuelans were asked about the overall situation in the country, 72.0% found the situation negative with more than half thinking it has worsened since last year when President Maduro took office.[91][92][346]

Gallup[edit]

According to a Gallup poll, 52% of Venezuelans disapprove of President Maduro compared to 34% who approve. Confidence with the government dropped to a record low of 39%. 62% of citizens do not have confidence in the military. Gallup said that citizens protested because they believe that the "courts, national government -- including the national legislature -- and military negatively, and on any account are firmly under the control of the Maduro-led chavista party" and that "the perceived sickness in all the major organs of the body politic, many Venezuelans may feel as if they have no choice but to march on the streets, demanding justice and wise governance".[76]

Hercon Consultants[edit]

A survey in late March by Hercon Consultants showed that 53.7% of Venezuelans believed they lived under a dictatorship. 61.3% of respondents said they would vote for an opposition candidate if there were another elections while 32.9% said they would vote for Nicolas Maduro. 54.7% sided with the opposition. 73.5% say that opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez is innocent of the crimes he has been charged with. 57% believed that the students are the "protagonist" of the political change in the country. 69% believe the situation in Venezuela is heading on a bad path. 68.5% think things will not get better in the next 3 months. 54.7% perceive that the current problems the country is facing is due to President Maduro. 61.3% believe that the government under President Maduro is worse. 51.7% believed the Venezuelan government should be changed constitutionally. 69.8% disagreed with the government's practice that is perceived as a "Cuban model".[347][348]

Hinterlaces[edit]

Surveys conducted by the private consultancy firm Hinterlaces found that 87% of Venezuelans reject violent demonstrations and barricades as instruments of protest, and that 79% view the current protests are potentially worsening the situation in general terms.[349] Hinterlaces also found, in studies conducted in March, that 9 out of 10 Venezuelans favor peaceful, electoral and constitutional solutions, while less than 11% favor the President's immediate departure of the President.[350][351] When asked about the management of President Maduro, 57% rated it as 'positive', whereas 41% rated it as 'negative'.[352][353]

In a study conducted between April 1 and 7, Hinterlaces found that President Maduro has the support of a majority of Venezuelans: 51% of Venezuelans approve the management of the President, who won with similar percentage one year earlier. When asked about the possibility of Maduro to solve the country's problems, 52% of Venezuelans responded that he has the ability to do so, while 46% think that he does not.[354]

International Consulting Services[edit]

Opinion polls by International Consulting Services (ICS) also show that the government maintains considerable support among the Venezuelan people. ICS surveys conducted at the end of February found that 81% of Venezuelans believed that the protests were violent,[355] and that 85.4% disagreed with their continuation.[207][356] In surveys conducted in March, ICS found that 87.1% of Venezuelans considered that the protests 'in general' have been violent[357] and also indicated that 63.3% trust President Maduro to solve the country's problems.[358] According to the survey, if another election was held, Maduro would be re-elected with 55.8% of the votes (while 33.7% would favor the opposition candidate).[359][360]

Venezuelan Data Analysis Institute[edit]

In a survey by Venezuelan Data Analysis Institute (IVAD), 55% of Venezuelans believed the Venezuelan government was no longer a democracy. 55.3% agreed with the opposition while 42.4% disagreed. 71.4% of Venezuelans thought positively about the student movement. 53% agreed with the idea of the resignation of President Maduro. If an election were to be held, 52.1% would not vote for President Maduro while 33.4% would. 57.5% thought negatively about the government of Nicolas Maduro. 67% thought Leopoldo Lopez was a political prisoner. 74% said the country's situation is negative with 53% saying the government is responsible for the country's problems.[361][362][363]

In April surveys, IVAD reported that 53.5% of Venezuelans demand the resignation of President Maduro and blame him for the economic situation.[364] They also reported that over 70% believed that Venezuela was in an economic and political crisis. 86.0% agreed that the student movements were important. 67.7% thought that the protest showed President Maduro's failings. 60.9% do not believe President Maduro will solve the economic crisis. 51.6% of respondents agreed with that Leopoldo Lopez is held due to "political reasons" while 29.9% thought he was imprisoned justly. 54.3% disagreed with the removal of Maria Corina Machado from the National Assembly while 36.1% agreed with the move.[365]

Media[edit]

Domestic media[edit]

Protester holding a sign criticizing what the Venezuelan state media tells its citizens.

The Inter American Press Association protested against the "official censorship" of media by the government in Venezuela which included blocking the internet, banning channels, revoking foreign media credentials, harassing reporters and limiting resources for newspapers.[366] The Association of Foreign News Correspondents in Venezuela also accused the government of assault, abuse, harassment, threats and robberies of reporters.[367] The National Union of Journalists (SNTP) in Venezuela has said there has been at least 181 attacks on journalists and that there has been "82 cases of harassment, 40 physical assaults, 35 robberies or destruction of the work material, 23 arrests and a bullet wound" and that at least 20 attacks were performed by "colectivos".[368][369] In response to the newspaper shortages and closing of 13 Venezuelan newspapers, the Colombian newspaper organization Andiarios has sent a caravan of trucks carrying 52 tons of resources to El Nacional, El Impulso and El Nuevo País as part of the "We are all Venezuela. No press freedom, no democracy" movement to help defend "press freedom and the right to information".[370] Newspaper organizations in Puerto Rico, Panama and Trinidad and Tobago have also shipped newspaper to Venezuela to help ease newspaper shortages caused by price restrictions set by the Venezuelan government.[371]

Media coverage in Venezuela has been limited by the government; "anti-government television stations such as RCTV and Globovision had their licenses revoked and were forced to undergo changes in ownership, respectively."[372] The government has, according to the opposition, "a powerful structure of radio stations, television stations and newspapers to have a communicational hegemony with their public funds" and does not provide reliable information from the Central Bank about the economy or any statistics about crime to journalists.[373]

A group of Venezuelan artists have joined a group called "Eco", to speak out against violations and crimes that have happened in Venezuela during the protests.[374] VTV made a satirical parody of the videos made by the Eco group.[375]

On 15 March, President of the National Assembly Diosdado Cabello announced a new commission called the "Truth Commission" whose establishment was ordered by the president in order to show videos and images of "where fascism is."[376]

Attacks on reporters[edit]

The Association of Foreign News Correspondents in Venezuela accused the government of assaulting reporters.[367] The National Union of Journalists (SNTP) states that in the first few months of protests, 205 attacks have been made on 152 press workers.[368][377][378] The National Institute of Journalists (CNP) stated that 262 attacks on the press occurred between February to June.[379] According to El Nacional, the Bolivarian National Intelligence Service (SEBIN) had raided facilities of reporters and human rights defenders several times.[380] It was also stated that SEBIN occasionally intimidated reporters by following them in unmarked vehicles where SEBIN personnel would "watch their homes and offices, the public places like bakeries and restaurants, and would send them text messages to their cell phones".[380] On 22 April, reporters from La Patilla that were covering events in Santa Fe were retained by the National Guard. The team of reporters were accused of being "fake journalists", had to show their ID's to the National Guardsmen and had their pictures taken. They were later released without further complications.[381] In another incident, a photojournalist from La Patilla was assaulted by National Police who tried to take his camera and hit him in the head with the butt of a shotgun while he covering protests in Las Mercedes.[382][383][384] A week after being attacked in Las Mercedes, the same photojournalist for La Patilla was assaulted by the National Police again who tried to take his camera while covering protests in the Las Minitas neighborhood in Baruta.[385] While covering protests on 14 May, a group of reporters said they were assaulted by the National Guard saying they were fired at and that the National Guard attempted to arrest a reporter.[386] On 27 May, a reporter for La Patilla was attacked for the third time while covering clashes when he was shot by the National Guard.[387] Two reporters were injured on 5 June after being shot with buckshot coming from a National Guard vehicle and reported it to Lieutenant Colonel Rafael Quero Silva of the National Guard, who denied their accounts.[388] On 3 July, during a protest near the Catholic University of Táchira, an NTN24 reporter said he was arrested, beaten and had his passport and ID taken by National Police officers.[389][390]

Resignations[edit]

There were 34 resignations and 17 dismissals of journalists during the protests. The head of investigative journalists at Últimas Noticias resigned after being told not to do a story on guarimbas and after the manager tried to force her to say that the guarimbas were funded, that they were not protesters and to conclude the story by condemning them. While on air, Reimy Chávez, a news anchor for Globovision also resigned and was directed out of the studio by security guards.[391] A cameraman who resigned from Globovisión shared images that were censored by the news agency showing National Guard troops and colectivos working together during the protests.[392] A journalist for Globovision, Carlos Arturo Albino, resigned saying it was because "I do not want to be complicit silence. I'm not trained to be silent."[393]

Foreign media[edit]

The Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights said that, "Documenting the protests has been a challenge for members of the media and NGO's as the government has stifled the flow of information" and that "Journalists have been threatened and arrested, and had their equipment confiscated or had materials erased from their equipment."[394] Equipment belonging to CNN was "stolen at gunpoint" and possibly destroyed by government forces.[395] Those reporting the protests feel threatened by President Maduro who has created "an increasingly asphyxiating climate" for them.[396] Television stations in Venezuela have hardly displayed live coverage of protests and had resulted in many opposition viewers moving to CNN.[397]

President Maduro threatened to force CNN out of Venezuela saying, "I've asked the (information) minister to tell CNN we have started the administrative process to remove them from Venezuela if they don't rectify (their behavior). Enough! I won't accept war propaganda against Venezuela."[398][399] On 21 February, the government revoked press credentials of seven CNN journalists with CNN responding to the government by saying, "CNN has reported both sides of the tense situation in Venezuela, even with very limited access to government officials ... We hope the government will reconsider its decision. Meanwhile, we will continue reporting on Venezuela in the fair, accurate and balanced manner we are known for."[400]

Censorship[edit]

A sign reading, "Why do the Venezuelans protest? Insecurity, injustice, shortages, censorship, violence, corruption. Protesting is not a crime; it's a right".

The secretary general of Reporters Without Borders said in a letter to President Maduro condemning the censorship by the Venezuelan government and responding to Delcy Rodríguez who denied attacks on journalists by saying, "I can assure you that the cases documented by Reporters Without Borders and other NGOs such as Espacio Público, IPYS and Human Rights Watch were not imagined."[401] According to Spanish newspaper El País, National Telecommunications Commission of Venezuela (Conatel) warned Internet service providers in Venezuela that they, "must comply without delay with orders to block websites with content contrary to the interests of the Government" in order to prevent "destabilization and unrest".[402] It was also reported by El País that there will be possible automations of DirecTV, CANTV, Movistar and possible regulation of YouTube and Twitter.[402]

Internet censorship[edit]

Images on Twitter were reported to be unavailable for at least some users in Venezuela for 3 days (12–15 February) after allegedly being blocked by the government.[403][404] Twitter spokesman Nu Wexler stated that, "I can confirm that the images are now blocked Twitter in Venezuela" adding that "[w]e believe it the government that is blocking".[405][406] However, the Venezuelan government published a statement saying that they did not block Twitter or images on Twitter, and implied that it was a technical problem.[407]

It was reported that Internet access was unavailable in San Cristóbal, Táchira for up to about half a million citizens from an alleged blockage of service by the government.[408][409][410][411][412] This happened after President Maduro threatened Táchira that he would "go all in" and that citizens "would be surprised".[413] Internet access was reported to be available again one day and a half later.[414]

According to the Huffington Post, the alleged internet blockage by the government seems to have been directed at the opposition since it prevented live coverage of government crackdowns with Zello announcing that CANTV blocked the use of its walkie-talkie app that was used by opposition protesters.[415] In an interview with La Patilla, Chief Technology Officer of Zello, Alexey Gavrilov, said that after they opened four new servers for Venezuela, it still appeared that the same direct blocking from CANTV is the cause of the Zello outage.[416] The Venezuelan government said Zello was blocked due to "terrorist acts" and statements by TeleSUR about radical opposition after the government monitored staged messages from "internet trolls" that used a Honeypot trap against authorities.[417]

State media censorship[edit]

During her speech at the National Assembly, María Corina Machado had the camera taken off of her while she was presenting those who were killed and while criticizing Luisa Ortega Díaz saying, "I heard the testimony of Juan Manuel Carrasco who was raped and tortured and the Attorney General of this country has the inhuman condition to deny and even mock".[418]

Censoring of domestic media[edit]

One threat a journalist faced was a note placed on her car by someone belonging to the Tupamaros. The note was titled, "Operation Defense of the Socialist Revolution, Anti-Imperialist, and Madurista Chavista" said that her actions "promote destabilizing actions of fascist groups and stateless persons who seek to overthrow the legitimate government of President Nicolas Maduro, probably financed and paid by the squalid and bourgeois right have burned the country". They gave the reporter and ultimatum saying they knew where her and her family stayed telling her to "immediately stop communication" or she would suffer consequences in order to "enforce the Constitution and keep alive the legacy of our supreme commander and eternal Hugo Chavez".[419]

A cameraman who resigned from Globovisión shared images that were censored by the news agency showing National Guard troops and colectivos working together during the protests.[392]

Censoring of foreign media[edit]

The Colombian news channel NTN24 was taken off the air by CONATEL (the Venezuelan government agency appointed for the regulation, supervision and control over telecommunications) for "promoting violence".[420] President Maduro also denounced the Agence France-Presse (AFP) for manipulating information about the protests.[421][422] CNN teams covering the protests had their equipment taken by government security forces and possibly even destroyed.[395] On 25 February, President Maduro proposed taking CNN off the cable grid and replacing it with Zum TV, a "Venezuelan youth channel" saying about CNN, "There is a case against the illegal practices of sponsoring violence and terrorism ... you replace the CNN channel that wants terrorist violence, lying about Venezuela, bringing the civil war and justifying foreign intervention and would rather give the world a peaceful channel like Zum TV ".[423] The Argentinian news website, Infobae.com, was blocked for showing pictures of the corpse of the murdered pro-government deputy, Robert Serra.[424][425]

Social media[edit]

Social media is an essential tool for Venezuelans to show the news in the streets, which contradicts most official news from the government and most stories have to be compiled together from cell phone videos on small websites.[426] The popularity of social media to some Venezuelans is due to a lack of trust, supposed propaganda from state owned media and alleged "self-censorship" that private media now uses in order to please the government.[372] According to Mashable, Twitter is very popular in Venezuela and according to an opposition figure, "Venezuela is a dictatorship, and the only free media is Twitter,"[427] Protesters use Twitter since "traditional media" has been unable to cover the protests and so that, "the international community can notice what's happening and help us spread the word in every corner,"[427] However, the government has been accused of using Twitter as a propaganda tool when it allegedly "purchased followers, created fake accounts to boost pro-government hashtags, and hired a group of users to harass critics" and claiming protesters were "fascists" that were trying to commit a "coup d'état".[427]

False media[edit]

"The social networks have come to be an alternative media," states Tarek Yorde, a Caracas-based political analyst. "But both sides, the government and opposition, use them to broadcast false information."[372] Some photographs, often outdated or from protests in various countries around the world including Syria, Chile and Singapore, have been circulated by the opposition through social media to foment dissent.[428][429] In an interview with The Nation, Venezuelan writer and member of the Venezuelan Council of State Luis Britto García referenced such photographs as evidence of the opposition's campaign to falsely portray the protests as having widespread student support when the protests instead involve, as he claimed, only a few hundred students in a country with 9.5 million of them.[430]

Usage of false media also applies to the government when President of the National Assembly, Diosdado Cabello, shared a photo on a VTV program showing an alleged "gun collection" at the home of Ángel Vivas, when it was really a photo taken from an airsoft gun website.[431][432][433][434] Minister of Tourism, Andrés Izarra, also used old images of crowded ferries from August 2013 trying to indicate that life is back to normal in Venezuela and a massive mobilization of ferries are on their way to Margarita Island.[435][436][437] Student protesters contested the statement, saying there is no Carnaval celebrations on the island and that "here there is nothing to celebrate; Venezuela is mourning".[438] President Maduro allegedly played a video, edited specifically in order to accuse mayor of Chacao of promoting barricades.[439]

International reactions[edit]

Students posted on hunger strike outside the UN headquarters in Caracas, waiting for UN statement against the government of President Maduro

Supranational bodies[edit]

  • Flag of CARICOM.svg Caribbean Community – condemned the violence during the protests, calls for respect for the democratically elected government and Maduro. CARICOM said that every citizen has the right to peacefully express their views within the constitutional framework. The statement also called for dialogue between the parties.[441]
  •  European Union – is deeply concerned about the incidents that took place in Caracas on 12 February, including the death of at least three people during protests and called on all parties to engage in dialogue to peacefully resolve the crisis.[442] On 27 February, the European Parliament said, "Only respect for fundamental rights, constructive and respectful dialogue and tolerance can help Venezuela to find a way out of its current violent crisis".[443]
  •  Mercosur – rejected "the criminal actions of violent groups that want to spread intolerance and hatred in Venezuela as a political tool". The statement called for further dialogue in Venezuela on national issues, and send condolences to the families of those killed.[444]
  • Organization of American States – Secretary General José Miguel Insulza said that, "The Catholic Church or foreign ministers of South American countries could mediate between the government and the opposition in Venezuela".[445] They also rejected violence, called for avoiding confrontation, called for a broad dialogue with respect for the law and also asked to investigate the deaths.[446]
  • Flag of UNASUR.svg Union of South American Nations – expressed solidarity with the Venezuelan government and the families of victims, rejected the "attempt to destabilize legitimately constituted democracy" and they also called for peace.[447] However, on 17 February 2014, UNSAR stated "We urge Venezuela to respect the democratic principles that are anchored in the process of regional integration."[448] On 8 March, UNASUR said they would have a meeting of foreign ministers to talk about the unrest in Venezuela.[449] The Chancellor of Ecuador, Ricardo Patiño, said a commission of the Union of South American Nations will hold a meeting in Caracas the 25 and 26 March to accompany the political dialogue.[450]
  •  United Nations – is deeply concerned about the escalation of violence in Venezuela, including the death of at least three people during protests and called on all parties to engage in dialogue to peacefully resolve the crisis. OHCHR spokesperson Rupert Colville told reporters in Geneva: “We have also received worrying reports of intimidation of journalists, some of whom have had their equipment seized, as well as reports that some local and international journalists were attacked while covering the protests. In addition, some protestors have reportedly been detained and may be prosecuted on terrorism charges. It has also been reported that some protesters, including minors, are being denied contact with family or lawyers”.[451] United Nations Secretary of State Ban Ki-moon said that he, "urged Venezuelan authorities to listen to the legitimate aspirations of those protesting" and made no mentions of the National Peace Conference that President Maduro held.[452] On 10 March, the United Nations received new allegations of torture with Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Convention against Torture, Juan Mendez, saying, "We want them to be thoroughly investigated; the tortures are very, very severe," and that, "We found the report credible enough to initiate such communication, but of course we are waiting for the government response."[453] Méndez continued his statements saying that Leopoldo Lopez is in solitary confinement in a "dangerous" prison and that, "Mr. Lopez is accused of inciting the violent demonstrations and do so on behalf of foreign powers. The government has to prove it, but meanwhile, the act of stopping someone who has organized a peaceful demonstration, and just because some parts of this demonstration were violent, it seems excessive".[454]

Governments[edit]

  •  Argentina – Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that, "After recent events in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Argentine government reiterates its strong support for the constitutional government elected by the citizens of that country, and notes the clear efforts of destabilization that confront institutional order in our brother nation" and explained the "priority" of countries in the region to have "an active solidarity and common defense against the actions of authoritarian groups, corporations and those linked to financial and productive speculation".[455]
  •  Australia – Former Minister for International Development and Australian member of parliament Melissa Parke denounced the violent actions committed by the Venezuelan government and said, "The suppression of the media and the erosion of the rule of law in Venezuela is a very worrying step in the wrong direction for this once prosperous country. In my view, the government-led violence against civilians and the control of the media have no place in a peaceful and democratic Venezuela.[456]
  •  Bolivia – Bolivian Foreign Minister David Choquehuanca said that Bolivia expressed "full support for democracy in Venezuela" and accused the Venezuelan opposition of staging a "coup".[457]
  •  Brazil – Brazilian officials close to the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, said she was "disappointed" with some of President Maduro's acts and was worried about the "Venezuelan government's repression of recent street protests, and Maduro's refusal to hold genuine dialogue with opposition leaders" and spoke cautiously in order to be able to keep in dialogue with President Maduro.[458] Foreign Minister of Brazil, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo, said that the government pays close attention to the Venezuelan situation and hoped that a convergence can be found, he also expressed hopes that the riots will stop and lamented on behalf of the Brazilian government, the loss of life and the destroyed property during demonstrations.[459] Ricardo Ferrao, President of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence of the Senate of the Federal Republic of Brazil stated that the Brazilian senate had asked the executive branch that is headed by President Rousseff to "manifest itself in protecting the integrity of the determined opposition" and to protect María Corina Machado saying the actions taken against her were "evidence of abuse of rights and guarantees of due process principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations".[460]
  •  Canada – Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada, John Baird, said "We are alarmed by the increasing violence and arrests, injuries and deaths during protests. Our deepest condolences to the families of the victims", he asked that all detainees, all deaths and reports of abuses by the government security forces are investigated.[461]
  •  Chile – Former President of the Republic of Chile Sebastián Piñera said, "We call on all parties to act in the way democracy is to respect the liberties, freedom of expression and human rights of all citizens by the government, and respect the rule of law and peace manifested by citizens,"[462] Chile also regretted the deaths in Caracas and expressed its condolences to the people and government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, especially the families of the victims. Chile also encourages an "open and constructive dialogue".[463] The Embassy of Chile accepted reports from some opposition members "that collects the continuing violations of human rights that have exposed thousands of Venezuelans," with Chilean ambassador Mauricio Ugalde saying, "I formally request that at the next meeting of UNASUR, the learning that has been left by the Chilean people, their incessant struggle for investigation and defense of human rights characterized their position in the Venezuelan conflict".[464]
  •  China – Spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China Hua Chunying said, "We believe that the Venezuelan government and its people have the ability to properly manage their internal affairs, maintain national stability and promote social and economic development" and urged the United States and Venezuela to improve relations saying, "We hope that both sides adhere to the principles of equality and mutual respect, increase dialogue and improve relations. This kind of mutual respect and equal footing serves the interests of both countries and contributes to the overall development of the entire Latin American region".[465]
  •  Colombia – President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos was concerned and said, "From Colombia, I would like to call for calm, for opening channels of communication among the different political forces in Venezuela in order to ensure the stability of the country and respect for institutions and fundamental freedoms".[466] Colombia also deplored the violence and expressed condolences to the families, the people and the Venezuelan government. Also called for dialogue and said that Venezuela's stability is important to Colombia, Venezuela itself and the region.[467] Colombia, the United States and other countries have also been in talks about potentially mediating in Venezuela.[468]
  •  Costa Rica – The Costa Rican government deplored the violence, called on the Venezuelan authorities to "investigate and establish responsibilities for the victims and wounded," said he has hopes that "being resolved by way of dialogue and understanding" are achieved and that is a matter that concerns Costa Rica but that Venezuelans should resolve without interference.[469] The Legislature of Costa Rica also expressed that they were "appalled by the climate of violence, intolerance and the arrest and prosecution lifting immunity without just cause or process attached to the rule of law democratically elected political leaders, civil society leaders, students and opposition leaders" and called for "national, regional and other actors to make an appeal to parliaments real, independent and constructive dialogue based on enforceable commitments in respect of international law".[470]
  •  Cuba – The Cuban Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the Venezuelan opposition, calling their demonstrations "coup attempts" and expressed solidarity with the government of Maduro.[471]
  •  Ecuador – President of Ecuador Rafael Correa expressed solidarity with the Venezuelan people and government, said the vast majority of the Venezuelan people are not violent but honest and hardworking. Ecuador also condemned the violence and expressed support for the Maduro government.[473]
  •  Germany – Foreign Minister of Germany, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, saw "great concern" with the violence and spokesman of the German Foreign Ministry, Sawsan Chebli, said, "We must respect the right to peaceful protest . Criminalization of protesters and opponents and the use of military forces are not the right steps towards a peaceful solution." concluding that, "This call is primarily directed to the Venezuelan government".[474]
  •  Guatemala – The Government of Guatemala said that it "rejects violence and promotes citizen security and stability in the country. Likewise, believes that at all times the democratic institutions and the full respect for human rights must be guaranteed" and asked for "dialogue among all sectors".[475] The Congress of Guatemala said that "it is evident that there are attacks on the press and free speech by censoring news and digital media such as social networks and others that do not allow the diffusion of the real situation" and expressed "opposition to any measure of government persecution and repression by groups protected by the government against political parties, civil movements and citizens who peacefully express their discontent.[476]
  •  Guyana – Government of Guyana rejected the violence in Venezuela, expressed solidarity with the Venezuelan government and states that it fully supports its efforts to contain the destabilizing actions.[477]
  •  Iran – Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran spokeswoman Marzieh Afkham condemned vandalism, the murder of innocent civilians, destroying of public property and any other actions that creates instability for Venezuela. She also said the that Venezuela has the full support of Iran "to strengthen peace, friendship and enhance democracy and the stable development" of Venezuela.
  •  Mexico – The Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs said that they regretted the violence, expressed its condolences to the families of the dead and said, "any differences should be resolved within the framework of dialogue, the respect for institutions and international law,".[478]
  •  Nicaragua – The First Lady of Nicaragua and presidential spokeswoman, Rosario Murillo, accused the "fascist right" of violence and expressed support for the government of President Maduro.[457]
  •  Panama – Foreign Minister of Panama, Francisco Alvarez de Soto, said his government is concerned about the Venezuelan situation and understands that it is an internal process but Panama wishes for peace, tolerance and dialogue.[479] President Maduro accused Panama of pushing for regional organizations to intervene in Venezuela and on 5 March severed diplomatic relations.[480] President Ricardo Martinelli has called on Venezuela not to default on its debt that tops US$1billion because of severed diplomatic relations.[481]
  •  Peru – President of the Republic of Peru Ollanta Humala said, "I call upon the Government of Venezuela, its authorities, its political forces and citizens, to make maximum efforts for democracy and respect for the rights of all persons, regardless of their political position prevails," and concluded his statement saying, "Defend the climate of peace because peace can only strengthen our democracies, build prosperity and development for our peoples,"[482] Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that they are deeply concerned with the violence in Venezuela. They recommended dialogue between groups with respect to democratic values and human rights. Peru also shared condolences for the victims and those injured in the protests.[483] Three members of the Congress of Peru, Martín Belaúnde, Luis Galarreta and Cecilia Chacón, helped shelter opposition leader María Corina Machado when she arrived in Venezuela with Galarreta saying, "We came to support Maria Corina Machado by this unusual and unacceptable arbitrariness that you want to do."[484][485]
  •  Russia – The Russian Foreign Ministry expressed concern about the unrest in Venezuela and also trusts that the government of President Maduro will preserve the constitutional order. Russia also shows its "solidarity with the government and people, and strong support for the policy that aims to prevent the destabilization of a nation".[486]
  •  Spain – The Spanish Congress of Deputies asked the Venezuelan government to respect democracy, human rights and to end "all forms of harassment towards the peaceful opposition". They also asked for the government to stop paramilitary groups from being able to, "act with impunity attacking protesters and activists of the Venezuelan opposition" and for President Maduro to stop the "harassment of the media critical of his regime"[487] Spain has also stopped exporting riot control agents to Venezuela to help start dialogue between the Venezuelan government and the opposition.[488]
  •  Suriname – In a statement on the behalf of UNASUR, Suriname condemned the violence, urged for more dialogue and called on Venezuela to let democracy prevail.[448]
  •  Syria – President of Syria Bashar al-Assad expressed his support in a letter to President Maduro, to reject the "attempt to sow chaos" in both Syria and Venezuela, expressing confidence that Venezuela will surpass this experience with the achievements and legacy of former president Hugo Chávez.[489][490]
  •  United Kingdom – Foreign Minister of the United Kingdom, William Hague said that the Government of the United Kingdom is "very concerned about the violence" in the demonstrations and "reports of arrests of opposition activists" and said that the Venezuelan government should uphold "freedom of the press and opinion".[491]
  •  United States – After the Venezuelan government ordered three United States diplomats out of the country, blaming them of organizing the protests in order to overthrow the government,[492] the U.S. responded on 25 February by expelling three Venezuelan diplomats from their country.[493] Multiple officials from the United States condemned the handling of the protests by the Venezuelan government. Some officials proposing targeted sanctions on Venezuelan government officials that they say violated human rights, however, these proposed sanctions have been debated.
  • President of the United States Barack Obama stated, "Rather than trying to distract from protests by making false accusations against U.S. diplomats, Venezuela's government should address the people's legitimate grievances." and called on Venezuela to release detained protesters.[242] President Obama also said, "Along with the Organization of American States, we call on the Venezuelan government to release protesters it has detained and engage in real dialogue."[494] In a personal letter to a resident of Miami, President Obama also said that "he was concerned for the Venezuelan people and is working behind the scenes to do what he can to support the people oppressed".[495]
  • Vice President of the United States Joe Biden called the situation "alarming", accused the government of, "Confronting peaceful protesters with force and in some cases with armed vigilantes; limiting the freedoms of press and assembly necessary for legitimate political debate; demonizing and arresting political opponents; and dramatically tightening restrictions on the media" and said that instead of working on dialogue, "Maduro has thus far tried to distract his people from the profound issues at stake in Venezuela by concocting totally false and outlandish conspiracy theories about the United States."[496]
  • United States Secretary of State John Kerry expressed grievances towards affected families of the violence and is "particularly alarmed by reports that the Venezuelan government has arrested or detained scores of anti-government protesters and issued an arrest warrant for Leopoldo Lopez".[497] Days later, John Kerry said, "The government's use of force and judicial intimidation against citizens and political figures, who are exercising a legitimate right to protest, is unacceptable and will only increase the likelihood of violence."[498]
  • John F. Kelly, United States Marine Corps general and Commander of the United States Southern Command, said to a Senate committee that in Venezuela, "It is a situation that is obviously just coming apart in front us, and unless there is some type of a miracle that either the opposition or the Maduro government pulls out, they are going down catastrophically in terms of economy, in terms of democracy,"[499] Kelly also wished that, "somehow Venezuelans resolve this themselves" and that, "larger U.S. government agencies are paying close attention" to monitor the cyber tools the Venezuelan government is allegedly using against its citizens.[500]
  • Members of the United States Congress pushed for the United States to place sanctions on Venezuela due to human rights violations during the protests.[501] However, President Obama only concentrated on imposing individual sanctions on Venezuelan officials.[502] On 5 March, John Kerry said that the United States was ready to place sanctions on Venezuela if the OAS did not get involved with dialogue.[503] On 8 May, the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations held a hearing discussing human rights violations by the Venezuelan government and proposals of sanctions by Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen that later passed through the House Foreign Affairs Committee.[504][505] The bill, called the Venezuelan Human Rights and Democracy Protection Act (H.R. 4587; 113th Congress), passed the House of Representatives in a voice vote on May 28, 2014.[506] The sanctions performed under the bill would be directed at Venezuelan government officials who were involved in acts that mistreated protesters and would result in those who were sanctioned having their assets frozen and being barred from entering the United States.[506]
  • On 30 July, the spokeswoman for the State Department, Marie Harf, stated that, "The Secretary of State decided to impose restrictions on travel to the United States a number of Venezuelan officials responsible for or complicit in human rights violations" and concluded stating "Our message is clear: those who commit such abuses will not be welcome in the United States".[507]
  • On 20 November, the US Deputy National Security Advisor of President Obama, Tony Blinken, stated that the Obama administration would work with the United States Congress to move forward and impose sanctions on Venezuela after diplomatic efforts by Latin American countries failed to release opposition leaders and lead toward electoral changes.[508]

Catholic Church[edit]

Coat of arms Holy See.svg Holy SeePope Francis asked for an end to violence and said, "I sincerely hope the violence and hostility ends as soon as possible, and that the Venezuelan people, beginning with the responsible politicians and institutions, act to foster national reconciliation through mutual forgiveness and sincere dialogue."[511]

  • The president of the Venezuelan Bishops Conference, Bishop Diego Padrón said that, "the claim of the official party and authorities of the Republic to implement the so-called plan of the country (established by the late President Hugo Chavez), behind which the imposition of a totalitarian government is hiding" and denounced "the abusive and excessive repression against them (the protesters), the torture they have undergone many of the detainees and the prosecution mayors and contrary Members of the ruling (...) The government is wrong to want to solve the crisis by force, repression is not the way".[512] Padrón also asked the government to, "ensure protection for the demonstrators, to provide explanations for the arrests and list charges against those in custody, and to listen to the people".[513] The Venezuelan Bishops Conference condemned the government over an abuse of authority saying it "has gone beyond the limits causing unfortunate and irreversible consequences" and asked the government to stop "colectivos" from "committing criminal actions".[514] On 11 July, during the 102nd Ordinary Meeting of the Venezuelan Episcopal Conference (CEV), the CEV demanded the release of political prisoners, said that a "totalitarian political model and a centralized education" is threatening in Venezuela, denounced criminalization of the protests and said there will be no solution to the protests until the "causes of the protests are met".[515]
    • Cardinal Jorge Urosa Savino said that he has seen some vandalism by opposition protesters, but with the government, "There is a serious violation of human rights that must be addressed and must be punished" and that, "deaths and injuries are from attacks against peaceful demonstrations".[516]
    • Monsignor Victor Hugo Basabe said that some churches were attacked during masses and that, "We have churches in areas where conflict has been high and have also been attacked by violent groups,"[517]
    • Monsignor Ovidio Pérez Morales called the government's "Homeland" plan "unconstitutional" and said that it is trying to implement "Castro-socialism".[518]

Others[edit]

  • Amnesty International – Amnesty International has asked the government to investigate the deaths. Guadalupe Marengo said: “It is extremely concerning that violence has become a regular feature during protests in Venezuela. If the authorities are truly committed to preventing more deaths, they must ensure those responsible for the violence, demonstrators, security forces and armed civilians alike face justice. The Venezuelan authorities must show they are truly committed to respect people’s rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly by ensuring they can participate in protests without fear of being abused, detained or even killed. It is essential that journalists are allowed to report events freely and human right defenders are able to monitor demonstrations.”.[519] They have claimed that the government has started a "witch hunt against opposition leaders" after the arrest of Daniel Ceballos.[520]
  • Flag of APRA.svg American Popular Revolutionary Alliance – denounced the government's actions in International Criminal Court with the group's general secretary, Omar Quesada, saying, "The APRA announces that it has evaluated a complaint against the president of Venezuela before the International Criminal Court. The way you attack students with impunity that claim against inflation, calling for greater freedom and freedom of expression, makes APRA also raise their voices in protest."[521][522]
  • Carter Center and the Friends of the Inter-American Democratic Charter – a 20 February statement strongly condemned the detention of students; expressed particular concern about the arrest of Lopez and the raid of the office of his political party without a warrant; and expressed similar concern about the obstacles to media reporting. Point-by-point, they "condemned" the "repression of peaceful demonstrations and the arbitrary detention of Venezuelan students" and the "arbitrary arrest of political leaders"; called for the release of detainees and independent inquiries into the violence; asked the Venezuelan government to adhere to the Inter-American Democratic Charter; and reminded all Venezuelans that protests should be peaceful.[523]
  • Club de Madrid – A group of 96 former heads of government of numerous countries gathered denouncing the "rapid deterioration" of human rights in Venezuela and signed a statement asking the government, "to immediately release political prisoners and Leopoldo López and the cessation of the persecution of political leaders" and asked the international community "to join in a concerted effort to strengthen democracy and the preservation of peace in Venezuela".[524][525]
  • European United Left–Nordic Green Left – condemns "the attempted coup in Venezuela, violence by opposition groups in Venezuela, and regrets the loss of life and destruction of public property in the country. We likewise denounce the undemocratic and insurgent aims of this destabilisation campaign, unleashed onto the streets of Caracas and other Venezuelan cities by extremist groups. We hold the opposition forces and the Venezuelan right (supported by the U.S with links to the dominant forces in the EU) responsible for these actions and their dire consequences".[527]
  • Fe y Alegría – The Catholic education organization rejected the violence caused by armed groups and police using excessive force with protesters and barricades saying, "The country is filling us with pain, suffering, anguish, violence, fear, intimidation, repression and death."[528]
  • Human Rights Foundation – condemned the crackdown on the political opposition with the chairman of Human Rights Foundation, Garry Kasparov, saying, "The shadow of dictatorship is quickly falling upon Venezuela. The imprisonment of a prominent human rights activist and hundreds of students inside the political police’s dungeons is a step toward the complete silencing of civil society by the Venezuelan regime”.[530]
  • Hrw logo.svg Human Rights Watch – José Miguel Vivanco, Americas director at Human Rights Watch, said: “What Venezuela urgently needs is for these killings to be investigated and the killers brought to justice, no matter their political affiliation. What Venezuela does not need is authorities scapegoating political opponents or shutting down news outlets whose coverage they don’t like.”[531]
  • International Transport Workers' Federation – condemned the "so-called 'peaceful' demonstrations carried out by rightwing groups aiming to destabilise the country and bring down Venezuela's President Maduro." ITF president Paddy Crumlin added: "The ITF abhors these cowardly assaults on transport workers and passengers. We trust that the Venezuelan authorities will be able to protect them, and go on to identify and punish those responsible for these crimes and also those leading the destabilisation campaign that has thrown up these attacks."[534]
  • Logopcp.gif Portuguese Communist Party – condemned the acts of violence and vandalism perpetrated by groups of a "neo-fascist nature" in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, which have caused the loss of life and the destruction of public property. And expresses solidarity with the Bolivarian Revolution.[535]
  • Social Democratic Party of Kenya – expressed solidarity with the democratically elected government of Nicolas Maduro, condemned the "fascist and right-wing forces" of conducted "undemocratic and inhuman" acts. He said the Bolivarian revolutionary government respects the rule of law, democracy and human rights and therefore permitted demonstrations against his government.[538]
  • Socialist International – Socialist International said they understood the causes for protest because of "people being killed and injured, opposition leaders being persecuted, with restrictions on freedoms, including the freedom of information, amongst others". Socialist International also condemned the deaths of protesters asking the government to stop irregular groups that shot protesters from acting with impunity.[167]
  • South African Communist Party – has expressed concern about the violent situation that threatens democracy in the South American country and have established its position in favor of Maduro. Given the destabilizing actions of the extreme right in Venezuela.[539]
  • Washington Office on Latin America – called for "renewed commitment to dialogue on behalf of the government and protesters alike", and encouraged "both President Maduro and opposition leaders to take every opportunity to unequivocally condemn acts of violence, regardless of the source."[540]
  • Hackers from multiple countries, including the internet vigilante group Anonymous, have infiltrated government websites due to the alleged repression and censorship in Venezuela.[307][308] A member of Anonymous said, "I would say this is one of the biggest cooperative operations involving South American Anons and Anons from the rest of the world to date" when members of LulzSecPeru also hacked the PSUV Twitter account.[309]
  • International celebrities DJ Steve Aoki, Cher and Rihanna all asked for prayers and peace in Venezuela.[541] At the 2014 Oscars, Jared Leto said in solidarity with the opposition during his acceptance speech for best supporting actor, "To all the dreamers out there around the world watching this tonight in places like Ukraine and Venezuela, I want to say we are here, and as you struggle to make your dreams happen and live the impossible, we are thinking of you tonight."[542] Also, during the 2014 Oscars, Kevin Spacey said, "Venezuela don't give up, everybody has the right to express themselves!" with Forest Whitaker also saying she was "deeply saddened by the violence in Venezuela" and that, "Everybody has the right to have their voice heard."[543] Madonna took sides with the opposition saying, "Apparently Maduro is not familiar with the phrase "Human Rights"! Fascism is alive and thriving in Venezuela and Russia."[544] Singers Enrique Iglesias, Willie Colón, and Rubén Blades also supported the opposition, with Blades criticizing President Maduro for not being able to "direct such a complex country". Maduro responded to Blades's criticism by inviting him to the country to perform a peace song along with Maduro which Blades turned down. Colón retweeted photos of the protests while saying to the president "Nicolás the blood of the students will choke you!"[545] Twelve Venezuelan baseball players for the Detroit Tigers including Miguel Cabrera, Victor Martinez and Anibal Sanchez showed their support for the opposition holding signs saying "SOS Venezuela" or "Pray for Venezuela".[546] The Venezuelan protests became the highlight of the 2014 Lo Nuestro Awards where artists including Marc Anthony, Marco Antonio Solís, Banda el Recodo, and Chino & Nacho expressed prayer and a call for the violence to end.[547] Miss Universe 2013, Maria Gabriela Isler, attended the Carolina Herrera Fashion Show and said, "To all Venezuelans have in my heart all day, and although we are going through very difficult times, I want you to know that I do not believe in coincidences and God gave me the opportunity for Venezuela, this year – around the world and to represent and raise my voice for each of my brothers. We are a fighting people, but above all, we are a people of faith, so God willing things will be better ... We must have faith".[548][549] Maria also criticized the Venezuelan government, especially after she had to deal with shortages, no electricity and her lack of safe drinking water.[550] Singers Ricardo Montaner, Juanes, and Luis Fonsi have also expressed their solidarity to Venezuela holding signs saying "Pray for Venezuela".[551][552][553][554][555]
  • There were also protests in other countries, some in support of President Maduro and some against him. Across the United States hundreds of Venezuelan Americans gathered who sympathize with the protesters.[556][557] In Canada, protestors in Calgary gathered on Peace Bridge to support the opposition and called on the Government of Canada to put pressure on the Venezuelan government.[558] A Venezuelan opposition group, Un Mundo Sin Mordaza, has created the Gran Protesta Mundial, a worldwide protest movement denouncing alleged "violation of human rights" by the Venezuelan government. It seeks to carry out protests in over 150 cities in dozens of countries including Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, United Kingdom and the United States.[559][560][561][562] In Doral, Florida, more than 20,000 protesters were at the SOS Venezuela rally that was part of the Gran Protesta Mundial.[563] In San Francisco, California, demonstrators dressed in colors of the Venezuelan flag made a human chain across the Golden Gate Bridge to raise awareness about government corruption and freedom of expression in Venezuela.[564][565][566] In Washington, D.C., hundreds of protesters gathered in front of the White House, protesting against the Venezuelan government, violence and for the release of opposition leader, Leopoldo Lopez.[567] In Argentina protests were held both in support and against of Maduro.[568] In Ukraine, protesters from the current 2014 Ukrainian Revolution in Kiev showed their support to the opposition saying, "Venezuela-Ukraine together for freedom and dignity."[569] In the cities of Geneva and Zurich, Switzerland, protesters showed solidarity with the opposition and protested against censorship and police repression in front of the United Nations Office at Geneva.[570] In Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Mexico, Spain, United States and other countries, the organization VenMundo made the "JusticiaYPazVzla" human chain to show support for Venezuelan political prisoners and students.[571] A protest was held on 9 April in New York against the US intervention in the conflict. Their motto was "End the media's lies about Ukraine and Venezuela!".[572] The group Venezuela Solidarity has called for demonstrations supporting Maduro's government in Toronto [573][574]
  • On 6 March 2014, a group of United Nations independent experts asked the Government of Venezuela for prompt clarification of allegations of arbitrary detention and excessive use of force and violence against protesters, journalists and media workers during the recent wave of protests in the country. The human rights experts, who acknowledged the call for a national dialogue made by President Nicolás Maduro, emphasized the importance of fully guaranteeing the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly, association, opinion and expression in this critical context. "The reconciliatory dialogue that is so deeply needed in Venezuela is not going to take place if political leaders, students, media groups and journalists are harassed and intimidated by the authorities," they stressed.[575]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lopez, Linette (11 April 2014). "Why The United States Has Done Nothing About Venezuela". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "Protesters in Venezuela Press Government". The Wall Street Journal. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  3. ^ "Venezuelans protest en masse in rival rallies". Borneo Post. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Venezuela: Tens of thousands march in anti-government protests". The Los Angeles Times. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  5. ^ "Barefoot in Venezuela". Newsweek (Reuters). 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "Vargas Llosa to visit Venezuela to back anti-Maduro groups". News (BBC). 1 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  7. ^ "9 June 2014". ABC News. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Conflictividad social en Venezuela en marzo de 2014" [Social conflict in Venezuela in March 2014] (in Spanish). Observatorio Venezolano de Conflictividad Social. Archived from the original on Apr 13, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Venezuela: Paramilitares atacaron 1 de cada 3 protestas". Tribuna (Puerto Rico). 9 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  10. ^ "Sube a 43 el saldo de muertos en protestas en el país" [Number of deaths in protests in the country mounts to 43] (in Spanish). La Patilla. 21 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Zea, Sendai (23 September 2014). "Whatever Happened to Detained Student Protesters in Venezuela?". PanAm Post. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "Venezuela's Maduro says 2013 annual inflation was 56.2 pct". Reuters. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  13. ^ "Venezuela Inflation Hits 16-Year High as Shortages Rise". Bloomberg. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Inflation rate (consumer prices)". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c "Protestas aumentan 278% en primer semestre 2014". La Patilla. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f "Venezuela: the most dangerous place on earth?". Channel 4. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c "What the Heck Is Going on in Venezuela? (Could the Maduro Regime Fall?)". Business week. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c Sequera, Vivia (22 February 2014). "Did attempted rape ignite Venezuela's national protests?". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  20. ^ BBC News - San Cristobal: The birthplace of Venezuela's protests
  21. ^ "Universitarios del Táchira levantaron la huelga de hambre". El Universal. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  22. ^ a b "Street blockades divide opinion in Venezuela". BBC.com. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  23. ^ a b Cawthorne, Andrew; Ore, Diego. "Chilean is first foreign fatality in Venezuela unrest". Reuters. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f Milne, Seumas. "Venezuela protests are sign that US wants our oil, says Nicolás Maduro". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  25. ^ Johnston, Jake. "Venezuela: Who Are They and How Did They Die?". Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  26. ^ Sanchez, Nora. "Murió mujer en una barricada en Mérida". El Universal. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  27. ^ a b Neuman, William. "Slum Dwellers in Caracas Ask, What Protests?". New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Kurmanaev, Anatoly; Pons, Corina. "Venezuela Protests Drive Poor to Maduro as Death Toll Mounts". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c "Amnesty Reports Dozens of Venezuela Torture Accounts". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Punished for Protesting". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  31. ^ a b Lopez, Leopoldo. "Venezuela's Failing State". New York Times. 
  32. ^ "Venezuela arrests one opposition mayor, jails another". 
  33. ^ "ONU insta a la inmediata liberación de Leopoldo López". El Nacional. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  34. ^ "ONU pide al gobierno liberación inmediata de Daniel Ceballos". El Nacional. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  35. ^ "Venezuela: UN rights chief calls for immediate release of opposition leader, politicians". United Nations. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  36. ^ "Maduro pedirá a la AN una "comisión de la verdad". El-Nacional. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
  37. ^ a b Nicolas Maduro. April 1, 2014. Venezuela: A Call for Peace. The New York Times. Retrieved: 3 April 2014.
  38. ^ a b "Decree powers widen Venezuelan president's economic war". CNN. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Venezuela rechazó resolución ONU sobre López y pide no inmiscuirse Leer más en: http://www.elmundo.com.ve/noticias/actualidad/noticias/venezuela-rechazo-resolucion-onu-sobre-lopez-y-pid.aspx#ixzz3FuFYBvSP". El Mundo. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  40. ^ "A Venezuelan Spring? Three killed as armed vigilantes on motorcycles attack anti-government protesters", The Independent (UK) 
  41. ^ Venezuela: Continuano le manifestazioni di protesta [Venezuela: continue the protest manifestations] (in Italian), Abruzzo 24 ore 
  42. ^ "'A Venezuela amanhece com outra realidade', diz Capriles" ['Venezuela wakens with another reality', says Capriles], O Globo (in Portuguese) (Globo) 
  43. ^ Montaner, Gina (18 February 2014). "La Primavera Venezolana" [The Venezuelan Spring]. El Mundo (in Castilian) (ES). Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  44. ^ 28 dead, 365 injured in Venezuela protests: official - Xinhua | English.news.cn
  45. ^ El Universal - El Mundo - Maduro reporta que muertes en Venezuela suben a 35
  46. ^ "Oficiales retirados cuestionan arrestos de generales venezolanos - Venezuela". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  47. ^ "Foro Penal: Hasta la fecha van 1937 detenciones en todo el país". La Patilla. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  48. ^ "Protestas, un detenido cada media hora". El Nacional. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  49. ^ "A total of 42 people, both supporters and opponents of the government, have died in the protest-related violence which followed." "Venezuela: Leopoldo Lopez must stand trial, judge rules" by BBC News.
  50. ^ Guillermoprieto 2005
  51. ^ a b Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Venezuela, War and Minor Conflict, In depth, Hugo Chávez and the 1992 coup attempt, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=167&regionSelect=5-Southern_Americas#
  52. ^ "Social Panorama of Latin America 2013". ECLAC. March 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  53. ^ "Venezuela Overview". World Bank. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  54. ^ Keppel, Stephen (25 October 2013). "5 Ways Hugo Chavez Has Destroyed the Venezuelan Economy". Fusion. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  55. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects
  56. ^ Marshall, edited by Paul A. (2008). Religious freedom in the world. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 423, 424. ISBN 978-0742562134. 
  57. ^ "Treasury Targets Venezuelan Government Officials Supporting the FARC". Press Release. United States Department of Treasury. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  58. ^ Meza, Alfredo (26 September 2013). "Corrupt military officials helping Venezuela drug trade flourish". El Pais. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  59. ^ "Treasury Targets Hizballah in Venezuela". Press Release. United State Department of Treasury. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  60. ^ Romero, Simon (February 4, 2011). "In Venezuela, an American Has the President's Ear". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2012. 
  61. ^ Coronel, Gustavo. "The Corruption of Democracy in Venezuela". Cato Institute. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  62. ^ "Venezuela's Drug-Running Generals May Be Who Finally Ousts Maduro". Vice News. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  63. ^ "World Report 2012: Venezuela". The Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  64. ^ a b "Venezuela ocupa último lugar de naciones latinoamericanas analizadas". El Nacional. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  65. ^ "Venezuela violates human rights, OAS commission reports". CNN. 24 February 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  66. ^ a b "Venezuela’s black market rate for US dollars just jumped by almost 40%". Quartz. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  67. ^ Rueda, Manuel. "How Did Venezuela Become So Violent?". Fusion. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  68. ^ "Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez dies". CNN. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  69. ^ "Maduro wins Venezuela presidency". USA Today. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  70. ^ "In Venezuela, Hugo Chavez reelection raises unity questions". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  71. ^ López, Virginia (22 February 2014). "Venezuelans on streets again as protest leader awaits trial". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  72. ^ Peralta, Eyder (20 February 2013). "5 Things To Know About Venezuela's Protest Leader". NPR. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  73. ^ Kraul, Chris (19 July 2006). "A lightning rod for Venezuela's political strife". Los Angeles Times.  Also online here.
  74. ^ "Protests in Venezuela: A tale of two prisoners". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  75. ^ "Venezuela Arrests Mayor of City Where Nationwide Unrest Began - Businessweek". 
  76. ^ a b "Venezuelans Saw Political Instability Before Protests". Gallup. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  77. ^ Murphy, Peter (12 February 2014). "Venezuela protest leader says seeks Maduro's exit, not coup". Reuters. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  78. ^ Transparency International, 15 July 1995, 1995 TI Corruption Index
  79. ^ Transparency International, 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index, accessed 30 June 2009
  80. ^ "Factbox: Transparency International's global corruption index". Reuters. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  81. ^ "GLOBAL CORRUPTION BAROMETER 2010/11". Transparency International. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  82. ^ "CORRUPTION BY COUNTRY / TERRITORY: VENEZUELA". Transparency International. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  83. ^ "WJP 2014 Rule of Law Index". World Justice Project. 5 March 2014. 
  84. ^ Hanke, John H. "Measuring Misery around the World". The CATO Institute. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  85. ^ "COUNTRY COMPARISON :: INFLATION RATE (CONSUMER PRICES)". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  86. ^ "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  87. ^ "WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK April 2014". Report. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  88. ^ "IMF Data Mapper". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  89. ^ Neuman, William (28 February 2014). "Slum Dwellers in Caracas Ask, What Protests?". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  90. ^ "Now Venezuela's in REAL crisis as country runs out of toilet paper". Daily Mail. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  91. ^ a b "87% de los venezolanos cree que el Gobierno debe rectificar sus políticas". El Diario de Caracas. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  92. ^ a b "Datos Presentación Clima País_Feb 2014". Datos. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  93. ^ [further explanation needed]"Venezuela Slashes Currency Value". Wall Street Journal. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  94. ^ Lopez, Virginia (26 September 2013). "Venezuela food shortages: 'No one can explain why a rich country has no food'". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  95. ^ "El pollo es comercializado con sobreprecio de 114 a 231%". El Tiempo. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  96. ^ Usborne, David (9 October 2013). "President Nicolas Maduro seeks to rule Venezuela by decree". Independent. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  97. ^ Ferdman, Roberto (24 May 2013). "Venezuela’s grand plan to fix its toilet-paper shortage: $79 million and a warning to stop eating so much". Quartz. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  98. ^ a b "The party is over". The Economist. 1 February 2014. 
  99. ^ Mogollon, Mery (21 September 2013). "Venezuela seizes another asset: Toilet paper factory". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  100. ^ "Abelardo Díaz: Apareció el papel higiénico venezolano, pero en El Salvador". La Patilla. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  101. ^ "Cabello en Apure: Decomisamos 12.000 litros de aceites y 30 toneladas de arroz". El-nacional.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  102. ^ "Maduro's crackdown on appliance stores may win key votes, but spurs uncertainty in Venezuela". Fox News. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  103. ^ Lopez, Virginia (15 November 2013). "Venezuelans muse on economic woes that make milk scarce but fridges a steal". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  104. ^ "Venezuela sends in troops to force electronics chain to charge 'fair' prices". NBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  105. ^ Yapur, Nicolle (24 April 2014). "Primera ofensiva económica trajo más inflación y escasez". El Nacional. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  106. ^ "Venezuela's "economic war"". The Economist. 16 November 2013. 
  107. ^ Han Shih, Toh (11 April 2013). "China Railway Group's project in Venezuela hits snag". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  108. ^ Mogollon, Mery (24 January 2014). "Venezuela sees more airlines suspend ticket sales, demand payment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  109. ^ Wilson, Peter (24 January 2014). "Airlines keep cutting off Venezuelans from tickets". USA Today. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  110. ^ Wilson, Peter (10 January 2014). "Venezuelans blocked from buying flights out". USA Today. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  111. ^ "Amid unrest, Venezuela is accused of owing airlines $3.7 billion". Los Angeles Times. 13 March 2014. 
  112. ^ Hagiwara, Yuki (7 February 2014). "Toyota Halts Venezuela Production as Car Sales Fall". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  113. ^ "Ford Cutting Production in Venezuela on Growing Dollar Shortage". Businessweek. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  114. ^ Deniz, Roberto (7 February 2014). "General Motors sees no resolution to operations in Venezuela". El Universal. Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  115. ^ Vyas, Kejal (6 January 2014). "Venezuela Raises Minimum Wage, Pension Benefits Amid High Inflation". Wall Street Journal. 
  116. ^ "Venezuela's real inflation may be six times the official rate". Quartz. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  117. ^ "Monetary aggregates rising sharply". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  118. ^ "Médicos del Hospital Universitario de Caracas suspenden cirugías por falta de insumos". Globovision. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  119. ^ "Latin America's weakest economies are reaching breaking-point". Economist. 1 February 2014. 
  120. ^ "Doctors say Venezuela's health care in collapse". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  121. ^ Fernanda Zambrano, María (19 March 2014). "Clínicas del país presentan fallas en 109 productos". Union Radio. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  122. ^ Chinea, Eyanir (20 March 2014). "Sin dólares para importar medicinas, salud de Venezuela en terapia intensiva". Reuters (Latin America). Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  123. ^ 16 marzo, 2014. "Empresas Polar: "Pronto dejará de expenderse la soda, la malta y la cerveza en lata"". Maduradas.com. 
  124. ^ "Maduro anunció un sistema de racionamiento". Infobae. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  125. ^ "Maduro anunció un sistema de racionamiento". La Voz 901(Argentina). 9 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  126. ^ a b "Compradores consultados rechazan uso de tarjeta de racionamiento". El Tiempo. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  127. ^ López, Virginia (21 August 2014). "Venezuela to introduce new biometric card in bid to target food smuggling". Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  128. ^ "Maduro anuncia que el martes arranca nueva "ofensiva económica"". La Patilla. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  129. ^ a b "Maduro insiste con una nueva "ofensiva económica"". La Nacion. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  130. ^ Sanchez, Fabiola (22 April 2014). "Maduro prepara medidas para combatir la inflación". Metro (Puerto Rico). Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  131. ^ "Maduro prepara medidas para combatir la inflación". El Salvador (News). 23 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  132. ^ "Maduro convoca a la Conferencia económica por la paz". El Impulso. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  133. ^ "Aumento del salario mínimo entra en vigencia este jueves". La Patilla. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  134. ^ Maria Delgado, Antonio (1 May 2014). "Nicolás Maduro asesta otra estocada al sector privado en Venezuela". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  135. ^ "Incremento salarial podría intensificar la inflación y agudizar la escasez". La Patilla. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  136. ^ "¿Llegó la tarjeta de racionamiento de gasolina?". La Patilla. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  137. ^ "¿Tarjeta de racionamiento de gasolina?". El Propio. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  138. ^ "Pdvsa asegura que suministro de gasolina opera "con normalidad"". Globovision. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  139. ^ "Seven Things To Know About the Venezuela Crisis". NBC News. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  140. ^ Castillo, Mariano (9 January 2014). "Beauty queen's killers nabbed, Venezuela says". CNN. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  141. ^ a b Ferdman, Roberto (8 March 2014). "There have already been almost 3,000 murders in Venezuela since the start of the year". Quartz. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  142. ^ "Beauty queen Monica Spear's killers nabbed, Venezuela says - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  143. ^ Romero, Simon (22 August 2010). "Venezuela, More Deadly Than Iraq, Wonders Why". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  144. ^ Pons, Corina (30 January 2014). "Crime Hobbles Venezuela's Economy". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  145. ^ "Venezuela's violent crime fuels the death business". Reuters. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  146. ^ "Venezuela Travel Warning". United States Department of State. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  147. ^ "Venezuela". Government of Canada. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  148. ^ "Venezuela travel advice". GOV.UK. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  149. ^ "Chavez heir Maduro takes narrow win in Venezuela". CBC News. Associated Press. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  150. ^ CNE official results
  151. ^ Nicolás Maduro declared Venezuela election winner by thin margin."Nicolás Maduro declared Venezuela election winner by thin margin.". The Guardian. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  152. ^ "Nicolas Maduro narrowly wins presidential election in Venezuela.". Washington Post. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  153. ^ "Poll: Venezuela's VP Maduro Would Win Vote If Chavez Goes". newsmaxworld. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  154. ^ "Encuesta Datanálisis & Barclays: Maduro aventaja a Capriles en 14,4 puntos". Noticias 24 (in Spanish). 18 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  155. ^ "Hinterlaces: Maduro supera a Capriles Radonski por 18 puntos". VTV (in Spanish). 19 March 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  156. ^ "Venezuelan president, accused of electoral fraud at home, finds backing abroad". The Washington Post. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  157. ^ a b c "Venezuela to audit votes without opposition conditions". BBC. 28 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  158. ^ a b "Nicolas Maduro sworn in as new Venezuelan president". BBC News. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  159. ^ "Tensions Surge in Venezuela After Vote". The Wall Street Journal. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  160. ^ Wyss, Jim (15 April 2013). "Opposition calls for election protests in Venezuela". Miami Herald. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  161. ^ "Maduro Blames Venezuela's Post-Election Violence on U.S. Backing". Huffington Post. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  162. ^ "Venezuela audit confirms Nicolas Maduro electoral victory". BBC News. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  163. ^ "Preliminary Report Study Missision of the Carter Center : Presidential Elections in Venezuela – April 14, 2013". Catercenter.org. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  164. ^ "Maduro's hollow victory". Economist. 14 December 2013. 
  165. ^ Wallis, Daniel (13 February 2014). "Venezuela violence puts focus on militant 'colectivo' groups". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  166. ^ "Venezuela: Violence Against Protesters, Journalists". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  167. ^ a b "Venezuela : for an end to the violence". Socialist International. Retrieved 15 May 2014. 
  168. ^ "Protesters back in streets in Venezuela". USA Today. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  169. ^ "Maduro no aceptará grupos violentos y armados en el chavismo y advierte que podrian ir a la carcel". Noticias21. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  170. ^ "Colectivos de paz accionan armas de fuego en la Rómulo Gallegos ante mirada de la GNB". La Patilla. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  171. ^ "#16A Una persona herida y dos vehículos quemados fue el saldo de ataque de colectivos en urbanización Río Lama". El Impulso. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  172. ^ "Impactante video del horror vivido por una mujer en Maracaibo: grupos violentos amenazaron con violarla". NTN24. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  173. ^ "En Maracaibo: amenazas de violación, saqueo de viviendas y vehículos quemados bajo la mirada pasiva de la GNB". NTN24. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  174. ^ ""Colectivos" intentaron secuestrar a mujer en Palaima". El Propio. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  175. ^ "Colectivos paramilitares irrumpen en hogares y amenazan con violar a los residentes con "permiso" de la GNB". La Patilla. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  176. ^ "Armed pro-govt militias roil Venezuela protests". The Associated Press. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  177. ^ "Arreaza promete desarme de grupos armados". El Universal. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  178. ^ "A tale of two prisoners". Economist. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  179. ^ "Varela: Colectivos son el pilar para la defensa de la patria". El Universal. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  180. ^ "La Universidad Fermín Toro de Barquisimeto fue incendiada por supuestos colectivos este lunes". NTN24. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  181. ^ "Denuncian que incendio en la Universidad Fermín Toro fue causado por colectivos armados". El Nacional. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  182. ^ Video | Uniformados y civiles dispararon en Candelaria el 12F
  183. ^ "[Fotos] Chacao Enmascarado: retratos del conflicto;". Prodavinci. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  184. ^ Venezuelan police disperse violent crowd after mass anti-govt protest (VIDEO) — RT News
  185. ^ a b Neuman, William (27 April 2014). "In Venezuela, Protesters Point to Their Scars". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  186. ^ Afirman Que Policia Manipulo Pruebas Para No Ser Incriminada - Nacional Y Politica - El Universal
  187. ^ a b "El objetivo de agresores ha sido matar a manifestantes" [The agressors' goal has been to kill manifestants]. El Nacional (in Castilian). 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  188. ^ a b "Foreign journal provides identity of shooters". El Universal. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  189. ^ a b Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela/Title 3 - Wikisource, the free online library
  190. ^ a b En Oriente.com - CONSTITUCION DE LA REPUBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA Articulo 68
  191. ^ "Amnistía: tortura es habitual en Venezuela". Voz de America. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  192. ^ "Estudiantes piden a la ONU una misión de investigación". El Universal. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  193. ^ a b ""Funcionarios jugaban con ellos al tiro al blanco": abogado que atendió a 3 adolescentes detenidos en Mérida". NTN24. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  194. ^ "Torturan a estudiantes en Venezuela para vincularlos con Miami". El Nuevo Herald. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  195. ^ "Saldo de las protestas en El Trigal". Notitarde. 13 February 2014. 
  196. ^ = Juan Manuel Carrasco relata su arresto| newspaper = Diario Las Américas | date = 13 February 2014
  197. ^ Emilia Jorge, Maria (3 August 2014). "La cárcel, según los jóvenes que protestaron". El Nacional. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  198. ^ "En video: Foro Penal denuncia en CNN torturas con descargas eléctricas en Táchira". YoYo Press. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  199. ^ "Foro Penal denuncia torturas con descargas eléctricas a mujeres en los senos". Carota Digital. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  200. ^ "Estudiantes venezolanos detenidos habrían sufrido torturas, según abogada del Foro Penal Venezolano". NTN24. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  201. ^ "Bancada del PSUV en la AN niega debate sobre las torturas y tratos crueles". El Universal. 13 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  202. ^ "Venezuela protests are sign that US wants our oil, says Nicolás Maduro" by Seumas Milne and Jonathan Watts in The Guardian
  203. ^ [1][dead link]
  204. ^ Diario El Periodiquito - Gobernado Tareck El Aissami repudia hechos violentos en Aragua
  205. ^ Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela/Title 3 - Wikisource, the free online library
  206. ^ http://www.tsj.gov.ve/legislacion/constitucion1999.htm
  207. ^ a b "Más del 80% está en desacuerdo con las guarimbas, según una encuesta (+tabla y video)". Noticias24.com. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  208. ^ "A la pregunta sobre si la motivación de las guarimbas es “protestar por unos problemas”, o sacar a Maduro del poder, 36,9% cree que lo hacen como protesta, pero 63,1% dijo que tienen como objetivo sacar del poder a Maduro. El porcentaje más alto (78,7%) corresponde a los más pobres, de las clases D y E. Como ven, en esos estratos socioeconómicos hay mayor conciencia de los verdaderos fines de la red de guarimbas, donde los niveles de rechazo son más altos." "Repudio a las guarimbas" at Ultimas Noticias
  209. ^ “Guarimbas Protegen De Motomalandros” - Noticiascentro
  210. ^ a b "Muere motorizado en Av. Rómulo Gallegos, degollado por alambre colocado por manifestantes opositores" [Dies motorcyclist at avenue Rómulo Gallegos, beheaded by wire installed by opposition manifestants] (video) (in Castiian). Alba Ciudad 96.3 FM. Feb 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  211. ^ Hallan “miguelitos” y clavos en barricadas de Ciudad Ojeda: FOTOS+VIDEO
  212. ^ Guarimbas con miguelitos y chinas: el idioma de las protestas venezolanas | América Latina | Reuters
  213. ^ Guarimberos en Altamira ponen alambres,aporrea tvi, feberero 2014 - YouTube
  214. ^ Presidente Maduro presenta vídeo donde se observa a grupos violentos preparando guarimbas | Noticias Diarias
  215. ^ Neuman, William. "Crude Weapons Help Fuel Unrest in Bastion of Venezuelan Opposition". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  216. ^ Maduro: ´Ya van más de 50 muertos producto de las barricadas´ | RPP NOTICIAS
  217. ^ Bracho, Alejandro. "Fiscal General denunció ataque a sede del Ministerio Público". sunoticiero.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  218. ^ "Ministro de Ciencia y Tecnología denunció ataque contra Cantv en Lara". El Universal. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  219. ^ "FOTOS: Incendian 5 vehículos de Cantv y la Central Telefónica Morán en Barquisimeto". http://albaciudad.org. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  220. ^ "Alcalde Muchacho denuncia "ataques" contra bancos en Chacao Leer más en: http://www.elmundo.com.ve/noticias/actualidad/noticias/alcalde-muchacho-denuncia--ataques--contra-bancos-.aspx#ixzz2zpzgPNjz". El Mundo. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  221. ^ "Ameliach denuncia que ataque a sede de Psuv deja un herido en Carabobo". Globovision.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  222. ^ "Denuncian ataques a sedes del Seniat en Caracas y Zulia". Globovision.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  223. ^ Yepes, Hector. "Primera dama denunció ataque a la sede de la Fundación de la Familia Tachirense (Fotos)". La Nación. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  224. ^ "Venezuela Ministry Torched By Protesters". Yahoo! News UK. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  225. ^ Trujillo, Manuel Ruben. "Maduro revela que hay un detenido por ataques a ministerio de Vivienda". El Universal. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  226. ^ "SHOCKING GALLERY: SEE HOW WAS TOTALLY DESTROYED HEADQUARTERS UNEFA-TÁCHIRA". laiguana.tv. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  227. ^ a b Robertson, Ewan. "Venezuelan Opposition Mayor Jailed and Another Arrested as More Die in Violent Disturbances". nsnbc.me. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  228. ^ "Queman 5 vehículos de Pdval en Carabobo". Reporte Confidencial. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  229. ^ "Violentos incendiaron gandola con alimentos en Maracaibo". cuidadccs.org. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  230. ^ "Jesse Chacón denunció la quema de 22 vehículos de Corpoelec". El Universal. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  231. ^ http://laradiodelsur.com/?p=247548
  232. ^ Maduro mostró videos de seguridad con la agresión opositora a unidades de Metrobús, incluyendo sus trabajadores y usuarios | Alba Ciudad 96.3 FM
  233. ^ NUEVAS FOTOS: Los daños a unidades de Metrobús y estaciones del Metro causados por opositores violentos | Alba Ciudad 96.3 FM
  234. ^ Grupos antichavistas atacan a unidad de Metrobús en San Antonio de Los Altos | AVN
  235. ^ Grupos fascistas atacan nuevamente unidad de metrobús y lesionan un usuario | Correo del Orinoco
  236. ^ http://www.ultimasnoticias.com.ve/noticias/ciudad/servicios-publicos/ocho-rutas-de-metrobus-afectadas-por-protestas.aspx
  237. ^ "Venezuela coup? Gunfire, clashes as 3 dead in violent Caracas protest" (photos, video). RT News. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  238. ^ "5 myths about the Venezuela crisis". Global Post. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  239. ^ "Statement on Right-Wing Violence in Venezuela". Alliance for Global Justice. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  240. ^ El 'golpe suave' en Venezuela en cinco pasos [The 'soft coup' in Venezuela in five steps] (in Castilian), TeleSUR, 20 February 2014 
  241. ^ a b "Cuba Social Media Project Was No Plot, Agency Says". The New York Times. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  242. ^ a b "Obama Condemns Violence in Ukraine And Venezuela". Huffington Post. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  243. ^ "White House: US not backing Venezuela opposition protests". Al Jazeera. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  244. ^ "Venezuela acusa a Panamá de injerencia y llama a consultas a su embajadora" [Venezuela accuses Panama of interference and calls its ambassador for consultation]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  245. ^ a b Munera, Isabel (24 February 2014). "Los guardianes de la revolución" [The Revolution's guardians]. El Mundo. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  246. ^ "Venezuela: Violence Against Protesters, Journalists". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  247. ^ ""Fuimos testigos de cómo algunos estudiantes fueron violados vía anal": abogado del Foro Penal Venezolano" ["We witnessed some students were anally violated": Venezuelan legal forum lawyer]. NTN24 (in Castilian). 16 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  248. ^ "Denuncian que GNB y agentes cubanos habrían jugado tiro al blanco con adolescentes detenidos (+Video)". Venezuela Al Dia. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  249. ^ "Violencia en Venezuela: Maduro anunció que los que se movilicen "sin permiso" serán detenidos" [Violence in Venezuela: Maduro announced those who mobilise "without permission" will be arrested], Infobae, 13 February 2014 
  250. ^ "Ameliach prohíbe marchas en los barrios de Valencia" [Ameliach forbids marchs in Valencia neighbourhoods]. El Mundo (in Castilian). Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  251. ^ "La foto que Ameliach no quiere que veas: Génesis Carmona herida" [The photogram Ameliach does not want you to see: Génesis Carmona injured]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 18 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  252. ^ "Ameliach advierte que Cabello dará orden para "contraataque fulminante"" [Ameliach adverts Cabello will order "fulminating counter attack"]. Venezuela Al Dia. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  253. ^ Gupta, Girish (17 February 2014). "Venezuelan security forces raid major opposition base". USA Today. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  254. ^ "¡Gochos temblad!… Sacaron a pasear a los Sukhoi en San Cristóbal" [Gochos, tremble! The Sukhoi started to fly over San Cristóbal]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  255. ^ Carlo Rodríguez, Juan (20 February 2014). "Confirman aeronaves militares sobrevolando San Cristóbal; reportan vías cerradas" [Military aircraft over San Cristóbal confirmed: closed routes reported]. Venezuela Al Dia (in Castilian). Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  256. ^ "Nunca había visto algo así, era una maldad distinta" [I had never seen something the like, it was a different evil]. El Universal (in Castilian). 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  257. ^ "Desmiente que haya "Avispas Negras" en Táchira: los únicos cubanos que hay están en los CDI" ["Black hornets" in Táchira denied: the only Cubans are in the CDIs]. Noticias 24 (in Castilian). 20 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  258. ^ Cartaya, Rolando (24 February 2014). "Cuban troops suspected to be in Venezuela". Marti News. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  259. ^ "Maduro: Las agencias de EEUU han dado luz verde para el derrocamiento de mi Gobierno" [Maduro: the US agencies have given the green light to the overthrow of my government]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  260. ^ "8 dead as Venezuela turmoil continues, leader asks for Obama's help". The Los Angeles Times. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  261. ^ "Maduro evalúa intervenir policía de Lara porque protege a "guarimberos"" [Maduro evaluates intervene in the Lara police for protecting "guarimberos"]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  262. ^ "Decretran el 27 de febrero "Día no Laborable"" [27 February decreted "non-working day"]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 22 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  263. ^ "Maduro: Yo invoco a Obama, a su espíritu afroamericano, para que de la orden de respetar a Venezuela" [Maduro: I call Obama, his Afro American spirit, to order respect to Venezuela]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 22 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  264. ^ "Muere joven venezolano por guaya colocada por grupos fascistas" [Young Venezuelan dies by wire installed by fascist groups] (in Castilian). teleSUR. 21 February 2014. 
  265. ^ Protesters back in streets in Venezuela, WTSP 
  266. ^ "Neighbors rally behind retired Venezuelan general in armed standoff with security forces". Fox News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  267. ^ "Ex-Venezuelan general in armed standoff at home". Yahoo News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  268. ^ "Orden de captura a general Ángel Vivas causa nuevo conflicto en Venezuela" [Capture order against general Ángel Vivas causes new confliict in Venezuela]. El Universo (in Castilian). 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  269. ^ "General Ángel Vivas denunció que "cubanos y esbirros" atacan su casa" [General Ángel Vivas denounced that 'Cubans & minions' attack his house]. El Universal (in Castilian). 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  270. ^ "Venezuela: el chavismo en caída libre" [Venezuela: Chavism in free fall]. 26 Noticias (in Castilian). 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  271. ^ "Ya no son perdigones: GNB dispara METRAS a manifestantes (imágenes fuertes)" [No more rubber bullets: the GNB shoots buckshot at protestors (strong images)]. La Patilla. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  272. ^ "FOTOS: Una oficial de la GNB agrede en el suelo y con el casco a una mujer" [Photograms: a GNB officer attacks a fallen woman with her helmet]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 24 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  273. ^ "Brutal represión contra el pueblo" [Brutal repression againt the people]. 24 February 2014 (in Castilian). El Carabobeno. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  274. ^ "Montan hospital móvil militar en aeropuerto tachirense" [Military campaign hospital assembled in Táchira airport]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  275. ^ "Venezuela Peace Conference Begins With Opposition Boycott". Bloomberg. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  276. ^ "Maduro condenó a "artistas y famosos' que piden paz para Venezuela" [Maduro condemned "artists & celebrities" asking peace for Venezuela], El universal (in Castilian) 
  277. ^ "Confirman orden de captura contra Carlos Vecchio" [Carlos Vecchio capture order confirmed]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 27 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  278. ^ "Venezuela investiga a 27 agentes por delitos de lesa Humanidade" [Venezuela investigates 27 agents for crimes against humanity], Info news, 1 March 2014 
  279. ^ "GN lanzó lacrimógenas y puso música llanera en Altamira" [GN used tear gas and played loud music in Altamira]. Ultimas Noticias. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  280. ^ Wallis, Daniel (20 March 2014). "Mayor sentenced to ten and a half months (Reuters)". Uk.reuters.com. 
  281. ^ "Presos políticos en Venezuela: el hermano de Chávez amenaza con arrestar a dos alcaldes opositores". Infobae. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  282. ^ "Cabello: Machado va a ser juzgada por asesina (Video)". La Patilla. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  283. ^ Rojas, Eligio (25 March 2014). "Generales Machillanda, Hernández y Millán involucrados en supuesto golpe". El Mundo. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  284. ^ "Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro accuses three generals of plotting coup". The Guardian. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  285. ^ "Frente Institucional Militar rechaza detención de oficiales". El Nacional. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  286. ^ Maria Delgado, Antonio (26 March 2014). "Oficiales retirados cuestionan arrestos de generales venezolanos". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  287. ^ Maduro denuncia plan secesionista opositor - YouTube
  288. ^ Maduro Denuncio Plan Secesionista Contra Venezuela - Nacional Y Politica - El Universal
  289. ^ Maduro alertĂł sobre plan de separaciĂłn de los estados Zulia y TĂĄchira del resto del paĂ­s (Video)
  290. ^ MinCI | Presidente Maduro denuncia plan secesionista contra Venezuela
  291. ^ Maduro: Oposición tiene un plan para separar a Táchira y Zulia de Venezuela
  292. ^ Página/12 :: El mundo :: Maduro denunció un plan secesionista
  293. ^ Maduro denuncia plan secesionista contra Venezuela a la vez que crea Consejo de DDHH (3 - 4 - 2014)
  294. ^ Parshely, Lois (2 May 2014). "Venezuela's Latest Military Defector Puts the Focus on Civilian Deaths". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  295. ^ "Maduro ofrece entregar pruebas a EEUU sobre supuesto plan magnicida". El Universal. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  296. ^ Cawthorne, Andrew (13 September 2014). "Venezuela arrests 64 for anti-Maduro protests: rights group". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  297. ^ "Leopoldo López llama a la calle y se mide con Henrique Capriles" [Leopoldo López calls the street & sizes himself against Henrique Capriles]. El Mundo (in Castilian) (ES). 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  298. ^ "Sector de la oposición convoca a marcha para el 12 de febrero". El Universal. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  299. ^ "Venezuela: These Are Middle Class Protests, And The Poor Aren't Joining". WFTV. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  300. ^ Bajak, Frank (19 March 2014). "Venezuelan student protesters seek to woo poor". Associated Press. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  301. ^ Bobbio, Leonardo (15 February 2014). "Allanan casa del padre de Leopoldo López". El Nacional. 
  302. ^ Gupta, Girish (16 February 2014). "Venezuelan opposition leader says he'll turn himself in". USA Today. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  303. ^ "Leopoldo López se entrega a funcionarios de la GN". El Universal. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  304. ^ "Diferida audiencia de Leopoldo López, pasará la noche en Ramo Verde: Fiscal General garantiza "todos sus derechos"". La Patilla. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  305. ^ "Human Rights Watch exile a Maduro la immediate liberación de López". La Patilla. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  306. ^ "Venezuela opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez surrenders, urges protests". Los Angeles Times. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  307. ^ a b "Global hackers hit Venezuelan government, servers 'falling like dominoes'". Minnesota Post. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  308. ^ a b "Anonymous attacks Venezuela govt websites". Business News Americas. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  309. ^ a b Boone, Jeb (17 February 2014). "Global hackers hit Venezuelan government, servers 'falling like dominoes'". Global Post. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  310. ^ "Capriles confronta a Ameliach y a la fiscal general de la República". La Patilla. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  311. ^ "Capriles: Lo de ayer en Miraflores fue "sin la oposición"". La Patilla. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  312. ^ "Solicitan a la AN allanamiento a la inmunidad parlamentaria a María Corina Machado". La Patilla. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  313. ^ "Movimiento estudiantil pide a la iglesia sea mediadora ante violencia en el país". La Patilla. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  314. ^ "Murder charges against Venezuela opposition leader dropped". CNN. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  315. ^ "From jail, Venezuela protest leader urges resistance". Reuters. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  316. ^ "Capriles invita a manifestar mañana en Venezuela y el mundo". Union Radio. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  317. ^ "Ángel Vivas en CNN: "Vinieron a sacarme de una manera ilegal entonces hice uso de legitima defensa"". Notica Al Dia. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  318. ^ "Estudiantes llegaron a la embajada de Cuba". El Universal. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  319. ^ "Estudiantes marcharon hasta la embajada de Cuba (Fotos y Video)". La Patilla. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  320. ^ "Estudiante "fuertemente armada" ataca a Policía de Falcón (Video)". La Patilla. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  321. ^ "Así están las playas de verdad (Fotos no tan Chéveres)". La Patilla. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  322. ^ "Large protests in Venezuela despite carnival". Al Jazeera English. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  323. ^ "MCM: Si este es el cierre del Carnaval prepárense para la Octavita". La Patilla. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  324. ^ "Toda Venezuela se une en protestas pacíficas (Fotos)". La Patilla. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  325. ^ "Multitudinaria marcha de la oposición en Caracas (Fotos y Video)". La Patilla. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  326. ^ "La oposición marchó para "darle un parao" al Gobierno – Protestas en Venezuela". Eluniversal.com. 25 October 2013. 
  327. ^ "Multitudinaria marcha de la oposición en Caracas (Fotos y Video)". Lapatilla.com. 22 February 1999. 
  328. ^ "Con la bandera nacional sale María Corina Machado de Maiquetía (Fotos)". La Patilla. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  329. ^ a b c Toro, Francisco. "The Venezuelan Protests Are Playing Right Into the Regime's Hands". The New Republic. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  330. ^ a b Bajak, Frank. "Venezuelan student protestors seek to woo poor". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  331. ^ López, Virginia; Watts, Jonathan (20 February 2014). "Venezuela's poor join protests as turmoil grips Chávez's revolution". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  332. ^ Law, Phillippa; Walsh, James. "Venezuela protests: demonstrators tell us why they're taking part". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  333. ^ Walsh, James; Law, Philippa. "Venezuela protests: the other side of the story". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  334. ^ "Cacerolas retumban en el 23 de enero contra la falta de electricidad (dosis de patria)". La Patilla. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  335. ^ "Así se ve el 23 de Enero recibiendo dosis de patria: 24 horas sin luz". La Patilla. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  336. ^ Hernandez, Nelson. "Keller 1er trimestre 2014 d". Survey. Alfredo Keller & Associates. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  337. ^ "64% cree que gobierno de Maduro es peor al de Chávez". El Universal. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  338. ^ "Encuesta Keller: 40% se calificó como opositor, 37% como chavista y 23% como independiente". Agencia Carabobeno de Noticias. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  339. ^ "Maduro pierde popularidad y podría acercarse un estallido social: Keller". El Venezolano. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  340. ^ "El deterioro de la gestión de gobierno durante el régimen de Maduro es de 47 puntos netos (Encuesta Keller)". La Patilla. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  341. ^ Gutierrez, Edgar. "VENEBAROMETRO Survey March 2014". Survey. Edgard Gutierrez. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  342. ^ "Venebarometro: 76,4% de venezolanos no apoyaría defender gobierno en las calles". La Patilla. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  343. ^ "LVL: 63% de la población rechaza como se están dando las protestas. No conducirán a ningún lado". Noticias24.com. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  344. ^ "79,5% piensa que el país está mal". El Universal. 5 April 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2014. 
  345. ^ "Datos: 64% de acuerdo con salir de este gobierno lo antes posible, de forma constitucional (encuesta)". La Patilla. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  346. ^ "Encuesta Datos: 72% cree que las cosas van mal en el país (+Estudio)". Venezuela Al Dia. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  347. ^ "Hercon: El 53.7% de venezolanos considera que vive en dictadura (gobierno raspado)". La Patilla. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  348. ^ "Hercon Marzo 30 2014". Survey. Hercon Consultants. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  349. ^ "Hinterlaces: 87% de los venezolanos está en desacuerdo con las manifestaciones violentas". Noticias24.com. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  350. ^ "Schemel: 9 de cada 10 venezolanos respalda salida constitucional y pacífica". El Universal. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  351. ^ "Survey: 9 out of 10 favor constitutional, peaceful solution". El Universal. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  352. ^ "Hinterlaces: Sube a 57 % valoración positiva sobre gestión de Nicolás Maduro". Globovision. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  353. ^ "Hinterlaces: Valoración de Maduro subió a 57%". Venezuela Al Día. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  354. ^ "La mayoría de los venezolanos apoya al gobierno de Nicolás Maduro a un año de su elección". Noticias24. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  355. ^ "ICS: 81% de la población considera que las manifestaciones han sido violentas". Noticias24.com. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  356. ^ "ICS: 85% de los venezolanos está en desacuerdo con que sigan las protestas". Globovision. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  357. ^ "87,1% de los venezolanos considera que las protestas "en general" han sido violentas, según ICS". Noticias24.com. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  358. ^ "ICS: 63,3% de los venezolanos confía en que Maduro solventará los principales problemas del país". Noticias24.com. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  359. ^ "Maduro ganaría las presidenciales con 55,8% si hubiese elecciones hoy, según un estudio (+tabla)". Noticias24.com. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  360. ^ "ICS: 55,8% de los venezolanos votarían por Nicolas Maduro si hoy hubiese elecciones". Noticias24.com. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  361. ^ "55% of Venezuelans think Maduro's gov't is no longer democratic". El Universal. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  362. ^ "Venezolanos culpan a Nicolás Maduro de la crisis, según encuesta oficialista Read more here: http://www.elnuevoherald.com/2014/04/05/1718849/chavistas-culpan-a-nicolas-maduro.html#storylink=cpy". El Nuevo Herald. 5 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  363. ^ "IVAD: 71,4% del país evalúa positivamente al movimiento estudiantil (encuesta)". La Patilla. 5 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  364. ^ "Encuesta señala que más del 50% de los venezolanos está a favor de pedir la renuncia de Nicolás Maduro". NTN24. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  365. ^ "IVAD: Para más del 74% el país vive tanto una crisis económica como política". La Patilla. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  366. ^ "IAPA protests official censorship of press in Venezuela". Press Release. Inter American Press Association. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  367. ^ a b "La APEX demanda al Gobierno a que se respete a periodistas extranjeros". El Universal. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  368. ^ a b "Sntp: 181 agresiones, robos y detenciones contra periodistas en dos meses de protesta". La Patilla. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  369. ^ "SNTP registra más de 120 agresiones contra periodistas". El Universal. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  370. ^ "Diarios de Colombia les dan papel a periódicos venezolanos". El Tiempo. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  371. ^ "Puerto Rico, Panamá y Trinidad también ofrecen papel a diarios venezolanos". La Patilla. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  372. ^ a b c Peter Wilson (19 February 2014). "Social media key for Venezuelan protesters". USA Today. 
  373. ^ Vinogradoff, Ludmila (3 March 2014). "Maduro trata a la prensa aún peor que Hugo Chávez". ABC (Spain). Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  374. ^ "Artistas venezolanos se unen al efecto Eco, "hagamos eco de lo que pasa en Venezuela"". La Patilla. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  375. ^ "VTV se burla campaña contra la violencia y la muerte (Video + Efecto Eco)". La Patilla. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  376. ^ "Este martes será instalada la Comisión de la Verdad". La Patilla. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  377. ^ "Sntp reportó 205 agresiones a 152 trabajadores de la prensa". Notitarde. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  378. ^ "Suman 205 agresiones contra trabajadores de la prensa en dos meses". La Patilla. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  379. ^ "Reportan 460 ataques a la libertad de expresión en Carabobo, en tres meses". El Universal. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  380. ^ a b "Abogados denuncian que el Sebin realiza seguimientos para amedrentarlos". El Nacional. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  381. ^ "GNB retuvo y fichó a fotógrafos de lapatilla (Video)". La Patilla. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  382. ^ "Impactantes imágenes: la agresión al reportero de La Patilla, captada por las cámaras de NTN24". NTN24. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  383. ^ "Reportero gráfico de La Patilla es empujado y golpeado por un PNB: le rompieron el casco de un "cachazo"". NTN24. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  384. ^ "PNB agrede a reportero gráfico de @La_Patilla (Video)". La Patilla. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  385. ^ "PNB agrede nuevamente a reportero de @La_Patilla en Las Minitas (Video)". La Patilla. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  386. ^ "Múltiples agresiones contra reporteros: Tres heridas por perdigón y un intento de detención (Fotos)". La Patilla. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014. 
  387. ^ "Herido por perdigones reportero gráfico de @La_Patilla en Táchira (Fotos)". La Patilla. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  388. ^ "Reportan dos periodistas gráficos heridos con perdigones en Lara". El Universal. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  389. ^ "Detienen corresponsal de NTN24 en Táchira". Ultimas Noticias. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  390. ^ "Detienen corresponsal de NTN24 en Táchira". Informe21. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  391. ^ "Los periodistas denuncian más de 100 agresiones en Venezuela". La Vanguardia. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  392. ^ a b "Revelan más imágenes de paramilitares y GNB juntos (la censura de Globovisión)". La Patilla. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  393. ^ "Otro periodista de Globovisión, Carlos Arturo Albino, renunció este miércoles (+Tuit)". Venezuela Al Dia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  394. ^ a b "Ongoing Human Rights Violations Mark Protests in Venezuela". Press Release. Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  395. ^ a b "CNN Video – Breaking News Videos from". CNN.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  396. ^ Schipani, Andres (16 February 2014). "Fears grow of Venezuela media crackdown after protest killings". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  397. ^ Wallis, Daniel (20 February 2014). "Maduro threatens to expel CNN for Venezuela coverage". Reuters. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  398. ^ "Maduro: Se va CNN de Venezuela". La Patilla. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  399. ^ "Presidente de Venezuela amenaza a CNN con bloquear su difusión". La Nacion. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  400. ^ "Venezuela Revokes CNN Journalists' Press Credentials". Mashable. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  401. ^ Deloire, Christophe. "RIGHT TO INFORMATION MORE ENDANGERED THAN EVER IN NATIONAL CRISIS". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  402. ^ a b Meza, Alfredo (13 March 2014). "El régimen venezolano estrecha el cerco sobre internet". El Pais. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  403. ^ "Twitter reports image blocking in Venezuela", USA Today (AP), 14 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  404. ^ "Venezuelans Blocked on Twitter as Opposition Protests Mount", Patricia Laya, Sarah Frier and Anatoly Kurmanaev, Bloomberg News, 14 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  405. ^ "Twitter confirma bloqueo de imágenes en Venezuela". BBC. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  406. ^ "Empresa de telecomunicaciones de Venezuela niega bloqueo de Twitter". El Tiempo. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  407. ^ Ministro Fernández: Nosotros no hemos bloqueado las fotos y videos que se suben a Twitter (+Video) — Venezolana de Televisión
  408. ^ "Táchira militarizada y sin Internet luego de 16 días de protestas" ("Táchira without Internet militarized after 16 days of protests") (Spanish), Eleonora Delgado, Adriana Chirinos, and Cesar Lira, El Nacional, 21 February 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  409. ^ "Táchira amanece sin Internet por segundo día" ("Táchira dawns without Internet for second day") (Spanish), Eleonora Delgado, El Nacional, 21 February 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  410. ^ "Venezuela: Táchira se quedó militarizada y sin internet" ("Venezuela: Táchira remained militarized without internet") (Spanish), Terra, 20 February 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  411. ^ "Denuncian que en el Táchira no hay agua, internet, ni servicio telefónico" ("They claim that in Tachira no water, internet, or phone service") (Spanish), Informe21, 20 February 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  412. ^ O'Brien, Danny. "Venezuela's Internet Crackdown Escalates into Regional Blackout". EFF. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  413. ^ Neal, Meghan (20 February 2014). "Not Satisfied With Blocking Twitter And TV, Venezuela Shuts Off The Internet". Vice. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  414. ^ Vuelve internet a San Cristóbal donde manifestaciones y disturbios no cesan | El Informe
  415. ^ Bajack, Frank (21 February 2014). "Venezuela Cuts Off Internet, Blocks Communication For Protestors". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  416. ^ "Zello se actualizó para ayudar a los venezolanos (Entrevista Exclusiva)". La Patilla. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  417. ^ "Zello: la "aplicación terrorista" de los estudiantes venezolanos". Infobae. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  418. ^ "En video: María Corina Machado mostraba imágenes de víctimas violentas en la AN y le cortaron el micrófono". YoYo Press. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  419. ^ "Le dan ultimátum a periodista por opinar en Twitter". Espacio Publico. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  420. ^ "Senal Del Canal Ntn24 Fue Sacada De La Parrilla De Cable – Arte Y Entretenimiento" (in Spanish). El Universal. 
  421. ^ Schipani, Andres (16 February 2014). "Fears grow of Venezuela media crackdown". Financial Times. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  422. ^ "Maduro: Denuncio a la Agencia France Press (AFP) porque está a la cabeza de la manipulación – RT". Actualidad.rt.com. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  423. ^ "Maduro propone sacar de cableras a CNN en Español y sustituirlo por Zum TV". La Patilla. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  424. ^ "Venezuela bloquea Infobae por divulgar fotos del cadáver de Robert Serra". BBC. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  425. ^ "El régimen venezolano de Nicolás Maduro censura a Infobae". Infobae. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  426. ^ "La policía política pone en aprietos a Maduro". El Pais. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  427. ^ a b c "In Venezuela, the Only Free Media Is Twitter". Mashable. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  428. ^ Russo, Sandra (22 February 2014). "Las falsas fotos sobre Venezuela". Página/12.
  429. ^ "La oposición venezolana busca crear confusión con imágenes falsas". Info News. 15 February 2014.
  430. ^ Lovato, Roberto. "Why the Media Are Giving a Free Pass to Venezuela’s Neo-Fascist Creeps". The Nation. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  431. ^ "General (r) Ángel Vivas aclara foto de armamento presentada por Diosdado Cabello (+ Fotos)". Venezuela Al Dia. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  432. ^ "Ángel Vivas: Se debe rescatar la república democrática de Venezuela". El Carabobeno. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  433. ^ "Descubre de dónde Diosdado sacó la foto de armas que dice que son del general Vivas". La Patilla. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  434. ^ "Airsoft Rental Guns". Airsoft Battle Zone. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  435. ^ Martinez, Laury (23 August 2013). "Este viernes zarpó ferry Virgen del Valle II". El Clarin. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  436. ^ Martinez, Laury (23 August 2013). "foto11377284498". El Clarin. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  437. ^ "Izarra de "verdad" vuelve a tuitear otra foto de mentira del ferry". La Patilla. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  438. ^ Velasquez, Mariangela (1 March 2014). "Estudiantes opositores aseguraron que en Margarita no habrá carnaval". El Nacional. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  439. ^ "Muchacho: "Pegaron frases" en el video presentado por Maduro". Union Radio. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  440. ^ "ALBA rechaza violencia y expresa su apoyo al gobierno de Maduro". Lapatilla.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  441. ^ "Diario El Siglo – Caricom condena las muertes en Venezuela a causa de protestas". Elsiglo.com.ve. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  442. ^ Ashton, Catherine. "STATEMENT by the Spokesperson of EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the recent incidents in Venezuela". Statement. European Union. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  443. ^ "Venezuela: peaceful and respectful dialogue only way out of the crisis, MEPs say". European Parliament. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  444. ^ "Mercosur repudia violencia emprendida por la derecha en Venezuela". AVN. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  445. ^ "Iglesia o cancilleres suramericanos podrían mediar en Venezuela". La Patilla. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  446. ^ "Insulza llama a evitar confrontaciones en Venezuela". Ultimasnoticias.com.ve. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  447. ^ "Unasur rechaza actos violentos en Venezuela y se solidariza con el Gobierno". Correo del Orinoco. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  448. ^ a b "Suriname, other South American states condemn Venezuela violence". The Daily Herald. 17 February 2014. 
  449. ^ "Latin American foreign ministers to discuss Venezuela unrest". Reuters. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  450. ^ "Unasur se reunirá en Caracas el 25 y 26 de marzo". Lapatilla.com. 22 February 1999. 
  451. ^ Colville, Rupert. "UN rights office urges probe into Venezuela violence, calls for dialogue to resolve crisis". United Nations. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  452. ^ Lopez, Oscar (3 March 2014). "Venezuela Protests News: UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon Urges Maduro To ‘Listen to Protesters’". Latin Times. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  453. ^ "ONU recibe nuevas denuncias de torturas en Venezuela". El Universal. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  454. ^ "Denuncian el aislamiento del opositor venezolano Leopoldo López en prisión". El Nuevo Herald. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  455. ^ "Argentine government condemns "clear efforts of destabilization" in Venezuela". MercoPress. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  456. ^ "HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES PROOF STATEMENTS BY MEMBERS Venezuela SPEECH Tuesday, 4 March 2014". Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  457. ^ a b "Bolivia acusa de golpismo a la oposición venezolana | América Latina | DW.DE | 13.02.2014". DW.DE. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  458. ^ Winters, Brian (28 March 2014). "Brazil grows wary of Venezuela under Maduro, reduces support". Reuters. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  459. ^ [2][dead link]
  460. ^ "Senado de Brasil insta a Rousseff a manifestarse por integridad de Machado". El Universal. 15 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  461. ^ Tovar, Manuel (22 February 2014). "Canadá insta a Venezuela a investigar muertes y denuncias de torturas". El Nacional. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  462. ^ "Piñera pide respetar libertades y Estado de Derecho en Venezuela". RPP. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  463. ^ "Chile insta al diálogo "amplio y constructivo" en Venezuela". Globovision. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  464. ^ "Embajador chileno recibe a diputados opositores". La Patilla. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  465. ^ "China urges the US, Venezuela to improve dialogue and relations". El Universal. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  466. ^ "Colombia's Santos calls for calm and dialogue in Venezuela". El Universal. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  467. ^ "Gobierno colombiano lamenta pérdida de vidas humanas en Venezuela". Globovision. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  468. ^ "Kerry says working with others on possible Venezuela mediation". Reuters. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  469. ^ Tovar, Manuel (14 February 2014). "Costa Rica deplora violencia en Venezuela". Últimas Noticias. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  470. ^ "CONGRESS APPROVES MOTION ON COSTA RICA CRISIS IN VENEZUELA: Maria Corina Machado Solidarity, Leopoldo Lopez and Daniel Ceballos". REDLAD. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  471. ^ "Cubadebate " Cuba condena enérgicamente intentos de Golpe de Estado en Venezuela: MINREX » Print". Cubadebate.cu. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  472. ^ "Lider del Parlamento de Dinmarca visita el Senado". El Universal (Mexico). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  473. ^ "Correa se solidariza con Gobierno venezolano tras violencia de la derecha". AVN. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  474. ^ "Gobierno alemán pide a Maduro no criminalizar a opositores". El Universal. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  475. ^ "Comunicado 072-2014:COMUNICADO DEL GOBIERNO DE GUATEMALA SOBRE LA SITUACIÓN EN LA REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA". Gobierno de Guatemala. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  476. ^ "Congreso de Guatemala: Pronunciamiento sobre situación en Venezuela". REDLAD. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  477. ^ "Guyana expresa respaldo al Gobierno de Venezuela". Ultimasnoticias.com.ve. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  478. ^ "HispanTV, Nexo Latino". Hispantv.ir. 
  479. ^ "Panamá preocupado por situación en Venezuela y la sigue con cautela". Lapatilla.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  480. ^ "Venezuela cuts ties with Panama, calling country a U.S. 'lackey' - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 
  481. ^ "Panama demands Venezuela pay $1bn debt – Americas". Al Jazeera English. 
  482. ^ "Ollanta Humala hace un "llamado a la calma y al diálogo" en Venezuela". Peru 21. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  483. ^ "Perú lamenta violencia en Venezuela e invoca al diálogo para reestablecer paz social". Andina. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  484. ^ "Machado, arropada por seguidores y diputados peruanos a su vuelta". El Nuevo Herald. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  485. ^ "María Corina Machado llegó a Venezuela con tres congresistas peruanos". La Republica (Peru). 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  486. ^ "Rusia confía en que Maduro preservará el orden en Venezuela | Iberoamérica | RIA Novosti". Sp.ria.ru. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  487. ^ "El Congreso español debatirá pedir a Venezuela el fin de la "represión"". El Nacional. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  488. ^ "España: Suspensión de equipos antimotines a Venezuela es para fomentar diálogo". La Patilla. 5 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  489. ^ "Siria condena los intentos de desestabilizar a Venezuela". Noticieros.televisa.com. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  490. ^ "Al Assad expresa su solidaridad a Maduro ante el intento de "sembrar el caos" que se produce en Siria y Venezuela – La Razón digital". Larazon.es. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  491. ^ "Reino Unido preocupado por detenciones de oposición en Venezuela". El Nacional. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  492. ^ Gupta, Girish (17 February 2014). "Venezuela expels 3 U.S. diplomats as violence flares". USA Today. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  493. ^ Cawthorne, Andrew (25 February 2014). "U.S. expels Venezuelan diplomats in tit-for-tat move over unrest". Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  494. ^ "Obama presses Venezuela to release protesters". AFP. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  495. ^ "Miami Woman Receives Letter From President Obama". CBS Miami. 27 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  496. ^ Bajak, Frank (9 March 2014). "Biden Says Venezuela 'Concocting' Bogus Stories". ABC News. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  497. ^ Kerry, John. "Recent Violence in Venezuela". United States Department of State. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  498. ^ Neuman, William (22 February 2014). "Kerry Says Venezuela Crackdown Is 'Unacceptable'". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  499. ^ "Venezuelan President Calls for Stepped-up Security". ABC News. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  500. ^ "Comando sur de EE UU cree que Venezuela está al borde de catástrofe". El Nacional. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  501. ^ Llorente, Elizabeth (20 February 2014). "Cuban-Americans in Congress Lash Out Against Venezuela's Crackdown on Protestors". Fox News Latino. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  502. ^ Caputo, Marc (3 March 2014). "Wasserman Schultz: Obama ‘looking’ at Venezuela sanctions, should act on immigration". Miami Herald. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  503. ^ "EEUU dice estar preparado para aplicar sanciones a Venezuela". El Universal. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  504. ^ "Assessing Venezuela's Political Crisis: Human Rights Violations and Beyond". Hearing. United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  505. ^ "Ros-Lehtinen Venezuela Sanctions Bill Passes House Foreign Affairs Committee and Clears First Legislative Hurdle to Hold Maduro Regime Accountable". Press Release. Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  506. ^ a b Marcos, Cristina (28 May 2014). "House passes Venezuela sanctions bill". The Hill. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  507. ^ "EEUU niega visas a funcionarios venezolanos por violaciones de DDHH". El Nuevo Herald. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  508. ^ "Obama administration would back sanctions against Venezuela: official". Reuters. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  509. ^ "Pepe Mujica: "En Venezuela hay un caldo de cultivo muy embromado"" (in Spanish). La Nación. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  510. ^ "Jorge Roig se acerca al Papa para pedirle oraciones por Venezuela (Foto)". La Patilla. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  511. ^ "Pope, Carter Call For Calm in Venezuela". NBC News. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  512. ^ "CEV: El Gobierno se equivoca al querer resolver la crisis por la fuerza (Video)". La Patilla. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  513. ^ "Venezuelan bishops demand due process for anti-government protesters". Catholic World News. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  514. ^ "Bishops: Offenders must pay for their actions". El Universal. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  515. ^ "CEV solicita liberación de estudiantes y presos políticos". Globovision. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  516. ^ Jacobo, Alejandra (27 February 2014). "Cardenal pide sanción para violaciones de DDHH". Union Radio. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  517. ^ "Conferencia Episcopal: Las iglesias han sido atacadas en los últimos días". Globovision. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  518. ^ "Monseñor Ovidio Pérez Morales envía mensaje a Maduro (Video)". La Patilla. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  519. ^ "Venezuela must investigate demonstration deaths". Amnesty International. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  520. ^ "Venezuela: Arrest of local mayor signals potential "witch hunt"". Amnesty International. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  521. ^ "Apra evalúa denunciar a Maduro en Corte Penal Internacional". El Comercio. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  522. ^ "Denunciarán a Maduro en Corte Penal Internacional". La Patilla. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  523. ^ "Friends of the Inter-American Democratic Charter Statement on Venezuela". Cartercenter.org. 12 February 2014. 
  524. ^ "Expresidentes mundiales exigen liberación inmediata de Leopoldo López y presos políticos". La Patilla. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  525. ^ "Club de Madrid se adhiere a condena contra la violencia en Venezuela". El Nacional. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  526. ^ "Venezuelan Government Shows Restraint and Resolve in The Face of Anti-Chavista Mayhem". Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA). 14 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  527. ^ "GUE/NGL condemns attempted coup in Venezuela – GUE/NGL – Another Europe is possible". Guengl.eu. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  528. ^ "Fe y Alegría pide frenar la violencia". El Nacional. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  529. ^ "MINH condena intento de golpe en Venezuela". Minhpuertorico.org. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  530. ^ "Venezuela: HRF Condemns Latest Crackdown Against Students And Human Rights Defenders". Human Rights Foundation. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  531. ^ "Venezuela: Investigate Violence During Protests, Do Not Censor News Coverage". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  532. ^ "Comité de la Internacional Socialista exige a Venezuela liberar a presos y detener persecución". El Tiempo. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  533. ^ "Abren juicio a 11 jóvenes detenidos en campamentos en Venezuela". El Universo. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  534. ^ "ITF condemns attacks on transport workers in Venezuela". International Transport Workers' Federation. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  535. ^ "The PCP condemns the campaign of violence in Venezuela and expresses solidarity with the Bolivarian Revolution | Partido Comunista Português". Pcp.pt. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  536. ^ EFE. "Central sindical uruguaya convoca acto de apoyo al Gobierno de Venezuela". El-nacional.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  537. ^ "El Centro Kennedy denuncia violaciones de derechos humanos en Venezuela". El Nacional. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  538. ^ "The Social Democratic Party of Kenya". Sdpkenya.org. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  539. ^ "Rusia y Sudáfrica expresan apoyo al Gobierno venezolano – teleSUR" (in Spanish). Telesurtv.net. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  540. ^ "WOLA Urges Openness to Dialogue amid Venezuela Protests". Washington Office on Latin America. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  541. ^ "Rihanna: "Por favor mantengan a la gente de Venezuela en sus oraciones"". El Universal. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  542. ^ Guzman, Isaac (2 March 2014). "Oscars 2014: Watch Jared Leto's Amazing Acceptance Speech for Supporting Actor". TIME. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  543. ^ Ellsworth, Brian (2 March 2014). "Venezuela opposition revels in expressions of support at Oscars". Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  544. ^ Lopez, Oscar (20 February 2014). "Venezuela Protests 2014: Madonna Calls President Nicolás Maduro 'Fascist' On Instagram". Latin Times. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  545. ^ Cantor-Navas, Judy (21 February 2014). "Artists from Rubén Blades to Enrique Iglesias Voice Support for Venezuela, Critcize Gov't". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  546. ^ Gage, Tom (21 February 2014). "Venezuelan Tigers show support for protesters in home country". The Detroit News. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  547. ^ Jessica Lucia Roiz (20 February 2014). "Big night at Premio Lo Nuestro with Venezuela in mind and heart". Voxxi. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  548. ^ "MISS UNIVERSO 2013, MARÍA GABRIELA ISLER Y SU MENSAJE PARA VENEZUELA". Erika Tipo Web. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  549. ^ "Miss Universo 2013, María Gabriela Isler y su mensaje para Venezuela (Video)". La Patlla. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  550. ^ Calvillo, Jorge (4 March 2014). "2013 Miss Universe María Gabriela Isler Expresses Disagreement With Venezuelan Government on Twitter". Latinos Post. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  551. ^ "Ricardo Montaner Y Juanes Se Pronuncian Por Venezuela – Arte Y Entretenimiento" (in Spanish). El Universal. 20 February 2014. 
  552. ^ "Juanes y Ricardo Montaner envían mensajes de apoyo a Venezuela". Globovision. 
  553. ^ "Ricardo Montaner y Juanes pidieron en las redes sociales por la paz en Venezuela | Crisis política en Venezuela, Ricardo Montaner, Juanes – América". Infobae.com. 20 February 2014. 
  554. ^ "Luis Fonsi también reza por Venezuela (+Foto) | El Venezolano". Elvenezolanonews.com. 20 February 2014. 
  555. ^ "Luis Fonsi se vistió de Vinotinto y pidió paz para Venezuela". Panorama.com.ve. 
  556. ^ "Rally for Venezuela Held in Miami | NBC 6 South Florida". Nbcmiami.com. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  557. ^ "Violence in Venezuela Sparks Protests in Philadelphia " CBS Philly". Philadelphia.cbslocal.com. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  558. ^ Fletcher, Robson (18 February 2014). "Gallery: Calgary demonstrators protest Venezuela situation on Peace Bridge". Metro News. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  559. ^ "Para el 22 de febrero se fija protesta mundial por violencia en Venezuela". Chile B. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  560. ^ "Más de 100 ciudades del mundo harán SOS humanos por Venezuela". La Patilla. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  561. ^ "SOS Venezuela". Un Mundo Sin Mordaza. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  562. ^ "Venezolanos en las Carolinas piden orar por muertos y el país". Televisa. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  563. ^ "Doral raises crowd estimate for Venezuela rally". Miami Herald. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  564. ^ "Bay Area protesters show support for loved ones in Venezuela". ABC 7. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  565. ^ "Hundreds Form Human Chain Across Golden Gate Bridge to Protest Violence in Venezuela". NBC Bay Area. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  566. ^ Sanchez, Chris (23 February 2014). "SF State students join Venezuelan anti-government demonstrators". Golden Gate Xpress. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  567. ^ Kahn, Nikki (1 March 2014). "Venezuelans protest in front of the White House". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  568. ^ "Movilizaciones a favor y en contra del gobierno de Maduro frente a la embajada de Venezuela" [Mobilisation for & against Maduro's government in front of Venezuela's embassy], Infobae (in Castilian), 14 February 2014 
  569. ^ "Resistencia de Ucrania le envía un mensaje a los venezolanos" [Ukrainian resistance sends a message to Venezuelans] (photo, video). La Patilla (in Castilian). 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  570. ^ "Unos 400 venezolanos se manifiestan en Suiza contra Maduro" [Some 400 Venezuelans manifest in Switzerland against Maduro]. La Patilla (in Castilian). 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  571. ^ "Venezolanos en el Mundo alzan su voz por la justicia y la paz en Venezuela (Fotos)". La Patilla. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  572. ^ Marcha en EE.UU. contra cobertura mediática de sucesos en Venezuela y Ucrania — teleSUR
  573. ^ Call out to support Nicolas Maduro and Bolivarian Peoples‏ Apr 17 – 5pm at San Lorenzo | Hugo Chavez PDF
  574. ^ "Venezuela Solidarity" convoca a manifestación a favor de Nicolás Maduro en Toronto - Noticias Montreal
  575. ^ "DisplayNews". Ohchr.org. 6 March 2014.