2014 in paleontology

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2014.

Plants[edit]

Newly described angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ambiplatanus[2]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mindell, Karafit & Stockey

Late Cretaceous (Coniacian)

 Canada

A member of Platanaceae. The type species is Ambiplatanus washingtonensis.

Antarctoxylon mixai[3]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sakala in Sakala & Vodrážka

Late Cretaceous (Coniacian)

Hidden Lake Formation

Antarctica (James Ross Island)

An angiosperm of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a species of Antarctoxylon.

Aquaephyllum[4]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gallego et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

La Colonia Formation

 Argentina

A member of Araceae. The type species is Aquaephyllum auriculatum.

Bridelia makumensis[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Srivastava & Mehrotra

Oligocene (Chattian)

Tikak Parbat Formation

 India

A member of Phyllanthaceae, a species of Bridelia.

Cascadiacarpa exilis[6]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mindell, Stockey & Beard

Eocene

 Canada

A member of Fagaceae, a species of Cascadiacarpa.

Castanopsis presclerophylla[7]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wu et al.

Late Pliocene

 China

A member of Fagaceae, a species of Castanopsis.

Chachlovia[8]

Gen. et sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Alekseev & Herman in Alekseev, Herman & Shchepetov

Late Cretaceous

 Russia

An angiosperm of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Chachlovia kiyensis Alekseev sp. nov.; genus also contains Chachlovia dombeyopsoida Herman comb. nov.

Dicotylophyllum hansonium[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peppe & Hickey

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 United States

An angiosperm of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a species of Dicotylophyllum.

Dicotylophyllum horsecreekium[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peppe & Hickey

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 United States

An angiosperm of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a species of Dicotylophyllum.

Kajanthus[10]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mendes et al.

Early Cretaceous (late Aptian–early Albian)

Figueira da Foz Formation

 Portugal

A member of Lardizabalaceae. The type species is Kajanthus lusitanicus.

Macginitiea nascens[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peppe & Hickey

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 United States

A member of Platanaceae, a species of Macginitiea.

Meliosma thriviensis[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peppe & Hickey

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 United States

A member of Sabiaceae, a species of Meliosma.

Meliosma vandaelium[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peppe & Hickey

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 United States

A member of Sabiaceae, a species of Meliosma.

Paliurus microcarpa[11]

Sp. nov

Valid

Li in Li et al.

Middle or late Miocene

Shengxian Formation

 China

A member of Rhamnaceae, a species of Paliurus.

Palmoxylon romeroi[12]

Sp. nov

Valid

Franco, Brea & Herbst

Late Miocene

Chiquimil Formation

 Argentina

A palm tree, a species of Palmoxylon.

Platimeliphyllum reznikoviorum[13]

Sp. nov

Valid

Maslova in Maslova et al.

Paleogene

Ashut Formation

 Kazakhstan

An angiosperm of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a species of Platimeliphyllum.

Ripogonum americanum[14]

Sp. nov

Valid

Carpenter et al.

Early Eocene

 Argentina

A member of Liliales, a species of Ripogonum.

Sabalites dindoriensis[15]

Sp. nov

Valid

Srivastava, Srivastava & Dilcher

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to early Paleocene (Danian)

Deccan Intertrappean Beds

 India

A palm tree belonging to the subfamily Coryphoideae, a species of Sabalites.

Soninia[8]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Herman & Shczepetov in Alekseev, Herman & Shchepetov

Late Cretaceous

 Russia

An angiosperm of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is S. integerrima Herman & Shczepetov; genus also contains S. asiatica Alekseev.

Ternstromites paucimissouriensis[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peppe & Hickey

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 United States

A member of Theaceae, a species of Ternstromites.

Other seed plants[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Agathis zamunerae[16]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wilf et al.

Eocene

 Argentina

A member of Araucariaceae, a species of Agathis.

Araucarites ochotensis[17]

Sp. nov

Valid

Golovneva & Shczepetov in Shczepetov & Golovneva

Late Cretaceous

 Russia

A member of Araucariaceae, a species of Araucarites.

Athrotaxites yumenensis[18]

Sp. nov

Valid

Dong et al.

Early Cretaceous

Zhonggou Formation

 China

A member of Cupressaceae, a species of Athrotaxites.

Bicatia[19]

Gen. et 3 sp. nov

Valid

Friis, Pedersen & Crane

Early Cretaceous (late Aptian to middle Albian)

 Portugal
 United States

A Welwitschia-like seed plant. The type species is Bicatia costata; genus also contains Bicatia juncalensis and Bicatia rugosa.

Cordaites barthelii[20]

Sp. nov

Valid

Šimůnek

Carboniferous (Stephanian)

 Czech Republic

A species of Cordaites.

Cosmosperma[21]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Late Devonian (Famennian)

Wutong Formation

 China

A member of Lagenospermopsida of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Cosmosperma polyloba.

Cycas fushunensis[22]

Sp. nov

Valid

Su, Quan & Liu

Eocene (Lutetian)

Jijuntun Formation

 China

A cycad, a species of Cycas.

Hubbardiastrobus[23]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Atkinson, Rothwell & Stockey

Early Cretaceous (Valanginian)

 Canada

A member of Cupressaceae. The type species is Hubbardiastrobus cunninghamioides.

Hughmillerites vancouverensis[24]

Sp. nov

Valid

Atkinson, Rothwell & Stockey

Early Cretaceous

 Canada

A member of Cupressaceae, a species of Hughmillerites.

Nilssoniopteris binggouensis[25]

Sp. nov

Valid

Na et al.

Early Cretaceous

Binggou Formation

 China

A member of Bennettitales, a species of Nilssoniopteris.

Nilssoniopteris corrugata[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ray, Rothwell & Stockey

Early Cretaceous (Valanginian)

 Canada

A member of Bennettitales, a species of Nilssoniopteris.

Platycladus yunnanensis[27]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wu in Wu et al.

Late Miocene

Nanlin Formation

 China

A member of Cupressaceae, a species of Platycladus.

Rudixylon[28]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bomfleur et al.

Middle or early Late Triassic

Fremouw Formation

Antarctica

A member of Petriellales (an order of seed plants of uncertain phylogenetic placement). The type species is Rudixylon serbetianum.

Septomedullopitys szei[29]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wan, Yang & Wang

Late Permian (early Wuchiapingian)

Wutonggou Formation

 China

A member of Coniferopsida, a species of Septomedullopitys.

Xinjiangoxylon[30]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Shi et al.

Late Permian (Changhsingian)

Guodikeng Formation

 China

A gymnosperm. The type species is Xinjiangoxylon turpanense.

Other plants[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Arcellites punctatus[31]

Sp. nov

Valid

Friis, Pedersen & Marone

Early Cretaceous (late Barremian–early Aptian)

Almargem Formation

 Portugal

A member of Salviniales of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a species of Arcellites.

Ashicaulis plumites[32]

Sp. nov

Valid

Tian & Wang in Tian et al.

Middle Jurassic

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

A member of Osmundaceae, a species of Ashicaulis.

Ashicaulis wangii[33]

Sp. nov

Valid

Tian et al.

Middle Jurassic

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

A member of Osmundaceae, a species of Ashicaulis.

Elaphoglossum miocenicum[34]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lóriga et al.

Miocene

 Dominican Republic

A member of Dryopteridaceae found in Dominican amber, a species of Elaphoglossum.

Marchantites huolinhensis[35]

Sp. nov

Valid

Li et al.

Early Cretaceous

Huolinhe Formation

 China

A liverwort belonging to the group Marchantiales, a species of Marchantites.

Phlebopteris hickeyi[36]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hu & Taylor

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Jarash Formation

 Jordan

A member of Matoniaceae, a species of Phlebopteris.

Pseudobornia schweitzeri[37]

Sp. nov

Valid

Jurina & Orlova in Orlova & Jurina

Late Devonian

 Russia

A species of Pseudobornia.

Salvinia hainanensis[38]

Sp. nov

Valid

Jin & Wang in Wang, Xu & Jin

Eocene

 China

A species of Salvinia.

Tiania[39]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Late Permian

Xuanwei Formation

 China

A member of Guaireaceae (extinct family belonging to the order Osmundales); a new genus for "Palaeosmunda" yunnanense Tian & Chang (1995).

Ufadendron[40]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Naugolnykh

Permian (Kungurian)

Koshelevsk Formation

 Russia

A lycopsid. The type species is Ufadendron ufaensis.

Zhongmingella[41]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Late Permian

Wangjiazhai Formation

 China

A member of Guaireaceae (extinct family belonging to the order Osmundales); a new genus for "Palaeosmunda" plenasioides Li (1983).

Cnidarians[edit]

Newly described cnidarians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acropora macrocalyx[42]

Sp. nov

Valid[43]

Wallace & Bosellini

Early Miocene (Burdigalian)

 Italy

A stony coral, a species of Acropora.

Acropora piedmontensis[42]

Sp. nov

Valid[43]

Wallace & Bosellini

Early Miocene (Burdigalian)

 Italy

A stony coral, a species of Acropora.

Acropora salentina[42]

Sp. nov

Valid[43]

Wallace & Bosellini

Oligocene (Chattian)

 Italy

A stony coral, a species of Acropora.

Acropora slovenica[42]

Sp. nov

Valid[43]

Wallace & Bosellini

Oligocene (Rupelian)

Gornji Grad beds

 Slovenia

A stony coral, a species of Acropora.

Cambroctoconus kyrgyzstanicus[44]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel in Geyer et al.

Cambrian (Amgan)

 Kyrgyzstan

A stem-cnidarian, a species of Cambroctoconus.

Haootia[45]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Liu et al.

Late Ediacaran

Fermeuse Formation

 Canada

A probable cnidarian, possibly related to Medusozoa. The type species is Haootia quadriformis.

Sinobryon[46]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Baliński, Sun & Dzik

Ordovician (early Floian)

Fenxiang Formation

 China

A hydrozoan, a member of Hydroidolina. The type species is Sinobryon elongatum.

Arthropods[edit]

Molluscs[edit]

Echinoderms[edit]

Conodonts[edit]

Newly described conodonts[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Furnishina holmi[47]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bagnoli & Stouge

Cambrian (late Furongian)

Alum Shale Formation

 Sweden

A species of Furnishina.

Gobduntaulepis[48]

Nom. nov

Valid

Doweld

Early Ordovician

 Uzbekistan

A replacement name for Acantholepis Pianovskij in Pianovskij, Pianovskaja & Aleksandrova, 1989 (preoccupied).

Hindeodus microdentatus[49]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wu et al.

Permian–Triassic boundary

 China

A species of Hindeodus.

Icriodella rhodesi[50]

Sp. nov

Valid[51]

Bergström & Ferretti

Late Ordovician

Keisley Limestone

 United Kingdom

A species of Icriodella.

Neogondolella prediscreta[49]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wu et al.

Earliest Triassic

 China

A species of Neogondolella.

Parafurnishius[52]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Yang et al.

Early Triassic (Induan)

Feixianguan Formation

 China

The type species is Parafurnishius xuanhanensis.

Polygnathus aragonensis[53]

Sp. nov

Valid

Martínez-Pérez & Valenzuela-Ríos

Early Devonian

Basibé Formation

 Spain

A polygnathid, a species of Polygnathus.

Polygnathus carlsi[53]

Sp. nov

Valid

Martínez-Pérez & Valenzuela-Ríos

Early Devonian

Basibé Formation

 Spain

A polygnathid, a species of Polygnathus.

Polygnathus communis longanensis[54]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Qie et al.

Carboniferous (latest Tournaisian)

Long’an Formation

 China

A polygnathid, a subspecies of Polygnathus communis.

Polygnathus dujieensis[54]

Sp. nov

Valid

Qie et al.

Carboniferous (latest Tournaisian)

Long’an Formation

 China

A polygnathid, a species of Polygnathus.

Polygnathus ramoni[53]

Sp. nov

Valid

Martínez-Pérez & Valenzuela-Ríos

Early Devonian

Basibé Formation

 Spain

A polygnathid, a species of Polygnathus.

Westergaardodina asinina[47]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bagnoli & Stouge

Cambrian (late Furongian)

Alum Shale Formation

 Sweden

A species of Westergaardodina.

Fishes[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Basalmost tetrapods[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Weberepeton[55]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Clément & Lebedev

Late Devonian (late Frasnian)

Probably Smota-Lovat’ Formation

 Russia

A member of Elginerpetontidae. The type species is Weberepeton sondalensis.

Temnospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Antarctosuchus[56]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sidor, Steyer & Hammer

Middle Triassic

Fremouw Formation

Antarctica

A capitosauroid. The type species is Antarctosuchus polyodon.

Leptorophus raischi[57]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schoch

Early Permian

Saar–Nahe Basin

 Germany

A branchiosaurid, a species of Leptorophus.

Megalophthalma[58]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[59]

Schoch, Milner & Witzmann

Middle Triassic

 Germany

A plagiosaurid. The type species is Megalophthalma ockerti.

Nanobamus[60]

Gen. nov

Valid

Schoch & Milner

An amphibamid.

Chroniosuchians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Dromotectum abditum[61]

Sp. nov

Valid

Shishkin, Novikov & Fortuny

Early Triassic

 Russia

A bystrowianid chroniosuchian, a species of Dromotectum.

Dromotectum largum[62]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liu et al.

Late Permian

Shangshihezi Formation

 China

A bystrowianid chroniosuchian, a species of Dromotectum.

Jiyuanitectum[62]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Liu et al.

Late Permian

Shangshihezi Formation

 China

A bystrowianid chroniosuchian. The type species is Jiyuanitectum flatum.

Vyushkoviana[61]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Shishkin, Novikov & Fortuny

Early Triassic

 Russia

A bystrowianid chroniosuchian. The type species is Vyushkoviana operta.

Lissamphibians[edit]

Research[edit]

  • The humerus bone of a large calyptocephalellid anuran, apparently one of the largest fossil anurans known to date, is described by Otero et al. (2014) from the Eocene of Chile.[63]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eopelobates deani[64]

Sp. nov

Valid

Roček et al.

Early middle Eocene

Green River Formation

 United States

A relative of the European spadefoot toads, a species of Eopelobates.

Anapsids[edit]

Newly named parareptiles[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abyssomedon[65]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Macdougall & Reisz

Early Permian

Richards Spur Locality

 United States

A relative of Nyctiphruretus. The type species is Abyssomedon williamsi.

Delorhynchus cifellii[66]

Sp. nov

Valid

Reisz, Macdougall & Modesto

Early Permian

 United States

A relative of lanthanosuchoids, a species of Delorhynchus.

Newly named turtles[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alienochelys[67]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

de Lapparent de Broin et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Oulad Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A sea turtle, a member of Dermochelyoidae. The type species is Alienochelys selloumi.

Allaeochelys libyca[68]

Sp. nov

Valid

Havlik, Joyce & Böhme

Miocene (Langhian)

 Libya

A relative of the pig-nosed turtle, a species of the (possibly paraphyletic) genus Allaeochelys.

Ashleychelys[69]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Weems & Sanders

Oligocene

 United States

A pancheloniid sea turtle. The type species is Ashleychelys palmeri.

Atolchelys[70]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Romano et al.

Early Cretaceous (Barremian)

Morro do Chaves Formation

 Brazil

A bothremydid pleurodiran. The type species is Atolchelys lepida.

Brodiechelys royoi[71]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García, Gasulla & Ortega

Early Aptian

Arcillas de Morella Formation

 Spain

A |xinjiangchelyid, a species of Brodiechelys.

Cheirogaster bacharidisi[72]

Sp. nov

Valid

Vlachos, Tsoukala & Corsini

Pliocene

Gonia Formation

 Greece

A tortoise, originally described as a species belonging to the genus Cheirogaster. Subsequently transferred by Pérez-García & Vlachos (2014) to the genus Titanochelon.[73]

Eodortoka[74]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García, Gasulla & Ortega

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Arcillas de Morella Formation

 Spain

A dortokid, a member of the clade Pan-Pleurodira (containing living pleurodirans and all turtles that are more closely related to them than to cryptodirans). The type species is Eodortoka morellana.

Gobiapalone[75]

Gen. et sp. et comb. nov

Valid[76]

Danilov et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Maastrichtian)

Barun Goyot Formation
Bayan Shireh Formation
Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

A trionychine trionychid. Genus contains new species Gobiapalone breviplastra, as well as "Amyda" orlovi Khosatzky (1976).

Hylaeochelys kappa[77]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pérez-García & Ortega

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Freixial Formation

 Portugal

A basal member of Eucryptodira, a species of Hylaeochelys.

Judithemys kranzi[78]

Sp. nov

Valid

Weems

Paleocene (early Thanetian)

Aquia Formation

 United States

A member of (likely paraphyletic) group "Macrobaenidae", a species of Judithemys.

Nemegtemys[75]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[76]

Danilov et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

A cyclanorbine trionychid. The type species is Nemegtemys conflata.

Osonachelus[79]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

de Lapparent de Broin et al.

Eocene (late Bartonian)

Vic-Manlleu Marls Formation

 Spain

A cheloniid sea turtle. The type species is Osonachelus decorata.

Procolpochelys charlestonensis[69]

Sp. nov

Valid

Weems & Sanders

Oligocene

 United States

A pancheloniid sea turtle; a species of Procolpochelys.

Riodevemys[80]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[81]

Pérez-García, Royo-Torres & Cobos

Late Jurassic

 Spain

A pleurosternid paracryptodiran. The type species is Riodevemys inumbragigas.

Tacuarembemys[82]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Perea et al.

Late Jurassic or earliest Cretaceous

Tacuarembó Formation

 Uruguay

A turtle of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Tacuarembemys kusterae.

Titanochelon[73]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Pérez-García & Vlachos

Early Miocene to early Pleistocene

 Austria
 Bulgaria
 France
 Germany
 Greece
 Portugal
 Spain
  Switzerland
 Turkey
 Malta?

A tortoise; a new genus for "Testudo" bolivari Hernández-Pacheco (1917). Genus also contains "Testudo" eurysternum Gervais (1848–1852), "Testudo" ginsburgi de Broin (1977), "Testudo" vitodurana Biedermann (1862), "Cheirogaster" steinbacheri Karl (1996), "Testudo" leberonensis Depéret (1890), "Testudo" schafferi Szalai (1931), "Testudo" perpiniana Depéret (1885) and "Cheirogaster" bacharidisi Vlachos et al. (2014). Genus might also contain "Testudo" gymnesicus Bate (1914).

‘Trionyx’ baynshirensis[75]

Sp. nov

Valid[76]

Danilov et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Santonian)

Bayan Shireh Formation

 Mongolia

A trionychine trionychid, a species of Trionyx sensu lato.

‘Trionyx’ dissolutus[83]

Sp. nov

Valid

Vitek & Danilov

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

 Uzbekistan

A trionychid, a species of Trionyx sensu lato.

‘Trionyx’ gilbentuensis[75]

Sp. nov

Valid[76]

Danilov et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

A trionychine trionychid, a species of Trionyx sensu lato.

‘Trionyx’ gobiensis[75]

Sp. nov

Valid[76]

Danilov et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

A trionychine trionychid, a species of Trionyx sensu lato.

‘Trionyx’ shiluutulensis[75]

Sp. nov

Valid[76]

Danilov et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

 Mongolia

A trionychine trionychid, a species of Trionyx sensu lato.

Ichthyopterygians[edit]

Sauropterygians[edit]

Lepidosaurs[edit]

Newly named rhynchocephalians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Kawasphenodon peligrensis[95]

Sp. nov

Valid

Apesteguia, Gómez & Rougier

Palaeocene

Salamanca Formation

 Argentina

An opisthodontian sphenodontid, a species of Kawasphenodon.

Priosphenodon minimus[96]

Sp. nov

Valid

Apesteguia & Carballido

Early Cretaceous

 Argentina

An eilenodontine sphenodontid, a species of Priosphenodon.

Newly named lizards[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Blanus mendezi[97]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bolet et al.

Miocene (11.6 Mya)

Vallès-Penedès Basin

 Spain

An amphisbaenian, a species of Blanus.

Blanus thomaskelleri[98]

Sp. nov

Valid[99]

Čerňanský, Rage & Klembara

Early Miocene

 Germany

An amphisbaenian, a species of Blanus.

Calanguban[100]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[101]

Simões, Caldwell & Kellner

Early Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A scleroglossan lizard with scincomorph affinities. The type species is Calanguban alamoi.

Dakotaseps[102]

Nom. nov

Valid

Nydam

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Dakota Formation

 United States

A member of Scincomorpha of uncertain phylogenetic placement, assigned by Nydam (2013) to an informal paramacellodid-cordylid grade;[103] a replacement name for Dakotasaurus Nydam (2013) (preoccupied).

Funiusaurus[104]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xu et al.

Late Cretaceous

Qiupa Formation

 China

A member of Polyglyphanodontidae. The type species is Funiusaurus luanchuanensis.

Maioricalacerta[105]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bailon et al.

Early Pliocene (Zanclean)

 Spain

A member of Lacertidae. The type species is Maioricalacerta rafelinensis.

Pyrenasaurus[106]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bolet & Augé

Late Eocene

 France
 Spain

A member of Scincoidea, possibly a skink. The type species is Pyrenasaurus evansae.

Newly named snakes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Adinophis[107]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pritchard et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

A member of Madtsoiidae. The type species is Adinophis fisaka.

Indophis fanambinana[107]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pritchard et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

A member of Nigerophiidae, a species of Indophis.

Rukwanyoka[108]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

McCartney et al.

Oligocene

Nsungwe Formation

 Tanzania

The most ancient booid snake and boa from Africa. The type species is Rukwanyoka holmani.

Seismophis[109]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hsiou et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Alcântara Formation

 Brazil

A snake of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly a relative of Najash rionegrina. The type species is Seismophis septentrionalis.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aenigmastropheus[110]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ezcurra, Scheyer & Bulter

Late Permian (Wuchiapingian)

Usili Formation

 Tanzania

A non-archosauriform archosauromorph, probably a protorosaurian. The type species is Aenigmastropheus parringtoni.

Garjainia madiba[111]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gower et al.

Early Triassic (late Olenekian)

Burgersdorp Formation

 South Africa

An erythrosuchid archosauriform, a species of Garjainia.

Hyperodapedon tikiensis[112]

Sp. nov

Valid[113]

Mukherjee & Ray

Late Triassic

Tiki Formation

 India

A rhynchosaur, a species of Hyperodapedon.

Proterosuchus goweri[114]

Sp. nov

Valid[115]

Ezcurra & Butler

Early Triassic

 South Africa

A proterosuchid archosauriform, a species of Proterosuchus.

Pseudochampsa[116]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Trotteyn & Ezcurra

Late Triassic (late Carnian or earliest Norian)

Ischigualasto Formation

 Argentina

A proterochampsid archosauriform; a new genus for "Chanaresuchus" ischigualastensis Trotteyn, Martínez & Alcober (2012).

Pseudosuchians[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aplestosuchus[119]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Godoy et al.

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

A baurusuchid crocodylomorph. The type species is Aplestosuchus sordidus.

Caipirasuchus stenognathus[120]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pol et al.

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

A sphagesaurid crocodylomorph, a species of Caipirasuchus.

Diplocynodon remensis[121]

Sp. nov

Valid

Martin et al.

Late Palaeocene

 France

A member of Alligatoroidea, a species of Diplocynodon.

Machimosaurus buffetauti[122]

Sp. nov

Valid

Young et al.

Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

 France
 Germany
 Poland?
 United Kingdom?

A teleosaurid crocodylomorph, a species of Machimosaurus.

Nundasuchus[123]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Nesbitt et al.

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

Manda Beds

 Tanzania

A member of Archosauriformes of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly a pseudosuchian. The type species is Nundasuchus songeaensis.

Polesinesuchus[124]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Roberto-da-Silva et al.

Late Triassic

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

An aetosaur. The type species is Polesinesuchus aurelioi.

Rukwasuchus[125]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sertich & O’Connor

Cretaceous (Aptian to Cenomanian)

Galula Formation

 Tanzania

A peirosaurid crocodyliform. The type species is Rukwasuchus yajabalijekundu.

Sahitisuchus[126]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kellner, Pinheiro & Campos

Paleocene (Itaboraian)

 Brazil

A sebecid crocodylomorph. The type species is Sahitisuchus fluminensis.

Wannchampsus[127]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Adams

Early Cretaceous (late Aptian)

Twin Mountains Formation

 United States

A paralligatorid neosuchian crocodylomorph. The type species is Wannchampsus kirpachi.

Non-avian dinosaurs[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A description of abelisaurid teeth from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation of Portugal and a phylogenetic analysis of theropod relationships based on dental characters is published by Hendrickx and Mateus (2014).[128]
  • A study of theropod diversity in the Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Tunisia is published by Fanti et al. (2014).[129]
  • A juvenile specimen of Megaraptor namunhuaiquii is described by Porfiri et al. (2014).[130]
  • A study of European fossil record of Ornithomimosauria is published by Allain et al. (2014).[131]
  • "Saurornitholestes" robustus, initially thought to be a dromaeosaurid, is reinterpreted as a troodontid by Evans et al. (2014).[132]
  • A study of anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Antetonitrus ingenipes is published by McPhee et al. (2014).[133]
  • A study of phylogenetic relationships of Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis is published by Mocho, Royo-Torres and Ortega (2014).[134]
  • A study of anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Aragosaurus ischiaticus is published by Royo-Torres et al. (2014).[135]
  • A study of the dentition of Manidens condorensis is published by Becerra et al. (2014).[136]
  • A study of the postcranial anatomy of Heterodontosaurus tucki is published by Galton (2014).[137]
  • A study of the impact of osteoderm placement on the centre of mass of stegosaurs is published by Mallison (2014).[138]
  • A study of Early Cretaceous Spanish iguanodont ornithopod diversity and a description of new remains referrable to Delapparentia is published by Gasca, Canudo and Moreno-Azanza (2014).[139]
  • A specimen of Edmontosaurus regalis with remains of a soft-tissue cranial crest is described by Bell et al. (2014).[140]
  • A juvenile specimen of Edmontosaurus annectens is described by Prieto-Márquez (2014).[141]
  • A new specimen attributable to Arrhinoceratops brachyops is described by Mallon et al. (2014).[142]
  • A new specimen of Spinosaurus is described by Ibrahim et al., with a controversial reconstruction of Spinosaurus as a quadrupedal semi-aquatic genus. [143]
  • Two new specimens of the previous enigma Deinocheirus are described and analysed by Lee et al. (2014).[144]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Adelolophus[145]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gates et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Wahweap Formation

 United States

A lambeosaurine hadrosaurid. The type species is Adelolophus hutchisoni.

Allosaurus lucasi[146]

Sp. nov

Valid

Dalman

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Morrison Formation

 United States

An allosauroid theropod, a species of Allosaurus.

Anzu[147]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lamanna et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Hell Creek Formation

 United States

A caenagnathid theropod. The type species is Anzu wyliei.

Aquilops[148]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Farke et al.

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Cloverly Formation

 United States

A basal member of Neoceratopsia. The type species is Aquilops americanus.

Arcovenator[149]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tortosa et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

 France

An abelisaurid theropod. The type species is Arcovenator escotae.

Camarillasaurus[150]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sánchez-Hernández & Benton

Early Cretaceous (early Barremian)

Camarillas Formation

 Spain

A basal ceratosaurian. The type species is Camarillasaurus cirugedae.

Changyuraptor[151]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Han et al.

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A microraptorine dromaeosaurid theropod. The type species is Changyuraptor yangi.

Chuanqilong[152]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Han et al.

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Jiufotang Formation

 China

An ankylosaurid. The type species is Chuanqilong chaoyangensis.

Datanglong[153]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mo et al.

Early Cretaceous

Xinlong Formation

 China

A carcharodontosaur theropod. The type species is Datanglong guangxiensis.

Dreadnoughtus[154]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lacovara et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian or Maastrichtian)

Cerro Fortaleza Formation

 Argentina

A titanosaurian sauropod. The type species is Dreadnoughtus schrani.

Eousdryosaurus[155]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Escaso et al.

Late Jurassic

Alcobaça Formation

 Portugal

A dryosaurid ornithopod. The type species is Eousdryosaurus nanohallucis.

Fosterovenator[156]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Dalman

Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian/Tithonian)

Morrison Formation

 United States

A theropod dinosaur. The type species is Fosterovenator churei.

Gobivenator[157]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tsuihiji et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Djadochta Formation

 Mongolia

A troodontid theropod. The type species is Gobivenator mongoliensis.

Gongpoquansaurus[158]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

You, Li & Dodson

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Zhonggou Formation

 China

A non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid; a new genus for "Probactrosaurus" mazongshanensis Lü (1997).

Huangshanlong[159]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Huang et al.

Middle Jurassic

Hongqin Formation

 China

A mamenchisaurid sauropod. The type species is Huangshanlong anhuiensis.

Kulindadromeus[160]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Godefroit et al.

Middle or Late Jurassic (Bajocian to Tithonian)

Ukureyskaya Formation

 Russia

A non-cerapodan neornithischian. The type species is Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus.

Laquintasaura[161]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Barrett et al.

Early Jurassic

La Quinta Formation

 Venezuela

A basal ornithischian. The type species is Laquintasaura venezuelae.

Leinkupal[162]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gallina et al.

Early Cretaceous (late Berriasian to Valanginian)

Bajada Colorada Formation

 Argentina

A diplodocine diplodocid sauropod. The type species is Leinkupal laticauda.

Mercuriceratops[163]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ryan et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Dinosaur Park Formation
Judith River Formation

 Canada
 United States

A chasmosaurine ceratopsid. The type species is Mercuriceratops gemini.

Nanuqsaurus[164]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Fiorillo & Tykoski

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Prince Creek Formation

 United States

A tyrannosaurid theropod. The type species is Nanuqsaurus hoglundi.

Panguraptor[165]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

You et al.

Early Jurassic

Lufeng Formation

 China

A coelophysoid theropod. The type species is Panguraptor lufengensis.

Pentaceratops aquilonius[166]

Sp. nov

Valid

Longrich

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada

A ceratopsid, a species of Pentaceratops.

Plesiohadros[167]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tsogtbaatar et al.

Late Cretaceous (probably late Campanian)

Djadochta Formation

 Mongolia

A non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.

Qianzhousaurus[168]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 China

A tyrannosaurid theropod. The type species is Qianzhousaurus sinensis.

Quetecsaurus[169]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

González Riga & Ortiz David

Late Cretaceous (Turonian)

Cerro Lisandro Formation

 Argentina

A titanosaur sauropod related to Mendozasaurus and Futalognkosaurus. The type species is Quetecsaurus rusconii.

Rhinorex[170]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid[171]

Gates & Scheetz

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Neslen Formation

 United States

A saurolophine hadrosaurid. The type species is Rhinorex condrupus.

Rukwatitan[172]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gorscak et al.

Cretaceous (Aptian to Cenomanian)

Galula Formation

 Tanzania

A titanosaur sauropod. The type species is Rukwatitan bisepultus.

Tachiraptor[173]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Langer et al.

Earliest Jurassic

La Quinta Formation

 Venezuela

A stem-averostran theropod. The type species is Tachiraptor admirabilis.

Tambatitanis[174]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Saegusa and Ikeda

Early Cretaceous (probably early Albian)

Sasayama Group

 Japan

A titanosauriform sauropod, a member of Somphospondyli. The type species is Tambatitanis amicitiae.

Torvosaurus gurneyi[175]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hendrickx & Mateus

Late Jurassic (late Kimmeridgian)

Lourinhã Formation

 Portugal

A megalosauroid theropod, a species of Torvosaurus.

Vahiny[176]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Curry Rogers & Wilson

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

A titanosaur sauropod. The type species is Vahiny depereti.

Yongjinglong[177]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Li et al.

Early Cretaceous

Hekou Group

 China

A titanosaur sauropod. The type species is Yongjinglong datangi.

Zaraapelta[178]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Arbour, Currie & Badamgarav

Late Cretaceous

Barun Goyot Formation

 Mongolia

A member of Ankylosauridae. The type species is Zaraapelta nomadis.

Zby[179]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mateus, Mannion & Upchurch

Late Jurassic (late Kimmeridgian)

Lourinhã Formation

 Portugal

A turiasaurian sauropod. The type species is Zby atlanticus.

Zhanghenglong[180]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xing et al.

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Majiacun Formation

 China

A non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid ornithopod. The type species is Zhanghenglong yangchengensis.

Ziapelta[181]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Arbour et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Kirtland Formation

 United States

An ankylosaurid. The type species is Ziapelta sanjuanensis.

Birds[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A study on the antiquity of birds is published by Lee et al. (2014).[182]
  • A new specimen of Archaeopteryx is described by Foth, Tischlinger and Rauhut (2014).[183]
  • Zhongornis haoae, initially thought to be a bird, is argued to be a non-avian maniraptoran by O'Connor and Sullivan (2014).[184]
  • A study of ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds is published by Mitchell and Makovicky (2014).[185]
  • A study of the species status of the moa from the genus Euryapteryx is published by Huynen and Lambert (2014).[186]
  • A study of growth in the moa from the genus Euryapteryx is published by Huynen et al. (2014).[187]
  • A study of tbx5 gene of the moa from the genus Dinornis is published by Huynen et al. (2014).[188]
  • Fossil remains of a relative of the hoatzin, possibly a species belonging to the genus Namibiavis, from the middle Miocene of Kenya, are described by Mayr (2014).[189]
  • A specimen of Pumiliornis tessellatus with preserved stomach contents including pollen grains is described by Mayr and Wilde (2014).[190]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aegypius varswaterensis [191]

Sp nov.

Valid

Manegold, Pavia, & Haarhoff

Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

 South Africa

An Aegypius sp. related to the cinereous vulture

Anser djuktaiensis[192]

Sp nov.

Valid

Zelenkov & Kurochkin

Late Pleistocene

 Russia

A species of Anser.

Australornis lovei [193]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Mayr & Scofield

Early Paleocene

Waipara Greensand

 New Zealand

An incertae sedis Neognathae, Monotypic with A. lovei.

Bambolinetta lignitifila [194]

Gen. et Comb. nov.

Valid

Mayr & Pavia

Miocene

 Italy

An Anatinae genus, Comb. nov. for "Anas" lignitifila

Baselrallus intermedius [195]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

De Pietri & Mayr

Early Miocene

MN 2a

 France

A rail, Rallidae. This is the type species of the new genus.

Caracara seymouri [196]

Sp. nov.

Valid

William Suarez

Storrs L. Olson

Quaternary

 Ecuador
 Peru

A Caracara, Falconidae, a species of Caracara.

Cryptopsar ischyrhynchus [197]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Julian P. Hume

Holocene

 Mauritius

A Sturnidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Eopengornis martini [198]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Xiaoli Wang

Jingmai K. O'Connor

Xiaoting Zheng

Min Wang

Han Hu

Zhonghe Zhou

Early Cretaceous,

Huajiying Formatie

130.7  Mya

 China

A member of Enantiornithes related to Pengornis houi. This is the type species of the genus Eopengornis Wang, O'Connor, Zheng, Wang, Hu et Zhou. It is placed, together with Pengornis Zhou, Clarke et Zhang, 2008 the new family Pengornithidae Wang, O’Connor, Zheng, Wang, Hu et Zhou, 2014.

Eudyptes calauina [199]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

Jorge D. Carrillo Briceño

Sven N. Nielsen

Pliocene

Horcon Formation

 Chile

An extinct crested penguin, Spheniscidae, from central Chile.

Evgenavis nobilis [200]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Jingmai K. O’Connor

Alexander O. Averianov

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Early Cretaceous

Barremian-Aptian

Ilek Formation

 Russia

A bird of uncertain phylogenetic placement; might be a member of Confuciusornithiformes or Enantiornithes. This is the type species of Evgenavis O’Connor, Averianov & Zelenkov, 2014.

Falco hezhengensis [201]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Li Zhiheng
Zhou Zhonghe
Deng Tao
Li Qiang
Julia A. Clarke

Late Miocene

Linxia Basin

 China

A Falconidae.

Fortunguavis xiaotaizicus [202]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Wang Min

Jingmai K. O’Connor

Zhou Zhonghe

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A member of Enantiornithes Walker, 1981. This is the type species of the new genus.

Gansus zheni [203]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Di Liu

Luis M. Chiappe

Yuguang Zhang

Alyssa Bell

Qingjin Meng

Qiang Ji

Xuri Wang

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

An early member of Ornithuromorpha Chiappe, 2002, a species of Gansus.

Garganornis ballmanni [204]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hanneke J. M. Meijer

Miocene

Fissure fillings

 Italy

An Anseriformes, this is the type species of the new genus.

Genucrassum bransatensis [205]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Vanesa L. De Pietri
R. Paul Scofield

Late Oligocene

MP 30; 23.03 Mya

 France

A stone-curlew, Burhinidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Grabauornis lingyuanensis[206]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Johan Dalsätt

Per G.P. Ericson

Zhou Zhonghe

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A member of Enantiornithes Walker, 1981. This is the type species of the new genus.

?Ibidopodia chavrochensis [207]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Vanesa L. De Pietri

Gerald Mayr

Early Miocene

Chavroches

MN 2

 France

An Idiornithid, Idiornithidae Cariamiformes, possibly a species of Ibidopodia Milne-Edwards, 1868.

?Ibidopodia minuta [207]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Vanesa L. De Pietri

Gerald Mayr

Early Miocene

Saulcet

 France

An Idiornithid, Idiornithidae Cariamiformes, possibly a species of Ibidopodia Milne-Edwards, 1868.

Iteravis huchzermeyeri[208]

Gen. nov. et sp. nov.

Valid

Shuang Zhou

Jingmai K. O’Connor

Min Wang

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A basal member of the Ornithuromorpha Chiappe, 2002. This is the type species the new genus.

Jeholornis curvipes [209]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Ulysse Lefèvre

Dongyu Hu

François Escuillié

Gareth Dyke

Pascal Godefroit

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A member of Avialae Gauthier, 1986, a species of Jeholornis Zhou et Zhang, 2002.

Limnofregata hutchisoni [210]

Sp. nov.

Valid[211]

Thomas A. Stidham

Early Eocene

Wasatch Formation

 United States:

 Wyoming

A member of Fregatidae, a species of Limnofregata.

Longusunguis kurochkini [212]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Wang Min

Zhou Zhonghe

Jingmai K. O'Connor

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A member of Enantiornithes Walker, 1981 related to Bohaiornis. This is the type species of new genus.

Mergellus mochanovi[192]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Pleistocene

 Russia

An Anatidae related to the smew, a species of Mergellus.

Mergus milleneri [213]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Murray Williams

Alan J. D. Tennyson

Holocene

Chatham Island

 New Zealand

An Anatidae.

Nectornis africanus [214]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Miocene

MN 5

 Kenya

A cormorant, Phalacrocoracidae, a species of Nectornis Cheneval, 1984.

Nestor chathamensis[215]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jamie R. Wood

Kieren J. Mitchell

R. Paul Scofield

Alan J. D. Tennyson in Wood et al.

Holocene

Chatham Islands

 New Zealand

A New Zealand parrot belonging to the family Nestoridae Bonaparte, 1849, a species of Nestor.

?Nupharanassa mabokoensis [214]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Miocene

MN 5

 Kenya

A jacana, Jacanidae, possibly a species of Nupharanassa Rasmussen, Olson et Simons, 1987.

Parabohaiornis martini [212]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Wang Min

Zhou Zhonghe

Jingmai K. O’Connor

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A member of Enantiornithes Walker, 1981 related to Bohaiornis. The type species of the new genus, placed in the family Bohaiornithidae Wang, Zhou, O’Connor et Zelenkov, 2014 with de genera Shenqiornis Wang, O’Connor, Zhao, Chiappe, Gao et Cheng, 2010, Sulcavis O’Connor, Zhang, Chiappe, Meng, Quanguo et Di, 2013, Zhouornis Zhang, Chiappe, Han et Chinsamy, 2013, Longusunguis Wang, Zhou, O’Connor et Zelenkov, 2014 and Bohaiornis Hu, Hou L. H. et Xu, 2011.

Parvavis chuxiongensis [216]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Wang Min

Zhou Zhonghe

Xu Guanghui

Late Cretaceous,

Turonian to Santonian

Jiangdihe Formation

 China

A member of Enantiornithes Walker, 1981. The type species of the new genus.

Pelagornis sandersi [217]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Daniel T. Ksepka

Late Oligocene

Chandler Bridge Formation,

Early Chattian

 USA:

 South Carolina

A Pelagornithidae Fürbringer, 1888, a species of Pelagornis Lartet, 1857; the bird with the biggest wingspan known up to now.

Piscivoravis lii [218]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Zhou Shuang

Zhou Zhonghe

Jingmai K. O'Connor

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A basal member of the Ornithuromorpha Chiappe, 2002. This is the type species the new genus.

Plotornis graculoides [194]

Comb. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Marco Pavia

Miocene

MN 1-2

 Italy

A Diomedeidae, a new name for "Chenornis" graculoides Portis 1884, creating a Comb. nov.

Protoazin parisiensis [219]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Vanesa L. De Pietri

Late Eocene

Priabonian,

MP 20

 France

A relative of the hoatzin, Opisthocomidae. This is the type species of the new genus.

Sobniogallus [220]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Tomek, Bocheński, Wertz, & Świdnicka

Rupelian

Krosno Formation

 Poland

Galliformes incertae sedis. Type species S. albinojamrozi

Tianyuornis [221]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Xiao-Ting, O'Connor,
Xiao-Li, Xiao-Mei, & Yan

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A Hongshanornithidae Type species T. cheni.

Pterosaurs[edit]

Research[edit]

  • The taxonomy and distribution of the family Azhdarchidae is reviewed by Averianov (2014).[222]

New taxa[edit]

Other reptiles[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Atopodentatus[230]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cheng et al.

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

 China

A marine reptile, probably a relative of sauropterygians. The type species is Atopodentatus unicus.

Cartorhynchus[231]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Motani et al.

Early Triassic

 China

A relative of ichthyopterygians. The type species is Cartorhynchus lenticarpus.

Eohupehsuchus[232]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Chen et al.

Early Triassic

Jialingjiang Formation

 China

A hupehsuchian. The type species is Eohupehsuchus brevicollis.

Horaffia[233]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Klein & Hagdorn

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Erfurt Formation

 Germany

A marine diapsid reptile of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Horaffia kugleri.

Largocephalosaurus qianensis[234]

Sp. nov

Valid

Li et al.

Triassic

 China

A member of Saurosphargidae, a species of Largocephalosaurus.

Parahupehsuchus[235]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Chen et al.

Early Triassic

Jialingjiang Formation

 China

A hupehsuchian. The type species is Parahupehsuchus longus.

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian synapsids[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abajudon[238]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Angielczyk et al.

Permian

Ruhuhu Formation

 Tanzania

A dicynodont of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Abajudon kaayai.

Alierasaurus[239]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Romano & Nicosia

Permian

Cala del Vino Formation

 Italy

A caseid. The type species is Alierasaurus ronchii.

Botucaraitherium[240]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Soares, Martinelli & De Oliveira

Late Triassic (possibly early Norian)

Riograndia Assemblage Zone of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence)

 Brazil

A prozostrodontian cynodont. The type species is Botucaraitherium belarminoi.

Eocasea[241]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Reisz & Fröbisch

Carboniferous (late Pennsylvanian)

Calhoun Shale

 United States

A member of Caseidae . The type species is Eocasea martini.

Sungeodon[242]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Maisch & Matzke

Early Triassic

Jiucaiyuan Formation

 China

A kannemeyeriiform dicynodont . The type species is Sungeodon kimkraemerae.

Mammals[edit]

Other animals[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ascarites rufferi[243]

Sp. nov

Valid

Da Silva et al.

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

 Brazil

An ascaridid nematode found in a cynodont coprolite, a species of Ascarites.

Ashetscolex[244]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Muir et al.

Ordovician (earliest Floian)

Tonggao Formation

 China

A palaeoscolecid worm. The type species is Ashetscolex nuppus.

Atraktoprion podolicus[245]

Sp. nov

Valid

Szaniawski & Drygant

Early Devonian (middle Lochkovian to Pragian)

 Ukraine

An atraktoprionid polychaete, a species of Atraktoprion.

Cambroskiadeion[246]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Moore, Porter & Li

Early Cambrian

Dengying Formation

 China

An animal of uncertain phylogenetic placement with a cap-shaped shell. The type species is Cambroskiadeion xiaowanense.

Conchicolites crispisulcans[247]

Sp. nov

Valid

Vinn, Jarochowska & Munnecke

Silurian (Wenlock)

Halla Formation

 Sweden

A member of Cornulitida (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs), a species of Conchicolites.

Eklexibella[248]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Keupp, Gründel & Wiese

Early Jurassic (late Pliensbachian)

 Germany

A terebellid polychaete. Genus contains two species: Eklexibella buttenheimensis and Eklexibella johanni.

Eopriapulites[249]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Liu & Xiao in Liu et al.

Cambrian (Fortunian)

Kuanchuanpu Formation

 China

A priapulid-like scalidophoran. The type species is Eopriapulites sphinx.

Eximipriapulus[250]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ma et al.

Cambrian

Chengjiang Lagerstätte

 China

A member of Priapulida. The type species is Eximipriapulus globocaudatus.

Filihernodia[251]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Taylor & Wilson in Frey et al.

Early Devonian (Pragian)

 Morocco

A reptariid hederellid. The type species is Filihernodia buccina.

Lyrarapax[252]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cong et al.

Early Cambrian

 China

A member of Anomalocarididae (a group of animals with uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly stem-arthropods). The type species is Lyrarapax unguispinus.

Nesonektris[253]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

García-Bellido et al.

Cambrian

Emu Bay Shale

 Australia

A member of Vetulicolida. The type species is Nesonektris aldridgei.

Nidelric[254]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hou et al.

Early Cambrian

Heilinpu Formation

 China

An animal of uncertain phylogenetic placement; a member of Chancelloriida or a chancelloriid-like animal. The type species is Nidelric pugio.

Oikozetetes mounti[255]

Sp. nov

Valid

Jacquet, Brock & Paterson

Early Cambrian

Mernmerna Formation

 Australia

A member of Halkieriidae (a group of animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly molluscs), a species of Oikozetetes.

Paleoxyuris[256]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hugot et al.

Triassic

 Brazil

A heteroxynematid oxyurid nematode known from an egg found in a cynodont coprolite. The type species is Paleoxyuris cockburni.

Phragmodictya jinshaensis[257]

Sp. nov

Valid

Xinglian et al.

Cambrian

 China

A hexactinellid sponge, a species of Phragmodictya.

Polychaetaspis kozlowskii[245]

Sp. nov

Valid

Szaniawski & Drygant

Early Devonian (early Lochkovian)

 Ukraine

A polychaetaspid polychaete, a species of Polychaetaspis.

Pseudoperipatus[258]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Haug & Haug

Cambrian

Burgess Shale

 Canada

A cycloneuralian worm. The type species is Pseudoperipatus hintelmannae.

Sanduscolex[244]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Muir et al.

Ordovician (earliest Floian)

Tonggao Formation

 China

A palaeoscolecid worm. The type species is Sanduscolex regularis.

Waflascolex[259]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Ordovician (Tremadocian)

 China

A palaeoscolecid worm. The type species is Waflascolex changdensis.

Wiwaxia foliosa[260]

Sp. nov

Valid

Yang et al.

Cambrian

Hongjingshao Formation

 China

An animal of uncertain phylogenetic placement, a species of Wiwaxia.

Yuganotheca[261]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Zhang, Li & Holmer in Zhang et al.

Cambrian

Heilinpu Formation

 China

A member of Lophophorata of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Yuganotheca elegans.

Other organisms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Nilpenia[262]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Droser et al.

Precambrian

Ediacara Fossil Site at Nilpena, Flinders Ranges

 Australia

"An organism of unknown affinities with a growth pattern convergent on that of extant fungi, lichens and encrusting algae".[262] The type species is Nilpenia rossi.

Plexus[263]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Joel, Droser & Gehling

Precambrian

 Australia

A tubular, serially divided organism with a bilateral morphology of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Plexus ricei.

Wutubus[264]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Chen et al.

Precambrian

Dengying Formation

 China

An annulated tubular organism of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Wutubus annularis.

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