20th Air Division
|20th Air Division|
|Active||1955–1960; 1966–1967; 1969–1983|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Part of||Tactical Air Command|
|20th Air Division Emblem
(approved 20 August 1956)
The 20th Air Division (20th AD) is an inactive United States Air Force organization. Its last assignment was with Tactical Air Command at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida where it was inactivated on 1 March 1983.
During most of the division's history it served with Air Defense Command as a regional command and control headquarters. Between 1955 and 1967 the division controlled air defense units in the central United States. It controlled a slightly different areas of the midwestern US from 1955 to 1960 and from 1966 to 1967. Its area of responsibility shifted to the east coast if the United States from 1969 to 1983. It was shifted to its final station on paper in 1983 and was immediately inactivated.
The 20th AD was assigned to Air Defense Command (ADC) for most of its existence. It served as a regional command and control headquarters, controlling fighter interceptor and radar units over several areas of responsibility during the Cold War. For three years it also commanded a surface-to-air missile squadron.
The division was initially activated as an intermediate command organization of Central Air Defense Force at Grandview (later, Richards-Gebaur) AFB in June 1955. The 20th AD was responsible for the interceptor and radar units within an area that covered parts of Nebraska, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, and virtually all of Kansas and Missouri.
On 1 October 1959 ADC activated the Sioux City Air Defense Sector and its Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) DC-22 Direction Center and assigned it to the division. The 20th also operated a Manual Control Center (MCC-2) at Richards-Gebaur. The division was inactivated in 1960 when ADC reorganized, and the 33d Air Division assumed command of most of its former units.
The division was reactivated in 1966 under Tenth Air Force as a SAGE organization, replacing the Chicago Air Defense Sector when ADC discontinued its air defense sectors and replaced them with air divisions. The 20th provided air defense from the Truax Field, Wisconsin DC-7/CC-2 SAGE blockhouse for parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and all of Illinois. The division also acted as the 20th NORAD Region after activation of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) Combat Operations Center at Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado. Operational control of the division was transferred to NORAD from ADC.
In addition to the active duty interceptor and radar units, the 20th AD supervised Air National Guard units that flew interception sorties using (among other aircraft) McDonnell F-101 Voodoos and Convair F-106 Delta Darts. At the same time the division controlled numerous radar squadrons. It was inactivated in 1967 as part of an ADC consolidation of intermediate level command and control organizations, driven by budget reductions required to fund USAF operations in Southeast Asia.
The 20th AD was activated for a third time in November 1969 under Aerospace Defense Command (ADCOM). The division provided air defense for virtually all of the southeastern United States, except for most of Louisiana from the SAGE DC-4 blockhouse at Fort Lee AFS, Virginia. The division also controlled a CIM-10 Bomarc surface-to-air anti-aircraft missile squadron near Langley AFB until the squadron's inactivation in October 1972.
ADCOM was inactivated on 1 October 1979. The atmospheric defense resources (interceptors and warning radars) of ADCOM were reassigned to Tactical Air Command, which formed Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC) as the headquarters to control them. After 1981, the division controlled units equipped with McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle aircraft. Its subordinate units continued to participate in intensive academic training, numerous multi-region simulated (non-flying) exercises, and flying exercises.
- Constituted as the 20 Air Division (Defense) on 8 June 1955
- Activated on 8 October 1955
- Inactivated on 1 January 1960
- Activated on 20 January 1966 (not organized)
- Organized on 1 April 1966
- Discontinued and inactivated, on 31 December 1967
- Activated on 19 November 1969
- Inactivated on 1 March 1983.
- Central Air Defense Force, 8 October 1955 – 1 January 1960
- Air Defense Command, 20 January 1966
- Tenth Air Force, 1 April 1966 – 31 December 1967
- Aerospace Defense Command, 19 November 1969
- Air Defense, Tactial Air Command), 1 October 1979 – 1 March 1983.
- Grandview (later, Richards Gebaur) AFB, Missouri, 8 October 1955 – 1 January 1960
- Truax Field, Wisconsin, 1 April 1966 – 31 December 1967
- Fort Lee AFS, Virginia, 19 November 1969
- Tyndall AFB, Florida, 1 March 1983 – 1 March 1983.
- Sioux City Air Defense Sector: 1 October 1959 – 1 January 1960
- Sioux Gateway Airport, Iowa
- Truax Field, Wisconsin
- Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri
- Tyndall AFB, Florida
- Fort Fisher AFS, North Carolina
- Langley AFB, Virginia
- Dover AFB, Delaware
- Langley AFB, Virginia
- 20th Air Defense Squadron (SAGE), 1 January 1975 – 1 October 1979
- 630th Radar Squadron, 1 August 1972 – 31 December 1977
- Roanoke Rapids AFS, North Carolina
- Lake Charles AFS, Louisiana
- Dauphin Island AFS, Alabama
- Homestead AFB, Florida
- Patrick AFB, Florida
- Bedford AFS, Virginia
- Dallas Center AFS, Iowa
- Bedford AFS, Virginia
- MacDill AFB, Florida
- NAS Key West, Florida
- Antigo AFS, Wisconsin
- NAS Jacksonville, Florida
- Palermo AFS, New Jersey
- Cross City AFS, Florida
- Dauphin Island AFS, Florida
- Fort Fisher AFS, North Carolina
- Savannah AFS, Georgia
- Walnut Ridge AFS, Arkansas
- Olathe AFS, Kansas
- Williams Bay AFS, Wisconsin
- Fort George G. Meade, Maryland
- Cape Charles AFS, Virginia
- Rockville AFS, Indiana
- Chandler AFS, Minnesota
- 788th Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron, 1 March 1956 – 15 October 1958; 1 April 1966 – 1 December 1967
- Waverly AFS, Iowa
- 789th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 1 March 1956 – 1 January 1960
- Omaha AFS, Nebraska
- 790th Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron, 1 March 1956 – 1 April 1959; 1 April 1966 – 1 December 1967
- Kirksville AFS, Missouri
- 791st Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron, 1 March 1956 – 15 October 1958; 1 April 1966 – 1 December 1967
- Hanna City AFS, Illinois
- North Charleston AFS, South Carolina
- Hutchinson AFS, Kansas
- Bartlesville AFS, Oklahoma
- Fordland AFS, Missouri
- 798th Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron, 1 March 1956 – 1 January 1960
- Winston-Salem AFS, North Carolina
- Aiken AFS, South Carolina
- 4638th Air Defense Squadron (SAGE), 1 January 1972 – 1 January 1975
- List of USAF Aerospace Defense Command General Surveillance Radar Stations
- Aerospace Defense Command Fighter Squadrons
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. p. 53.
- Cornett & Johnson. p. 31
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 59
- Cornett & Johnson, P. 55
- Cornett & Johnson, pp. 36–38
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 37
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 150
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 46
- Lineage, assignments, and stations through 1980 at Cornett & Johnson, p. 53
- Robertson, Patsy AFHRA Factsheet, 53 Wing 2/24/2009 (retrieved June 18, 2013)
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 79
- Butler, William M. AFHRA Factshet, 328 Armament Systems Wing 12/27/2007 (retrieved June 19, 2013)
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 85
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 564–565. ISBN 0-912799-53-6.
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 86
- Robertson, Patsy AFHRA Factsheet, 48 Flying Training Squadron 10/7/2010 (retrieved June 19, 2013)
- AFHRA Factsheet, 85 Test and Evaluation Squadron 3/31/2008 (retrieved June 19, 2013)
- AFHRA Factsheet, 95 Fighter Squadron 4/1/2008 (retrieved June 19, 2013)
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 105
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 154
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 155
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 156
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 97
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 157
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 159
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 160
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 161
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 162
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 163
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 164
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 166
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 168
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 169
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 170
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 101
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 102
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 172
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556.
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6.
- Leonard, Barry (2009). History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense. Vol II, 1955–1972. Fort McNair, DC: Center for Military History. ISBN 978-1-43792-131-1.
- Redmond, Kent C.; Smith, Thomas M. (2000). From Whirlwind to MITRE: The R&D Story of The SAGE Air Defense Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-18201-0.
- Winkler, David F.; Webster, Julie L (1997). Searching the skies: The legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program. Champaign, IL: US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories. LCCN 9720912.
- Aerospace Defense Command publication, The Interceptor, January 1979 (Volume 21, Number 1)
- AFHRA Factsheet 20th Air Division (dead link)