215th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
215. Infanterie-Division
German 215th Infantry Division
215th Infanterie Division.svg
Active 26 August 1939 – 9 October 1944
Country Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Branch Heer
Type Division
Role Infantry
Engagements

World War II

The German 215th Infantry Division (215.Infanterie-Division) was a major military unit of the German Army that served in World War II.

Combat History[edit]

The 215th Infantry division was mobilized in September 1939 as a division of the 3rd wave in military district V. Its personnel was composed mostly of older men, many who were veterans of the first world war, and reserve troops with limited training.[1]

The division was almost immediately sent to the west and took up defensive positions in the dank and damp bunkers of the west-wall, in winter temperature that sunk to below freezing. After some weeks it was withdrawn into training areas behind the front for further training and reorganization and many of the older troops and junior offices were replaced by younger men. By Mid March 1940 it was returned to the front in the Saar where it set about improving defensive positions under desultory French artillery fire.[1]

The division only took part in the later stages of the invasion of France, when the campaign had essentially already been decided, attacking the Maginot line on 19 July 1940.

Attack on the Maginot line[edit]

The fortress.Four-à-Chaux had fine views and fields of fire around the surrounding coutryside, this view from block 5 shows the village Lembach.
215th Infantry Division's assault on the Maginot Line, 19th June 1940

In spite of the rough terrain of the Vosges mountains its chances of successful attack were elevated by the French removal of interval troops, withdrawn to meet the German breakthroughs elsewhere. The lack of interval troops meant that the German assault teams had a much higher chance of closing on the French defenses, surrounding them and blasting them out from close range. One advantage the French defenders did retain was fire from two artillery forts anquering their line in the Vosages, the Grand-Hohékirkel and Four-à-Chaux[2]

For the assault, the 215 division formed two battle groups based on Infantry Regiments 380 and 435, reinforced with pioneers and proceeded by a heavy 2 hour long bombardment from divisional and attached heavy artillery. Dive bomber support was also available from the Luftwaffe. In the initial attack, battle group 380 captured 2 blockhouses by clambering on their roofs and dropping explosive charges into their embrasures. Utilizing the gap in the line, further casements were outflanked and attacked from the rear, by nightfall 6 blockhouses had been captured in its sector. The fortress of Four-à-Chaux consistd of six blocks of which four had artillery pieces, its 75mm gun had the longest range and covered the blockhouses to its left. It also had shorter range 81mm and 135mm weapons. These weapons poured fire on the 435th Regiment attack, whilst the further blockhouses were covered by the more distant 75mm gun turret of the Grand Grand Hohékirkel.[3] The Germans had found the French artillery support heavy but hampered by lack of direct observation ineffective. The assault group from the 435 Infantry Regiment had similar success, so that the division was poised to exploit the breaches the following morning.

The divisions forces moved rapidly south, capturing the Pechelbronn oilfields, its primary objective, and linking up with 257 Infantry division coming from the north west.In the two days of fighting the division had captured 1460 prisoners, but casualties included 31 dead and 108 wounded.[2]

Following the cease fire the division became an occupation unit in central France, where it remained until November 1941, when it was hurriedly loaded onto trains for transport to the east.

Russia[edit]

52nd Soviet Army began a serious of attacks against the 126th Infantry positions which, under pressure form 4 rifle divisions, and after several days of combat, finally gave way allowing the Russians to threaten the supply lines into Tichvin at Grusino.[4] The newly arriving units 215th infantry division was hurriedly rushed up in support took over a wide sector in freezing temperatures reaching under 30 °C, with deep snow, lying in places over a meter deep and soon became embroiled in fending off incessant Soviet attacks.[5] By the start of December it was clear to the German leadership that the thrust at Tichvin was unsustainable and the units involved were out on a limb.

Overstretched fronts being manned by depleted units under increasing Soviet pressure, coupled with deteriorating weather conditions and a shaky supply situation ment that the front had to be brought back. von Leeb persuaded a reluctant Hitler, and pulled the front back to the line of the Volkov, a withdrawal that was complete by the 23 December.[6] In its short commitment east of the Volkov the division had already lost over 500 combat casualties, including 29 officers, but significantly suffered an additional 603 frostbite cases.[7]

Once back on line of the Volkov river line, the German line stabilized, but the Russians continued their attacks into the new year.

On 13 January 1942, after a short reorganization, the Soviet Volkov front unleashed further attacks all along the line. In the sector of the 2nd Shock army, after a heavy artillery preparation, the ground assault troops struck the juncture od the 215 and 126th Infantry divisions, causing a shaky response from the former. The front had been penetrated, but so far the German major strong points were still holding out. It took another two attepts over 8 days to finally capture the villages of Spasskaia Polist, Mosti and Miasnoi Bor, and create a narrow but deep penetration of 7–8 miles, in heavy and costly fighting for both sides.[4]

In July the division was withdrawn from the front, and after a brief rest and refit near Tossno, was given a defensive sector on the Leningrad siege lines by Staro Panowo and Urizk. Although now positioned in a quieter area the division often had to supply battle groups to other units in 'fire-brigade' actions.[1]

Further heavy defensive fighting developed in January 1944 when the German defensive around Leningrad finally crumbled. The division retreated through Luga and finally took up positions in the Panther line, which it defended until May 1944. Following another short refit, the division was committed again to the front, and retreated with Army Group North back through Estonia, Riga into Courland where the whole army group became trapped, and supplied only via sea. After fighting in the initial Courland defensive battles, the division was relieved and shipped back to Germany, to West Prussia. The remnant of the division finally capitulated at the end of the war in the Hela Paninsula.[1]

Commanders[edit]

Organisation[edit]

1939
  • Infantry Regiment 380 (I, II, III)
  • Infantry Regiment 390 (I, II, III)
  • Infantry Regiment 435 (I, II, III)
  • Reconnaissance Battalion 215
  • Artillery Regiment 215 (I, II, III, IV)
  • Engineer Battalion 204
  • Anti-tank Battalion 215
  • Signals Battalion 215
  • Division services 215

[8]

Service and Operational area[edit]

Date Army Corps Army Army group Area of operations
September 1939 Reserve 7th Army C Upper Rhine
October 1939 XXV.
January 1940 XXIV. 1st Army Saarpfalz
May 1940 XXXVII.
July 1940 XXXXV. Vosges
August 1940 XXV. 12th Army
September 1940 XVIII. 1st Army Eastern France
November 1940 LX. D France
December 1940 XXXXV.
January 1941
December 1941 Reserve 16th Army North Tikhvin
January 1942 IXXXIX.
February 1942 L. 18th Army Volkhov
August 1942 Leningrad
October 1942 11th Army
November 1942 18th Army
January 1943
September 1943 XXVI.
November 1943 L.
January 1944 Luga
March 1944 XXVIII. Pskov
June 1944 Reserve
July 1944 II. 16th Army Daugavpils
August 1944 I. Livonia
October 1944 VI. SS Bauske
November 1944 L. Kleffel Courland
December 1944 XXXVIII. 16th Army
January 1945
February 1945 Reserve Courland
March 1945 XVIII. 2nd Army Vistula West Prussia

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Werner Haupt,Die deutschen Infanterie-Divisionen, p63
  2. ^ a b Marc Romanych & Martin Rupp, Maginot Line 1940: Battles on the French Frontier
  3. ^ Kaufmann, J.E.; Kaufmann, H.W.; Jankovič-Potočnik, A.; Lang, P. (2011-03-23). Maginot Line: History and Guide (Kindle Location 2345). Pen and Sword. Kindle Edition.
  4. ^ a b David M. Glantz, The Battle for Leningrad, 1941-1944, p170
  5. ^ Walter Schelm & Dr Hans Mehrle, Die Geschichte der 215. Infanterie Division, p65
  6. ^ W. Victor Madeja, Russo-German War, Autumn 1941: Defeat of Barbarossa/No 27, p16-18
  7. ^ Walter Schelm & Dr Hans Mehrle, Die Geschichte der 215. Infanterie Division, p70
  8. ^ George F. Nafziger, The German Order of Battle Ifantry in World War II, p210

Bibliography[edit]

  • Marc Romanych, Martin Rupp & (10 Feb 2010). Maginot Line 1940: Battles on the French Frontier (Campaign). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1846034992. 
  • Glantz, David M. (30 Nov 2002). The Battle for Leningrad, 1941-1944. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0700612086. 
  • Madeja, W. Victor (Feb 1989). Russo-German War, Autumn 1941: Defeat of Barbarossa/No 27. Game Book Marketing Co. ISBN 978-0941052825. 
  • Haupt, Werner (31 May 2005). Die deutschen Infanterie-Divisionen. Nebel Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3895552748. 
  • Die Geschichte der 215. Infanterie-Division. Nebel Verlag GmbH. 31 May 2005. ISBN 978-3895552700. 

External links[edit]