21st Space Operations Squadron
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2012)|
|21st Space Operations Squadron|
21st Space Operations Squadronemblem
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||Satellite Control C2|
|Part of||USAF Squadron|
|Nickname||Eye In The Sky|
|Motto||"Gateway To The Stars"|
The 21st Space Operations Squadron (21 SOPS) is a satellite control unit of the 50th Network Operations Group of the United States Air Force located at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. It formerly operated Onizuka Air Force Station.
The 21st Space Operations Squadron, a unit of the 50th Network Operations Group, 50th Space Wing, Schriever Air Force Base, Colo., is a tenant organization at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. The squadron and mission transferred to Vandenberg AFB on July 29, 2010, due to the closure of Onizuka Air Force Station, Calif. The squadron operates the Ellison Onizuka Satellite Operations Facility at Vandenberg AFB, continuing the legacy of Col. Ellison Onizuka, an Air Force astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger that exploded shortly after lift-off on Jan. 28, 1986.
The mission of the 21st Space Operations Squadron is to plan and conduct specialized communications for a wide spectrum of Department of Defense, allied, civilian and national space systems. The squadron monitors, maintains and updates status of the $6.2 billion Air Force Satellite Control Network resources, providing configuration and readiness condition of controlled resources. The squadron operates four AFSCN remote tracking stations performing on-orbit satellite tracking, telemetry, commanding, mission data retrieval operations, pre-launch satellite test and checkout, as well as direct operations launch support. Additionally, the squadron is responsible for the operations and maintenance support of the Global Positioning System ground antennas and monitor stations at Diego Garcia Tracking Station, Kaena Point Tracking Station, and the Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. <http://www.schriever.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3918>
The 21st Space Operations Squadron supports DOD-assigned space missions by operating, maintaining and providing logistical support for the common user resources of the AFSCN. The 21 SOPS Network Operations Center is the prime AFSCN fault detection and isolation resource for the primary and additional operational switch replacement communication links. The squadron supports more than 150 DOD, allied, civil and national satellites by monitoring, maintaining and updating status of AFSCN communication resources, and providing configuration and readiness condition of controlled resources to multiple users and command centers.
In addition to providing worldwide AFSCN access, 21 SOPS also enables specialized support to the international space community by providing network communications. The unit is responsible for operating and maintaining two 38-foot Defense Information Systems Agency satellite communication antennas.
The 21st Space Operations Squadron is also responsible for all operations, maintenance and personnel performing AFSCN operations at Vandenberg Tracking Station, Vandenberg AFB, Calif; Diego Garcia Tracking Station, British Indian Ocean Territory; Guam Tracking Station, Andersen AFB, Guam; and Hawaii Tracking Station, Kaena Point, Hawaii. Each provides telemetry, tracking and commanding for high-priority DOD, NASA, and NATO spacecraft. Additionally, Vandenberg Tracking Station provides pre-launch compatibility and direct launch operations support to the Western Range launch complex. The squadron also hosts the 148th Space Operations Squadron (California Air National Guard), AFSCN Backup Network Operations Center, Global Positioning System Alternate Master Control Station, the combined Backup Satellite Operations Center for 3rd Space Operations Squadron and 4th Space Operations Squadron, as well as the Milstar Satellite Operations Center. <http://www.schriever.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3918>
The birth of the National Security Space Enterprise was the Corona photo intelligence gathering satellite program. Recently declassified, this program convinced the Air Force a dedicated unit was needed to provide satellite tracking. In April 1959, the 6594th Test Wing was activated with temporary headquarters in Palo Alto, Calif. In 1960, land was purchased in Sunnyvale, Calif. and the 6594th Test Wing relocated to form the Air Force Satellite Test Center. Construction on the "Blue Cube" was completed in 1968, and on Jan. 1, 1971, the Sunnyvale facilities became Sunnyvale Air Force Station. The installation was renamed Onizuka Air Force Station on July 24, 1986, in honor of Col. Ellison Onizuka, who lost his life in the Space Shuttle Challenger accident.
The 21st Space Operations Squadron rose out of this rich history. The squadron was activated on Oct. 1, 1991, and within one year, absorbed the roles of the 2nd Satellite Tracking Group and the 1999th Communications Squadron. After the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure committee directed realignment of Onizuka AFS, 21 SOPS absorbed the roles of the 750th Space Group and all subordinate units, to include the 5th Space Operations Squadron. In 2005, the BRAC committee directed Onizuka AFS to close not later than Sept.15, 2011. On July 29, 2010, the squadron relocated to Vandenberg AFB, gaining Detachment 1, Vandenberg Tracking Station, from the 22nd Space Operations Squadron. On Oct. 1, 2010, the 50th Network Operations Group reorganized and the squadron gained Diego Garcia Tracking Station, British Indian Ocean Territory; Guam Tracking Station, Andersen AFB, Guam; and Hawaii Tracking Station, Kaena Point, Hawaii.
On August 1, 2011, the Global Positioning System (GPS) Ground Antennas and Monitoring Stations were transitioned from the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (of the 50th Operations Group) to the 21st, 22nd, 23rd Space Operations Squadrons (of the 50th Network Operations Group). At this time, 21 SOPS absorbed maintenance, quality assurance and real property responsibilities for GPS sites at Kwajalein Atoll, Diego Garcia Tracking Station and Kaena Point Tracking Station. <http://www.schriever.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3918>