21st United States Congress

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"21st Congress" redirects here. For the Soviet Congress, see 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
21st United States Congress
20th ← → 22nd
USCapitol1827A.gif
United States Capitol (1827)

Duration: March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1831

Senate President: John C. Calhoun
Senate Pres. pro tem: Samuel Smith
House Speaker: Andrew Stevenson
Members: 48 Senators
213 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Jacksonian
House Majority: Jacksonian

Sessions
1st[1]: December 7, 1829 – May 31, 1830
2nd: December 6, 1830 – March 3, 1831
Special (Senate): March 4, 1829 – March 17, 1829

The Twenty-first United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1831, during the first two years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority.

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Not enacted[edit]

Treaties[edit]

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate[edit]

President of the Senate
John C. Calhoun.
Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Anti-
Jacksonian

(Anti-J)
Jacksonian
(J)
Other
End of the previous congress 21 27 0 48 0
Begin 22 26 0 48 0
End 25 47 1
Final voting share 46.8% 53.2% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 21 24 (Nullifier)
2
47 1

House of Representatives[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Anti-
Jacksonian

(Anti-J)
Anti-
Masonic

(Anti-M)
Jacksonian
(J)
Other
End of the previous congress 101 0 111 0 212 1
Begin 72 4 135 0 211 2
End 6 134 212 1
Final voting share 34.0% 2.8% 63.2% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 64 16 128 (Nullifier)
4
212 1

Leadership[edit]

President pro tempore
Samuel Smith.

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1832; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1834; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1830.

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]


State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Georgia
(3)
John M. Berrien (J) Resigned March 9, 1829 after being appointed US Attorney General John Forsyth (J) Installed November 9, 1829
North Carolina
(2)
John Branch(J) Resigned March 9, 1829 after being appointed US Secretary of the Navy Bedford Brown (J) Installed December 9, 1829
Tennessee
(1)
John Eaton(J) Resigned March 9, 1829 after being appointed US Secretary of War Felix Grundy (J) Installed October 19, 1829
Delaware
(1)
Louis McLane (J) Resigned April 29, 1829 Arnold Naudain (AJ) Installed January 7, 1830
Mississippi
(2)
Thomas B. Reed(J) Died November 26, 1829 Robert H. Adams (J) Installed January 6, 1830
Mississippi
(2)
Robert H. Adams(J) Died July 2, 1830 George Poindexter (J) Installed October 15, 1830
Illinois
(2)
John McLean (J) Died October 14, 1830 David J. Baker (J) Installed November 12, 1830
Illinois
(2)
David J. Baker (J) Successor elected December 11, 1830 John M. Robinson (J) Installed December 11, 1830
Indiana
(1)
James Noble (AJ) Died February 26, 1831 Vacant Not filled this Congress

House of Representatives[edit]

Total seats with changes: 15


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Maine
4th
Vacant Peleg Sprague resigned in previous Congress George Evans (AJ) Seated July 20, 1829
Pennsylvania
16th
Vacant William Wilkins resigned before qualifying Harmar Denny (AM) Seated December 15, 1829
Pennsylvania
8th
George Wolf (J) Resigned in 1829 before the convening of Congress Samuel A. Smith (J) Seated October 13, 1829
Pennsylvania
8th
Samuel D. Ingham (J) Resigned in 1829 before the convening of Congress after being appointed Secretary of the Treasury Peter Ihrie, Jr. (J) Seated October 13, 1829
Virginia
10th
William C. Rives (J) Resigned some time in 1829 William F. Gordon (J) Seated January 25, 1830
North Carolina
5th
Gabriel Holmes (J) Died September 26, 1829 Edward B. Dudley (J) Seated November 10, 1829
New York
20th
George Fisher (AJ) Lost contested election February 5, 1830 to Silas Wright who in turn failed to qualify Jonah Sanford (J) Seated November 3, 1830
Virginia
1st
Thomas Newton, Jr. (AJ) Lost contested election March 9, 1830 George Loyall (J) Seated March 9, 1830
Maine
5th
James W. Ripley (J) Resigned March 12, 1830 Cornelius Holland (J) Seated December 6, 1830
Ohio
11th
John M. Goodenow (J) Resigned April 9, 1830 after being appointed judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Seated December 6, 1830
Virginia
22nd
Alexander Smyth (J) Died April 17, 1830 Joseph Draper (J) Seated December 6, 1830
New York
6th
Hector Craig (J) Resigned July 12, 1830 Samuel W. Eager (AJ) Seated November 2, 1830
Virginia
11th
Philip P. Barbour (J) Resigned October 15, 1830 after being appointed judge of US Circuit Court of the Eastern District of Virginia John M. Patton (J) Seated November 25, 1830
New York
21st
Robert Monell (J) Resigned February 21, 1831 Vacant Not filled this term
Michigan Territory
At-large
John Biddle Resigned February 21, 1831 Vacant Not filled this term

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]

From American Memory at the Library of Congress:

Other U.S. government websites: