224th Brigade (United Kingdom)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
224th Brigade
Active 1915–1919
10 October 1940-22 December 1941
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Type Infantry Brigade
Role Training and Home Defence
224th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home), 224th Mixed Brigade and 4th Provisional Brigade (United Kingdom) redirect here

The 224th Brigade was a Home Defence formation of the British Army in World War I and World War II. It existed under several variations of the 224 Brigade title.

World War I[edit]

On the outbreak of World War I the Territorial Force (TF) immediately mobilised for home defence, but shortly afterwards (31 August 1914), its units were authorised to raise 2nd battalions formed from those men who had not volunteered for, or were not fit for, overseas service, together with new volunteers, while the 1st Line went overseas to supplement the Regulars.[1] Early in 1915 the 2nd Line TF battalions were raised to full strength to form new divisions, and began to form Reserve (3rd Line) units to supply drafts.[2] The remaining Home Service men were separated out in May 1915 to form brigades of Coast Defence Battalions (termed Provisional Battalions from June 1915).[3]

4th Provisional Brigade[edit]

4th Provisional Brigade was formed mainly from details of regiments from Wales and North-West England, with the following composition:[4][3]

In March 1916 the Provisional Brigades were concentrated along the South and East Coast of England. The units of the brigade moved from their home depots to Norfolk, where it was attached to 64th (2nd Highland) Division under the control of Northern Army of Central Force, with its battalions billeted across Norfolk as follows:[9]

224th Mixed Brigade[edit]

The Military Service Act 1916 swept away the Home/Foreign service distinction, and all TF soldiers became liable for overseas service, if medically fit. The Provisional Brigades thus became anomalous, and at the end of 1916 their units became numbered battalions of their parent units. Part of their role was physical conditioning to render men fit for drafting overseas. 4th Provisional Brigade became 224th Mixed Brigade in December 1916, with its units redesignated as follows:[3][10]

  • 4th Provisional Battery became 1206th (East Anglia) Battery RFA
  • 4th Provisional Field Company became 643rd (East Anglia) Field Company and 224th Mixed Brigade Signal Section RE
  • 46th Provisional Battalion became 23rd Battalion Cheshire Regiment[11][6]
  • 47th Provisional Battalion became 23rd Battalion Royal Welch Fusiliers[12][13]
  • 48th Provisional Battalion became 4th Battalion Monmouthshire Regiment[14][7]
  • 49th Provisional Battalion became 14th Battalion South Lancashire Regiment[15][8]
  • 2/9th (Cyclist) Battalion Hampshire Regiment (joined April 1918)[10]
  • 4th Provisional Brigade Train became 836th Horse Transport Company ASC in 64th Division[3][16]
  • 4th Provisional Field Ambulance became 310th and 312th Field Ambulances RAMC

In May 1918 each of the Mixed Brigades was called upon to provide a battalion (redesignated a Garrison Guard battalion) to reconstitute the 59th (2nd North Midland) Division, which had been virtually destroyed during the German Spring Offensive. 224th Mixed Bde supplied 23rd Cheshire Regiment and immediately raised a new 24th (Home Service) Battalion Cheshires to take over its coast defence duties.[17][11][6] The brigade remained with this composition until the end of the war, after which it was demobilised.

World War II[edit]

In World War II the brigade number was reactivated for 224th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home) (224 Bde), formed for service in the United Kingdom under the South Wales Area headquarters of Home Forces on 10 October 1940. It was commanded by Brigadier P. Gottwaltz, and comprised newly raised infantry battalions [18]

Composition[edit]

The composition of 224 Bde was as follows:[18]

Service[edit]

After a brief spell attached to 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division, 224 Bde became part of Durham and North Riding County Division on 11 March 1941.[19] The brigade was disbanded on 22 December 1941.[18]

The 224th Brigade number has never been reactivated.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2b: The 2nd-Line Territorial Force Divisions (57th–69th), with the Home-Service Divisions (71st–74th) and 74th and 75th Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1937/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • Lt-Col H.F. Joslen, Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations and Units in the Second World War, 1939–1945, London: HM Stationery Office, 1960/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2003, ISBN 1843424746.

External sources[edit]