225th Brigade (United Kingdom)

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This article is about the British military unit. For the Spanish formation, see 224th Mixed Brigade (Spain).
225th Brigade
Active May 1915–1919
14 November 1940 – 30 November 1941
Country  United Kingdom
Branch  British Army
Type Infantry
Role Training and Home Defence
Size Brigade
Engagements World War I
World War II

The 225th Brigade was a Home Defence formation of the British Army in World War I and World War II. It existed under several variations of the 225 Brigade title.

World War I[edit]

On the outbreak of World War I the Territorial Force (TF) immediately mobilised for home defence, but shortly afterwards (31 August 1914), its units were authorised to raise 2nd battalions formed from those men who had not volunteered for, or were not fit for, overseas service, together with new volunteers, while the 1st Line went overseas to supplement the Regulars.[1] Early in 1915 the 2nd Line TF battalions were raised to full strength to form new divisions, and began to form Reserve (3rd Line) units to supply drafts.[2] The remaining Home Service men were separated out in May 1915 to form brigades of Coast Defence Battalions (termed Provisional Battalions from June 1915).[3]

5th Provisional Brigade[edit]

5th Provisional Brigade was formed mainly from details of regiments from East and South-East England, with the following composition:[4][3]

During the autumn of 1915, 5th Provisional Bde was stationed in Suffolk, attached to 58th (2/1st London) Division for administration, and to 1/1st Mounted Division for operations.[7] In April 1916 2/1st East Anglian (Essex) Heavy Battery Royal Garrison Artillery joined the brigade and remained with it until the end of the war.[8] By July 1916 the brigade was under the control of Northern Army of Central Force, with its battalions billeted as follows:[9]

  • Brigade Headquarters: St Olaves
  • 63rd Provisional Bn: Gorleston
  • 65th Provisional Bn: Great Yarmouth
  • 68th Provisional Bn: Lowestoft
  • 69th Provisional Bn: Lowestoft

225th Mixed Brigade[edit]

The Military Service Act 1916 swept away the Home/Foreign service distinction, and all TF soldiers became liable for overseas service, if medically fit. The Provisional Brigades thus became anomalous, and at the end of 1916 their units became numbered battalions of their parent units. Part of their role was physical conditioning to render men fit for drafting overseas. 4th Provisional Brigade became 225th Mixed Brigade in December 1916, with its units redesignated as follows:[3][10]

  • 5th Provisional Battery became 1207th Home Counties Battery RFA
  • 5th Provisional Field Company became 604th Home Counties Field Company RE
  • 63rd Provisional Bn became 32nd Bn Middlesex Regiment[11][12]
  • 65th Provisional Bn became 15th Bn Essex Regiment[13][14]
  • 68th Provisional Bn became 18th Bn Bedfordshire Regiment[15]
  • 69th Provisional Bn became 19th Bn Queen's Regiment[16]
  • 5th Provisional Brigade Train became 837 Company ASC

In May 1918 each of the Mixed Brigades was called upon to provide a battalion (redesignated a Garrison Guard battalion) to reconstitute the 59th (2nd North Midland) Division, which had been virtually destroyed during the German Spring Offensive. 225th Mixed Bde supplied 15th Essex and immediately raised a new 18th (Home Service) Battalion Essex Regiment to take over its coast defence duties.[17][14][13] The brigade remained with this composition until the end of the war, after which it was demobilised.[10]

World War II[edit]

225th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)[edit]

A new 225th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home) was formed for service in the United Kingdom on 14 November 1940. It was commanded by Brigadier J.W. Pendlebury and initially consisted of newly raised infantry battalions from North-West England. [18]

The composition of 225th Bde was as follows:[18]

Upon formation 225 Bde brigade came under Western Command until 10 February 1941 when it briefly came under command of 54th (East Anglian) Infantry Division. [18] On 12 March 1941, 225 Bde became part of the newly created Northumberland County Division.[19]

Northumberland County Division was broken up on 30 November 1941, when the headquarters of 225th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home) was redesignated HQ 35th Army Tank Brigade.[20] Its infantry battalions were converted to the arrmoured role as follows:[21]

The 225th Brigade number has never been reactivated.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Becke, p. 6.
  2. ^ Becke, pp. 6, 65.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Porter
  4. ^ 5th Provisional Brigade War Diary, The National Archives, Kew file WO 95/5458.
  5. ^ "The Norfolk Regiment in 1914-1918". 1914-1918.net. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  6. ^ "Norfolk Regiment". Warpath.orbat.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  7. ^ a b 69th Provisional Battalion (The Queen's) War Diary, The National Archives file WO 95/5458.
  8. ^ Becke, p. 93.
  9. ^ Distribution of Northern and Southern Armies (Home Defence), The National Archives file WO 33/765.
  10. ^ a b "Miscellaneous Units and Unalloted Troops in Great Britain". Warpath.orbat.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  11. ^ "The Middlesex Regiment in 1914-1918". 1914-1918.net. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  12. ^ "Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment)". Warpath.orbat.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  13. ^ a b "The Essex Regiment in 1914-1918". 1914-1918.net. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  14. ^ a b "Essex Regiment". Warpath.orbat.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  15. ^ "The Bedfordshire Regiment in 1914-1918". 1914-1918.net. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  16. ^ "The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) in 1914-1918". 1914-1918.net. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  17. ^ Becke, pp. 20–21.
  18. ^ a b c Joslen, p. 388.
  19. ^ Joslen, pp. 115, 388.
  20. ^ Joslen, pp. 208, 388.
  21. ^ Forty, pp. 50–1.

References[edit]

  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2b: The 2nd-Line Territorial Force Divisions (57th–69th), with the Home-Service Divisions (71st–74th) and 74th and 75th Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1937/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • George Forty, British Army Handbook 1939–1945, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, ISBN 0-7509-1403-3.

In World War II the brigade number was reactivated for 225th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home). formed for service

  • Lt-Col H.F. Joslen, Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations and Units in the Second World War, 1939–1945, London: HM Stationery Office, 1960/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2003, ISBN 1843424746.

External sources[edit]