23rd G8 summit
|23rd G8 summit|
23rd G8 summit official logo
|Host country||United States|
|Dates||July 20–22, 1997|
|Follows||22nd G7 summit|
|Precedes||24th G8 summit|
The 23rd G8 summit was held from June 20 to 22, 1997 in Denver, Colorado, United States. The venue was the newly constructed Denver Public Library in downtown Denver. The locations of previous G8 summits to have been hosted by the United States include: San Juan, Puerto Rico (1976); Williamsburg, Virginia (1983); and Houston, Texas.
The Group of Seven (G7) was an unofficial forum which brought together the heads of the richest industrialized countries: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada starting in 1976. The G8, meeting for the first time in 1997, was formed with the addition of Russia. In addition, the President of the European Commission has been formally included in summits since 1981. The summits were not meant to be linked formally with wider international institutions; and in fact, a mild rebellion against the stiff formality of other international meetings was a part of the genesis of cooperation between France's President Giscard d'Estaing and West Germany's Chancellor Helmut Schmidt as they conceived the initial summit of the Group of Six (G6) in 1975.
Leaders at the Summit
The G8 is an unofficial annual forum for the leaders of Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Core G8 participants
These summit participants are the current "core members" of the international forum:
|Core G8 members
Host nation and leader are indicated in bold text.
|Canada||Jean Chrétien||Prime Minister|
|Italy||Romano Prodi||Prime Minister|
|Japan||Ryutaro Hashimoto||Prime Minister|
|United Kingdom||Tony Blair||Prime Minister|
|United States||Bill Clinton||President|
|European Commission||Jacques Santer||President|
|European Council||Wim Kok||President|
Traditionally, the host country of the G8 summit sets the agenda for negotiations, which take place primarily amongst multi-national civil servants in the weeks before the summit itself, leading to a joint declaration which all countries can agree to sign.
The summit was intended as a venue for resolving differences among its members. As a practical matter, the summit was also conceived as an opportunity for its members to give each other mutual encouragement in the face of difficult economic decisions.
A tangible legacy of this summit the Denver Public Library's main building, in which an existing library was merged into a "masterful composition of new forms". The library has become recognized as one of Denver's city icons. The dramatic post-modern structure was designed by architect Michael Graves. The building was initially used as the summit site; and afterward, it was opened to the public as the city's central library.
The appearance of Boris Yelsin representing Russia as part of the G8 was transformative. Yelsin himself said, "I want very much for it to be written: 'Denver conclusively agrees that the G-7 is transformed into a G-8.'"
In 1997, the summit leaders proclaimed that forests "continue to be destroyed and degraded at alarming rates;" and the G-7 called for the elimination of "illegal logging," but there is little evidence of follow-up action.
For some, the G8 summit became a profit-generating event; as for example, the official G8 Summit magazines which have been published under the auspices of the host nations for distribution to all attendees since 1998. The special dining opportunities for the summit attendees were created by chefs hired especially for this occasion. One notable dinner offered buffalo, trout and fried squash blossoms filled with wild mushrooms and rattlesnake meat; and years later, Denver's Brown Palace featured an opportunity to taste the same entrée served on the final evening of the G8 Summit in Denver in 1997 -- "pan seared Colorado bison medallions with whiskey-tortilla sauce."
Denver's "Summit of the Eight" planned ahead to ensure that sensitive documents won't fall into the wrong hands because everyone attending will have the option of shredding any documents before discarding them. The summit organizers leased more than 25 new paper shredders from a Denver company that sells, services and leases the machines—and this was the largest order of its kind for the small local business.
- Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA): Summit Meetings in the Past.
- Saunders, Doug. "Weight of the world too heavy for G8 shoulders," Globe and Mail (Toronto). July 5, 2008.
- Reuters: "Factbox: The Group of Eight: what is it?", July 3, 2008.
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations, p. 205.
- Rieffel, Lex. "Regional Voices in Global Governance: Looking to 2010 (Part IV)," Brookings. March 27, 2009; "core" members (Muskoka 2010 G-8, official site).
- MOFA: Summit (23); G8 Research Group: Delegations; "EU and the G8"
- Mack, Linda. "Children's Theatre design fails to soar; The $27 million addition to the Children's Theatre in Minneapolis will enlarge its creative capacity but doesn't add to the Twin Cities' architectural legacy<" (Star Tribune (Minneapolis). October 23, 2005.
- "Graves deserves it," Denver Post. December 7, 2000;
- Bount, Donald and Emily Narvaes. "Denver library looms as likely summit host," Denver Post. April 15, 1997.
- AP: "In Denver, Yeltsin enjoyed a shining moment at G-8 summit," Rocky Mountain Collegian (Fort Collins, Colorado). April 24, 2007.
- Sadruddin, Aga Khan. "It's Time to Save the Forests," New York Times. July 19, 2000.
- Prestige Media: "official" G8 Summit magazine
- CNN: Summit leaders take on the world's problems
- 2008 VISIT DENVER, The Convention & Visitors Bureau: "The Brown Palace Offers 'Democratic Dishes.'" August 12, 2008.
- "Shredders distributed for action," Denver Post. June 20, 1997.
- Bayne, Nicholas and Robert D. Putnam. (2000). Hanging in There: The G7 and G8 Summit in Maturity and Renewal. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing. 10-ISBN 0-7546-1185-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-7546-1185-1; OCLC 43186692
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. London: Routledge. 10-ISBN 0-415-16486-9/13-ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3; 13-ISBN 978-0-203-45085-7;10-ISBN 0-203-45085-X; OCLC 39013643
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 23rd G8 summit.|
- Official G8 website: Denver summit, 1997; n.b., no official website is created for any G7 summit prior to 1995 -- see the 21st G7 summit.
- University of Toronto: G8 Research Group, G8 Information Centre